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of the populace, Jonathan* and Ananias, by scct Pharisees; while the third, Jozar, was of the stock of the priests, and a Pharisec also ; and Simon, the last of them, was of the youngest of the high priests. These had it given them in charge, that, when they were come to the multitude of the Galileans, they should ask them what was the reason of thcir love to me? and if they said, that it was because I was born at Jerusalem, that they should reply, that thcy four were all born at the same place; and if they should say, it was because I was well versed in their law, they should reply, that neither were they unacquainted with the practices of their country ; but is, besides thesc, they should say, they loved me because I was a priest, they should reply, that two of these were priests also.

40. Now, when they had given Jonathan and his companions these instructions, they gave them forty thousand (drachinæ) out of the public money : but when they heard that there was a certain Galilean that then sojourned at Jerusalem, whose name was Jesus, who had about him a band of six hundred armed men, they sent for him, and gave him three months' pay, and gave him orders to fol. low Jonathan and his companions, and be obedient to them. They also gave money to three hundred men that were citizens of Jerusalem, to maintain them all, and ordered them also to follow the ambassadors ; and when they had com. plied, and were gotten ready for the march, Jonathan and his companions went out with them, having along with them John's brother, and a hundred armed men. The charge that was given them by those that sent them was this, that if I would voluntarily lay down my arms, they should send me alive to the city Jerusa. lem: but that in case I opposed them, they should kill me, and fear nothing: for that it was their command for them so to do. They also wrote to John to make all ready for fighting me, and gave orders to the inhabitants of Sepphoris, and Gabara, and Tiberias, to send auxiliaries to John.

41. Now as my father wrote me an account of this (for Jesus, the son of Ga. mala, who was present in that council, a friend and companion of mine, told him of it, I was very much troubled, as discovering thereby, that my fellow citizens proved so ungrateful to me, as, out of envy, to give order that I should be slain ; my father earnestly pressed me also in his letter to come to him, for that he longed to see his son before he died. I informed my friends of these things, and that in three days' time I should leave the country, and go home. Upon hear. ing this they were all very sorry, and desired me, with tears in their eyes, not to leave them to be destroyed; for so they thought they should be, if I were deprived of the command over them: but as I did not grant their request, but was iaking care of my own safety, the Galileans, out of their dread of the conse. quences of my departure, that they should then be at the mercy of the robbers, sent messengers over all Galilee to inform them of my resolution to leave them. Whereupon, as soon as they heard it, they got together in great numbers, from all parts, with their wives and children; and this they did, as it appeared to me, not more out of their affection to me, than out of their fear on their own account; for while I staid with them, they supposed that they should suffer no harm. So they all came into the great plain, wherein I lived, the name of which was Asochis,

42. But wonderful it was what a dream I saw that very night ; for when I had betaken myself to my bed, as grieved and disturbed at the news that had been written to me, it seemed to me, that a certain person stood by me,* and said “O Josephus ! leave off to afflict thy soul, and put away all fear; for what now grieves thee will render thee very considerable, and in all respects most happy; for thou shalt get over not only these difficulties, but many others, with great

However, be not cast down, but remember that thou art to fight with * This Jonathan is also taken notice of in the La:in notes, as the same that is mentioned by the rab dins in Porta Mosis.

* This I take to be the first of Josephus's remarkable or divine dreams, which were predictive of the great things that afterwards came to pass : of which see more in the note on Antiq. B. bii. ch. viii. sect. 0. The other is in the War, B. iii. ch. viii. sect. 3. 9.


he Romans." When I had seen this dream, I got up with an intention of going down to the plain. Now when the whole multitude of the Galileans, ainong whom were the women and children, saw me, they threw themselves down upon their faces, and, with tears in their eyes, besought me not to leave them exposed to their enemies, nor to go away and permit their country to be injured by them. But when I did not comply with their entreaties, they compelled me to take an oath, that I would stay with them: they also cast abundance of reproaches upon the people of Jerusalem, that they would not let their country enjoy peace. 43. When I heard this, and saw what sorrow the people were in, I was moved with compassion to them, and thought it became me to undergo the most mani. fest bazards for the sake of so great a multitude ; so I let them know I would stay with them. And when I had given order that five thousand of them should come to me armed, and with provisions for their maintenance, I sent the rest away to their own homes ; and when those five thousand were come, I took them, together with three thousand of the soldiers that were with me before, and eighty horsemen, and marched to the village of Chabolo, situated in the confines of Ptolemais, and there kept my forces together, pretending to get ready to fight with Placidus, who was come with two cohorts of footmen, and one troop of borsemen, and was sent thither by Cestius Gallus, to burn those villages of Gali. lee that were near Ptolemais. Upon whose casting up a bank before the city Ptolemais, I also pitched my camp at about the distance of sixty furlongs from that village. And now we frequently brought out our forces as if we would fight, but proceeded no farther than skirmishes at a distance ; for when Placidus per. ceived that I was earnest to come to a battle, he was afraid, and avoided it. Yet did he not remove from the neighbourhood of Ptolemais.

