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were no better indeed than impudent falsities. I also informed the multitude how I came by these letters, and that those who carried them delivered them up voluntarily; for I was not willing that my enemies should know any thing of the guards I had set, lest they should be afraid, and leave off writing hereafter.

51. When the multitude heard these things, they were greatly provoked at Jonathan, and his colleagues that were with him, and were going to attack them and kill them; and this they had certainly done, unless I had restrained the anger of the Galileans, and said, That “I forgave Jonathan and his colleagues what was past, if they would repent, and go to their own country, and tell those who sent them the truth, as to my conduct.” Whan I had said this, I let them go, although I knew they would do nothing of what they had promised. But the multitude were very much enraged against them, and entreated me to give them leave to punish them for their insolence; yet did I try all methods to persuade them to spare the men; for I knew that every instance of sedition was pernicious to the public welfare. But the multitude were too angry with them to be dis. suaded, and all of them went immediately to the house in which Jonathan and his colleagues abode. However, when I perceived that their rage could not be restrained, I got on horseback, and ordered the multitude to follow me to the village Sogane, which was twenty furlongs off Gabara; and, by using this stra. uagem, I so managed myself, as not to appear to begin a civil war among them.

52. But when I was come near Sogane, I caused the multitude to make a halt, and exhorted them not to be so easily provoked to anger, and to the inflicting such punishments as could not be afterwards recalled: I also gave order, that a hundred men who were already in years, and were principal men among them, should get themselves ready to go to the city Jerusalem, and should make a com. plaint before the people, of such as raised seditions in the country. And I said io them, that “in case they be moved with what you say, you shall desire the community to write to me, and to enjoin me to continue in Galilee, and to order Jonathan and his colleagues to depart out of it.” When I had suggested these instructions to them, and while they were getting themselves ready as fast as they could, I sent them on this errand the third day after they had been assembled; Í also sent five hundred armed men with them (as a guard.] I then wrote to my friends in Samaria, to take care that they might safely pass through the country: for Samaria was already under the Romans, and it was absolutely necessary for those that go quickly [to Jerusalem) to pass through that country; for in that road you may, in three days time, go from Galilee to Jerusalem. I also went mysell and conducted the old men as far as the bounds of Galilee, and set guards in the roads, that it might not be casily known by any one that these men were gone. And when I had thus done, I went and abode at Japha.

53. Now Jonathan and his colleagues having failed of accomplishing what they would have done against me, they sent John back to Gischala, but went theinselves to the city Tiberias, expecting it would submit itself to them; and this was founded on a letter which Jesus, their then governor, had written them, promising, that if they came, the multitude would receive them, and choose to be under their government; so they went their ways with this expectation. But Silas, who, as I said, had been left curator of Tiberias by me, informed me of this, and desired me to make haste thither. Accordingly I complied with his advice immediately, and came thither; but found myself in danger of my life, from the following occasion : Jonathan and his colleagues had been at Tiberias, and had persuaded a great many of such as had a quarrel with me to desert me; but when they heard of my coming they were in fear for themselves, and came to me, and when they had saluted me, they said, that I was a happy man in having behaved myself so well in the government of Galilee ; and they congratulated me upon the honours that were paid me: for they said, that my glory was a credit tu them, since they had been my teachers and fellow.citizens; and they said farther, that it was but just that they should prefer my friendship to them rather than

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John's, and that they would have immediately gone home, but that they staid that they might deliver up John into my power; and when they said this they touk their oaths of it, and those such as are most tremendous amongst us, and such as I did not think fit to disbelieve. However, they desired me to lodge somewhere else, because the next day was the Sabbath, and that it was not fit the city of Tiberias should be disturbed (on that day.]

54. So I suspected nothing, and went away to Tarichete; yet did I withal leave some to make inquiry in the city how matters went, and whether any thing? was said about me; I also set many persons all the way that led from Taricheæ to Tiberias, that they might communicate from one to another, if they learned any news from those that were left in the city. On the next day, therefore, they all came into the Proseucha ;* it was a large edifice, and capable of receiving : great number of people: thither Jonathan went in, and though he durst not openly speak of a revolt, yet did he say that their city stood in need of a better gover. nor than it then had. But Jesus, who was the ruler, made no scruple to speak out, and said openly, “O fellow citizers! it is better for you to be in subjection to : tour than to one ; and those such as are of high birth, and not without reputatios for their wisdom ;” and pointed to Jonathan and his colleagues. Upon his say. ing this, Justus came in and commended him for what he had said, and persuaded some of the people to be of his mind also. But the multitude were not pleased with what was said, and had certainly gone into a tumult, unless the sixth hour which was now come had dissolved the assembly, at which hour our law requires us to go to dinner on Sabbath days : 80 Jonathan and his colleagues put off their council till the next day, and went off without success. When I was informed of these affairs, I determined to go to the city of Tiberias in the morning. Ac cordingly, on the next day, about the first hour of the day, I came from Tarichea and found the multitude already assembled in the Proseucha; but on what 1ccount they had gotten together, those that were assembled did not know. Bu when Jonathan and his colleagues saw me there unexpectedly, they were in dis. order; after which they raised a report of their own contrivance, that Romao borsemen were seen at a place called Union, in the borders of Galilee, thirty fur longs distance from the city. Upon which report Jonathan and bis colleagues cunningly exhorted me not to neglect this matter, nor to suffer the land to be spoiled by the enemy. And this they said with a design to remove me out of the city, under the pretence of the want of extraordinary assistance, while they might dispose the city to be my enemy:

55. As for myself, although I knew of their design, yet did I comply with what they proposed, lest the people of Tiberias, should have occassion to suppose, that I was not careful of their security. I therefore went out: but when I was at the place, I found not the least footsteps of any enemy, so I returned as fast as ever I could, and found the whole council assembled, and the body of the people gotten together, and Jonathan and his colleagues bringiug vehement accusations against me, as one who had no concern to ease them of the burdens of war, and as one that lived luxuriously. And as they were discoursing thus, they produced four letters as written to them, from some people that lived at the borders of Gali. lee, imploring that they would come to their assistance, for that there was an army of Romans, both horsemen and footmen, who would come and lay waste the country on the third day; they desired them also to make haste, and not to over look them. When the people of Tiberias heard this, they thought they speab truth, and made a clamour against me, and said, I ought not to sit still, but to go : way to the assistance of their countrymen. Hereupon I said (for I understood the meaning of Jonathan and his colleagues,) that I was ready to comply

.. It is worth noting here, that there was now a great Proseucha, or place of prayer, in the city nas itself, though such Proseucha used to be out of cities, as the synagogues were within them them see Le Moyne on Polycarp's epistle, page 76. It is also worth our remark that the Jews days of Josephus used to dine at the sixth bour or noon ; and what is obedience to their notions of the law of Moses also

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what they proposed, and without delay to march to the war which they speak of yet did l'advise them, at the same time, that since these letters declared that the Romans would make their assault in four several places, they should part their forces into five bodies, and make Jonathan and his colleagues generals of each body of them, because it was fit for brave men, not only to give counsel, but to take the place of leaders, and assist their countrymen when such a necessity pres sed them; for, said I, it is not possible for me to lead more than one party. This advice of mine greatly pleased the multitude ; so they compelled them to go forth to the war. But their designs were put into very much disorder, because they had not done what they designed to do, on account of my stratagem, which was opposite to their undertakings.

56. Now there was one, whose name was Ananias, a wicked man he was, and very mischievous : he proposed that a general religious fast* should be appointed the next day, for all the people, and gave order that at the same hour they should come to the same place without any weapons, to make it manifest beboré God, that while they obtained his assistance they thought all these weapqas useless. This he said, not out of piety, but that they might catch me and my trends unarmed. Now I was hereupon forced to comply, lest I should appear to despise a proposal that tended to piety. As soon, therefore, as we were gone home, Jonathan and his colleagues wrote to John, to come to them iu dhe morning, and desiring him to come with as many soldiers as he possibly pould, for that they should then be able easily to get me into their hands, and to do all they desired to do. When John had received this letter, he resolved to comply with it. As for myself, on the next day, I ordered two of the guards of my body, whom I esteemed tho most courageous, and most faithful, to hide daggers under their garments, and to go along with me, that we might defend our. selves, if any attack should be made upon us by our enemies.

I also myself took my breast-plate, and girded on my sword, so that it might be, as far as it $as possible, concealed, and came into the Proseucha.