44. About this time it was that Jonathan and his fellow legates came. They were sent, as we have said already, by Simon, and Ananus the high priest. And Jonathan contrived how he might catch me by treachery; for he durst not make any attempt upon me openly. So he wrote me the following epistle : “ Jonathan, and those that are with him, and are sent by the people of Jerusalem to Josephus, send greeting. We are sent by the principal men of Jerusalem, who have heard that John of Gischala hath laid many snares for thee, to rebuke him, and to exhort him to be subject to thee hereafter. We are also desirous to con. sult with thee about our common concerns, and what is fit to be done. We therefore desire thee to come to us quickly, and to bring only a few men with thee, for this village will not contain a great number of soldiers.” Thus it was that they wrote, as expecting one of these two things, either that I should come without armed men, and then they should have me wholly in their power; or, if I came with a great nunber, they should judge me to be a public enemy. Now I was a horseman who brought the letter, a man at other times bold, and one that had served in the army under the king. It was the second hour of the night that he came, when I was feasting with my friends, and the principal of the Galileans. This man, upon my servant's telling me, that a certain horseman of the Jewish nation was come, he was called in at my command, but did not so much as salute me at all, but held out a letter and said, “ This letter is sent thee by those that are come from Jerusalem. Do thou write an answer to it quickly, for I am obliged to return to them very soon.” Now my guests could not but wonder at the boldness of the soldier. But I desired him to sit down and sup with us ; but when he refused so to do, I held the letter in my hands as I re. ceived it, and fell a talking with my guests about other matiers. But a few hours afterwards I got up, and, when I had dismissed the rest to go to their beds, I bid only four of my intimate friends to stay, and ordered my servant to get some wine ready. I also opened the letter so that nobody could perceive it. and, understanding thereby presently the purport of the writing, I sealed it up again

, and appeared as if I had not yet read it, but only held it in my hands. Tordered twenty drachma should be given the soldier, for the charges of bis 19


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journey ; and when he took the money, and said he thanked nie for it. I perceived that he loved money, and that he was to be caught chiefly by that means, and I said to him, “ If thou wilt but drink with us, thou shalt have a drachmæ ior every glass thou drinkest.” So he gladly embraced this proposal, and drank a great deal of wine, in order to get the more inoney, and was so drunk, that at last he could not keep the secrets he was intrusted with, but discovered them, without my putting questions to him, viz. that a treacherous design was contrived against me, and that I was doomed to die by those that sent him. When I heard this, I wrote back this answer : “ Josephus, 10 Jonathan and those that are with bim, sendeth greeting. Upon the information that you are come in health into Galilee, I rejoice, and this especially, because I can now resign the care of pub. lic affairs here into your hands, and return into my native country, which is wha! I have desired to do a great while; and I confess I ought not only to come to you as far as Xaloth, but farther, and this without your commands. But I de. sire you to excuse me, because I cannot do it now, since I watch the motions of Placidus, who hath a mind to go up into Galilee; and this I do here at Cha. bolo. Do you therefore, on the receipt of this epistle, come hither to me. Fare