57. Now Jesus, who was the ruler, commanded that they should exclude all that came with me, for he kept the door himself, and suffered none but his friends to go in. And while we were engaged in the duties of the day, and had betaken ourselves to our prayers, Jesus gpt up, and inquired of me what was become of the vessels that were taken out of the king's palace, when it was burnt down and) of that unçoined silver; and in whose possession they now were? This tie said, in order to drive away time till John should come. I said that Capel lus, and the ten principal men of Tiberias, had them all ; and I told him that they might ask them whether I told a lie or not. And when they said they had them, he asked me, what is become of those twenty pieces of gold which thou didst re

upon the sale of a certain weight of uncoined money? I replied, that I had given them to those ambassadors of theirş, as a maintenance for them, when they were sent by them to Jerusalem. So Jonathan and his colleagues said, that I had not done well to pay the ambassadors out of the public money, And when the multitude were very angry at them for this, for they perceived the wickede ness of the men, I understood that a tumult was going to arise ; and being desrous to provoke the people to a greater rage against the men, I said, " But if I have not done well in paying our ambassadors out of the public stock, leave off your anger at me, for I will repay the twenty pieces of gold myself.”

58. When I had said this, Jonathan and his colleagues held their peace; but the people were still more irritated against them, upon their openly showing their unjust ill will to me. When Jesus saw this change in the people, he ordered them to depart, but desired the senate to stay; for that they could not examine things of such a nature in a tumult; and, as the people were crying out that they

One may observe here, that this lay Pharisee Ananias, as we have seen he was, sect. 39, took upon him to appoin a fast at Tiberias, and was obeyed ; though indeed it was not out of religion, but beca

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would not leave me alone, there came one and told Jesus and his friends privately, that John and his armed men were at hand; whereupon Jonathan and his colleagues, being able to contain themselves no longer, (and perhaps the providence of God hereby procuring my deliverance; for, had not this been sn, I had certainly been destroyed by John,) said, “O you people of Tiberias, leave ofl this inquiry about the twenty pieces of gold; for Josephus hath not deserved to die for them, but he hath deserved it by his desire of tyrannizing, and by cheal ung the multitude of the Galileans with his speeches, in order to gain the dominion over them.” When he had said this, they presently laid hands upon me, and endeavoured to kill me ; but, as soon as those that were with me saw what they did they drew their swords, and threatened to smite them, if they offered any violence

The people also took up stones, and were about to throw them at Jonathan ;

and so they snatched me from the violence of my enemies. 59. But, as I was gone out a little way, I was just upon meeting John, who was marching with his armed men. So I was afraid of him and turned aside, and escaped by a narrow passage to the lake, and seized on a ship, and embarked in it, and sailed over to Taricheæ. So, beyond my expectation, I escaped this danger. Whereupon I presently sent for the chief of the Galileans, and told them after what manner, against all faith given, I had been very near to de. struction from Jonathan and bis colleagues, and the people of Tiberias. Upon which the multitude of the Galileans were very angry, and encouraged me to delay no longer to make war upon them, but to permit them to go against John, and utterly to destroy him, as well as Jonathan and his colleagues. However, I re. strained them, though they were in such a rage, and desired them to tarry awbile, till we should be informed what orders those ambassadors that were sent by them to the city of Jerusalem, should bring thence ; for I told them that it was best for them to act according to their determination: whereupon they were prevailed

At which time also, John, when the snares he had laid did not take efiec, returned back to Gischala.

60. Now in a few days those ambassadors whom we had sent, came back again and informed us, that the people were greatly provoked at Ananus, and Simon the son of Gamaliel, and their friends; that, without any public determination, they had sent to Galilee, and had done their endeavours that I might be turned out of the government. The ambassadors said farther, that the people were ready to burn their houses. They also brought letters, whereby the chief men of Jerusalem, at the earnest petition of the people, confirmed me in the government of Galilee, and enjoined Jonathan and his colleagues to return home quickly. When I had gotten these letters, I came to the village Arbela, wbere I procured an assembly of the Galileans to meet, and bid the ambassadors de. clare to them the anger of the people of Jerusalem at what had been done by Jonathan and his colleagues, and how much they hated their wicked doings, and how they had confirmed me in the government of their country; as also what related to the order they had in writing for Jonathan and his colleagues to retum home. So I immediately sent them the letter, and bid him that carried it to in quire, as well as he could, how they intended to act (on this occasion.]

61. Now when they had received that letter, and were thereby greatly dis turbed, they sent for John, and for the senators of Tiberias, and for the prin cipal men of the Gabarens, and proposed to hold a council, and desired them to consider what was to be done by them. However, the governors of Tiberias were greatly disposed to keep the government to themselves; for they said it was not fit to desert their city now it was committed to their trust, and that otherwise I should not delay to fall upon them; for they pretended falsely that so I had threatened to do. Now John was not only of their opinion, but advised them that two of them should go to accuse me before the multitude (at Jerusalem,) that I do not manage the affairs of Galilee as I ought to do, and that they would easily persuade the people, because of their dignity, and because the whole mul.


atude are very mutable. When therefore it appeared that John had suggested the wisest advice to them, they resolved that two of them, Jonathan and Ananias, should go to the people of Jerusalem, and the other two [Simon and Joazar) should be left behind to tarry at Tiberias. They also took along with them a bundred soldiers for their guard.

62. However, the governors of Tiberias took care to have their city secured with walls, and commanded their inhabitants to take their arms. They also sent for a great many soldiers from John to assist them against me, if there should be occasion for them., Now John was at Gischala. Jonathan therefore, and those that were with him, when they were departed from Tiberias, and as soon as they were come to Dabaritta, a village that lay in the utmost parts of Ga. ilee, in the great plain, they about midnight fell among the guards I had set, who both comnanded them to lay aside their weapons, and kept them in bonds upon. the place, as I had charged them to do. This news was written to me by Levi, who had the command of that guard committed to him by me. Hereupon I said gothing of it for two days; and, pretending to know nothing about it, I sent a message to the people of Tiberias, and advised them to lay their arms aside, and to dismiss their men, that they might go home. But supposing that Jonathan, and those that were with him, were already arrived at Jerusalem, they made re. proachful answers to me; yet was I not terrified thereby, but contrived another stratagem against them; for I did not think it agreeable with piety to kindle the fire of war against the citizens. As I was desirous to draw those men away from Tiberias, I chose out ten thousand of the best of my armed men and divided them into three bodies, and ordered them to go privately, and lie still as an ambush in the villages. I also led a thousand into another village, which lay indeed in the mountains, as did the others, but only four furlongs distant from l'iberias, end gave orders, that when they saw my signal, they should come down imme. diately: while I myself lay with my soldiers in the sight of every body. Here. apon the people of Tiberias, at the sight of me, canie running out of the city perpetually, and abused me greatly. Nay, their madness was come to that height, that they made a decent bier for me, and standing about it, they mourned over me in the way of jest and sport; and I could not but be myself in a plea. sant humour upon the sight of this madness of theirs.

63. And now, being desirous to catch Simon by a wile, and Joazar with him, I sent a message to them, and desired them to come a little way out of the city, with many of their friends to guard them ; for I said I would come down to them, and make a league with them, and divide the government of Galilee with them. Accordingly Simon was deluded on account of his imprudence, and out of the hopes of gain, and did not delay to come ; but Joazar suspecting snares were laid for him, staid behind. So when Simon was come out, and his friends with him for his guard, I met him, and saluted him with great civility, and professed that I was obliged to him for his coming up to me ; but a little while afterward I walked along with him, as though I would

say something to him by himself, and, when had drawn him a good way from his friends, I took him about the middle, and gave him to my friends that were with me, to carry him into a village; and, com manding my armed men to come down, I with them made an assault upon Ti. berias. Now as the fight grew hot on both sides, and the soldiers belonging to Tiberias were in fair way to conquer me (for my armed men were already ied away,) I saw the posture of my affairs ; and encouraging those that were al. ready conquerors, into the city. I also sent another band of soldiers into the city by the lake, and gave them orders to set on fire the first house they could sieze upon. When this was done, the people of Tiberias thought that their city was taken by force, and so threw down their arms for fcar, and implored, they, their wives and children, that I would spare their city. So I was over-persuaded by their entreaties, and restrained the soldiers from the vehemency with which they pursued them ; while I myself, upon the coming on of the evening, returaed VOL. II. 20

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