45. When I had written thus, and given the letter to be carried by the soldic., I sent along with him thirty of the Galileans of the best characters, and gave them instructions to salute those ambassadors, but to say nothing else to them. I also gave orders to as many of those armed men, whom I esteemed most faithful to die, to go along with the others, every one with him whom he was to guard, lest some conversation might pass between those whom I sent and those that were with Jonathan. So these men went [to Jonathan.] But, when Jonathan and his partners had failed in this their first attempt, they sent me another letter, the contents whereof were as follows: “ Jonathan and those with him to Josephus send greeting. We require thee to come to us to the village Gabaroth, on the third day, without any armed men, that we may hear what thou hast to lay to the charge of John (of Gischala.") When they had written this letter, they saluted the Galilealis whom I sent, and came to Japha, which was the largest village of all, Galilee, and encompassed with very strong walls, and had a great number of in. habitants in it. There the multitude of men with their wives and children met them, and exclaimed loudly against them, and desired them to be gone, and not to envy them the advantage of an excellent commander. With these clanours Jonathan and his partners were greatly provoked, although they durst not show their anger openly: so they made them no answer, but went to other villages. But still the same clamours met them from all the people, who said, “Nobody should persuade them to have any other comnander besides Josephus.” So Jonathan and his partners went away froin them without success, and came to Sepphoris, the greatest city of all Galilee. Now the men of that city who in. clined to the Romans in their sentiments, met them indeed, but neither praised nor reproached me; and when they were gone down from Sepphoris to Asochis

, the people oi' that place made a clamour against them, as those of Japha bad done. Whereupon they were able to contain themselves no longer, but ordered the armed men that were with them to beat those that made the clamour with their clubs. And when they came to Gabara, John met them, with three thousand armed men; but, as I understood by their letter, that they had resolved to fight against me, I arose from Chabolo, with three thousand armed men also, but lef in my camp one of my fastest friends, and came to Jotapata, as desirous to be near them, the distance being no more than forty furlongs. Whence I wrote thus to thein: “If you are very desirous that I should come to you, you know there are two hundred and forty cities and villages in Galilee, I will come to any of them which you please, excepting Gabara and Gischala; the one of which is John's native city, and the other in confederacy and friendship with him."

48. When Jonathan and his partners had reccived this letter they wrote me

do more answers, but called a council of their friends together, and taking John into their consultation, they took counsel together by what means they might at. lack me. John's opinion was, that they should write to all the cities and villages that were in Galilee; for that there must be certainly one or two persons in every one of them that was at variance with me, and that they should be invited to come to oppose me as an enemy.

He would also have them send this resolution of theirs to the city Jerusalem, that its citizens, upon the knowledge of my being adjudged to be an enemy by the Galileans, might themselves also confirm that determination. He said also, that when this was done, even those Galileans who were well affected to me would desert me out of fear. When John had given them this counsel, what he had said was very agreeable to the rest of them. I was also made acquainted with these affairs about the third hour of the night, by the means of one Saccheus, who had belonged to them, but now deserted them and came over to me, and told me what they were about ; so I perceived that no time was to be lost. Accordingly I gave command to Jacob, an armed man of my guard, whom I esteemed faithful to me, to take two hundred men, and to guard the pa: ges that led from Gabara to Galilee, and to seize upon the pas. sengers, and send them to me, especially such as were caught with letters about them: I also sent Jeremias himself, one of my friends, with six hundred armed men, to the borders of Galilee, in order to watch the roads that led from this country to the city Jerusalem, and gave him charge to lay hold of such as travelled with letters about them, to keep the men in bonds upon the place, but to send me the letter3.

47. When I had laid these commands upon them, I gave them orders, and bid them to take their arms and bring three days provision with them, and be with te the next day. I also parted those that were about me into four parts, and ordained those of them that were most faithful to me to be a guard to my body. I also set over them centurions, and commanded them to take care that not a soldier which they did not know should mingle himself among them. Now on the fifth day following, when I was in Gabaroth, I found the entire plain that was before the village füll of armed men, who were come out of Galilee to assist me; many others of the multitude also, out of the village, ran along with me.

But as Boon as I had taken my place, and began to speak to them, they all made an ac. clamation, and called me the benefactor and saviour of the country. And when I had made them my acknowledgments, and thanked them [for their affection to me,] I also advised them to fight* with nobody, nor to spoil the country; but to pitch their tents in the plain, and be content with their sustenance they had brought with them; for I told ihem that I had a mind to compose these troubles without shedding any blood. Now it came to pass, that on the very same day those who were sent by John with letters, fell among the guards whom I had appointed to Watch the roads; so the men were themselves kept upon the place, as my orders Were, but I got the letters, which were full of reproaches and lies; and I intended to fall upon these men without saying a word of these matters to any body.

48. Now as soon as Jonathan and his companions heard of my corning, they look all their own friends, and John with them, and retired to the house of Jesus, which indeed was a large castle, and no way unlike a citadel; so they privately laid a band of armed men therein, and shut all the other doors but one, which they kept open ; and they expected that I should come out of the road to them, to salute them. And indeed they had given orders to the armed men, that when I came they should let nobody besides me come in, but should exclude others; as sup. posing that, by this means, they should easily get me under their power : but they were deceived in their expectation; for I perceived what snares they had laid for

Josephus's directions to his soldiers here are much the same that John the Baptist gave, Luke, iii 14. Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely, and he content with your wages." Whence De Hudson confirms this conjecture, that Josephus, in some things, was, even now, a follower of John the Baptist; which is no way improbable. See the note oli sech

me. Now as soon as I was got off my journey, I took up my lodgings over against them, and pretended to be asleep; so Jonathan and his party thinking that I was really asleep, and at rest, made haste to go down into the plain, to persuade the people that I was an ill governor. But the matter proved otherwise, for upon their appearance, there was a cry made by the Galileans immediately, declaring their good opinion of me as their governor; and they made a clamour against Jona. than and his partners, for coming to them when they had suffered no harm, and as though they would overturn their happy settlement; and desired them by all means to go back again, for that they would never be persuaded to have any other to rule over them but myself. When I heard of this, I did not fear to go down into the midst of them; I went therefore myself down presently to hear what Jonathan and his companions said. As soon as I appeared, there was imme. diately an acclamation made to me by the whole multitude, and a cry in my com. mendation by them, who confessed their thanks were owing to me for my good government of them.

49. When Jonathan and his companions heard this, they were in fear of their own lives, and in danger lest they should be assaulted by the Galileans on my account; so they contrived how they might run away. But as hey were not able to get off, for I desired them to stay, they looked down with concern at my words to them. I ordered therefore the multitude to restrain entirely their accia. mations, and placed the most faithful of my armed men upon the avenues, to be a guard to us, lest John should unexpectedly fall upon us; and I encouraged the Galileans to take their weapons, lest they should be disturbed at their enemies, if any sudden insult should be made upon them. And then, in the first place, i put Jonathan and his partners in mind of their [former] letter, and after what manner they had written to me, and declared they were sent by the common consent of the people of Jerusalem, to make up the differences I had with John, and how they had desired me to come to them; and as I spake thus, I publicly showed that letter they had written, till they could not at all deny what they had done, the letter itself convicting them. I then said, "Jonathan, and you that are sent with him as his colleagues, if I were to be judged as to my behaviour, compared with that of John's, and had brought no more than two* or three wit. nesses, good men and true, it is plain you had been forced, upon the examination of their characters beforehand, to discharge the accusations: that therefore you may be informed that I have acted well in the affairs of Galilee, I think three wii. nesses too few to be brought hy a man that hath done as he ought to do; so I give you all these for witnesses. Inquire of themf how I have lived, and whether I have not behaved myself with all decency, and after a virtuous manner among them. And I further conjure you, O Galileans, to hide no part of the truth, but to speak before these men as before judges, whether I have in any thing acted otherwise than well."

50. While I was thus speaking, the united voices of all the people joined to. gether, and called me their benefactor and saviour, and attested to my former behaviour, and exhorted me to continue so to do hereafter; and they all said, upon their oaths, that their wives had been preserved free from injuries, and thas no one had ever been aggrieved by me. After this, I read to the Galileans two of those epistles which had been sent by Jonathan and his colleagues, and which those whom I had appointed to guard the road had taken, and sent to me. These were full of reproaches and of lies, as if I had acted more like a tyrant than a governor against them, with many other things besides therein contained, which

* We here learn the practice of the Jews, in the days of Josephus, to inquire into the characters of witnesses, before they were admitted, and that their number ought to be three, or two at the least, also exactly as in the law of Moses, and in the Apostolical Constitutions, B. ii. ch. xxxvii. See Horeb Cove pant Revived, page 97, 98.

This appeal to the whole body of the Galileans by Josephus, and the testimony they gave him of in egrity in his conduct, as their governor, is very like that appeal and testimony in the case of the propher Samuel, 1 Sam, xii, 1-5, and perhaps was done by Josephus in imitation of him.

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