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back with my soldiers, and went lo refresh myself. I also invited Simon to sup with me, and comforted him on occasion of what had happened; and I promised that I would send him safe and secure to Jerusalem, and withal would give hira provisions for his journey thither.
64. But on the next day I brought ten thousand armed men with me, and came to Tiberias. I then sent for the principal men of the multitude into the public place, and enjoined them to tell me who were the authors of the revolt; and when they had told me who the men were, I sent them bound to the city Jotapata. But as to Jonathan and Ananias, I freed them from their bonds, and gave them provisions for their journey, together with Simon and Joazar, and five huudred men who should guard them, and so I sent them to Jerusalem. The people of Ti. berias also came to me again, and desired that I would forgive them for what they had done, and they said they would amend what they had done amiss with regard to me, by their fidelity for the time to come; and they besought me to preserve what spoils remained upon the plunder of the city, for those that had lost them. Accordingly I enjoined those that had got them to bring them all before us : and. when they did not comply for a great while, and I saw one of the soldiers that were about me with a garment on that was more splendid than ordinary, I asked him whence he had it? and when he replied, that he had it out of the plunder of the city, I vad him punished with stripes; and I threatened all the rest to inflict a severer punishment upon them, unless they produced before us whatsoever they had plundered; and when a great many spoils were brought together, I restored to every one of Tiberias what they claimed to be their own.
65. And now I am come to this part of my narration, I have a mind to say a few things to Justus, who hath himself written a history concerning thiese af. fairs ; as also to others who profess to write history, but have little regard to truth, and are not afraid, either out of ill will or good will to some persons, to relate falsehoods. These men do, like those who compose forged deeds and conveyances ; and because they are not brought to the like punishment with Chem, they have no regard to truth. When therefore Justus undertook to write about these facts, and about the Jewish war, that he might appear to have been an industrious man, he falsified in what he related about me, and could not speak truth even about his own country; whence it is, that being belied by him, I am under a necessity to make my defence; and so I shall say what I have concealed till now. And let no one wonder that I have not told the world these things a great while ago. For although it be necessary for an historian to write the truth, yet is such a one not bound severely to animad. vert on the wickedness of certain men; not out of any favour to them, but out of an author's own moderation. How then comes it to pass, 0 Justus, thou most sagacious of writers (that I may address myself to him as if he were here present,) for so thou boastest of thyself
, that I and the Galilears have been the authors of that sedition which thy country engaged in, both against the Romans and against the king (Agrippa junior ?] For before ever I was ap. pointed governor of Galilce by the community of Jerusalem, both thon, and all ihe people of Tiberias, had not only taken up arms, but had made war with De. capolis of Syria. Accordingly, thou hadst ordered their villages to be burnt, and a domestic servant of thine fell in the battle. Nor is it I only who say this ; but so it is written in the commentaries of Vespasian the emperor, as also how the inhabitants of Decapolis came clamouring to Vespasian at Ptolemais, and de. sired that thou, who wast the author [of that war]mightest be brought to punishment And thou hadst certainly been punished at the command of Vespasian, had no: king Agrippa, who had power given him to have thee put to death, at the eamest entreaty of his sister Bernice, changed the punishment of death into a long im. prisonment. Thy political administration of affairs afterwards does also clearly discover both thy other hahaviour in life, and that thou wast the occasion of thy country's revolt from the Romans; plain signs of which I shall produce presently. I have also a mind to say a few things to the rest of the people of . berias on thy account, and to demonstrate to those that light upon this his tory, that you bear no good will neither to the Romans, nor to the king. To be sure, the greatest cities of Galilee, O Justus, were Sepphoris, and thy coun try Tiberias. But Sepphoris, situated in the very midst of Galilee, and having many villages about it, and able with ease to have been bold and troublesome to the Romans, if they had so pleased, yet did it resolve to continue faithful to those their masters, and at the same time excluded me out of their city, and promo hibited all their citizens from joining with the Jews in the war, and that they might be out of danger from me, they by a wile got leave of me to fortify their city with walls: they also, of their own accord, admitted of a garrison of Roman legions, sent them by Cestus Gallus, who was then president of Syria, and so had me in contempt, though I was then very powerful, and all were greatly afraid of une ; and at the same time that the greatest of our cities, Jerusalem, was besieged, and that temple of ours, which belonged to us all, was in danger of falling under the enemy's power, they sent no assistance thither, as not willing to have it thought they would bear arins against the Romans. But as for thy country
Justus, situated upon the lake of Gennesareth, and distant from Hippos this furlongs, from Gadara sixty, and from Scythopolis, which was under the king's jurisdiction, a hundred and twenty; when there was no Jewish city near, it might easily have preserved its fidelity (to the Romans,] if it had so pleased them to do; for the city and its people had plenty of weapons. But, as thou sayst, I was then that author [of their revolt.] And pray, 0 Justus, who was the author afterwards ? For thou knowest that I was in the power of the Romans before Jerusalem was besieged, and before the same time Jotapata was taken by force, as well as many other fortresses, and a great many of the Galileans fell in the war. It was therefore then a proper time, when you were certainly freed from any fear on my account, to throw away your weapons, and to demonstrate to the king and to the Romans, that it was not of choice, but as forced by necessity, that you fell into the war against them ; but you staid till Vespasian came him self as far as your walls, with his whole army; and then you did indeed lay aside your weapons out of fear, and your city had for certain been taken by force, un less Vespasian had complied with the king's supplication for you, and had ex cused your madness. It was not I, therefore, who was the author of this, bu your own inclinations to war. Do not you remember how often I got you under my power, and yet put none of you to death ? nay, you once fell into a tumult one against another, and slew one hundred and eighty-five of your citizens, not on account of your good will to the king and to the Romans, but on account of your own wickedness, and this while I was besieged by the Romans in Jotapata Nay indeed, were there not reckoned up two thousand of the people of Tiberias, during the siege of Jerusalem, some of which were slain, and the rest caught and carried captives ? But thou wilt pretend that thou didst not engage in the was since thou didst flee to the king. Yes, indeed, thou didst flee to him; but I say it was out of fear of me. Thou sayst indeed, that it is I who am a wicked man. But then, for what reason was it that king Agrippa, who procured thee thy life when thou wast condemned to die by Vespasian, and who bestowed so much riches upon thee, did twice afterward put thee into bonds, and as often obliged thee to run away from thy country, and, when he had once ordered thee to be put to death, he granted thee a pardon at the earnest desire of Bernice ? and, when (after so many of thy wicked pranks) he had made thee his secretary, be caught thee falsifying his epistles, and drove thee away from his sight. But I shall not inquire accurately into these matters of scandal against thee. Yet can Dot I but wonder at thy impudence, when thou hast the assurance to say that thou hast better related these affairs (of the war) than have all the others that bave written about them, whilst thou didst not know what was done in Galilee ; for th pu wast then at Berytus with the king : nor didst thou know how much the Romans suffered at the siege of Jotapata, of what miseries they brought upon us. aor couldst thou learn by inquiry what I did during that siege myself; for all those that might afford such information were quite destroyed in that siege. But per. haps thou wilt say, thou hast written of what was done against the people of Je. rusalem exactly. But how should that be? for neither wast thou concerned in that war, nor hast thou read the commentaries of Cæsar; of which we have evident proof, because thou hast contradicted those commentaries of Cæsar in thy history. But if thou art so hardy as to afirm that thou hast written that history better than all the rest, why didst thou not publish thy history while the emperors Vespasian and Titus, the generals in that war, as well as king Agrippa and his family, who were men very well skilled in the learning of the Greeks, were all alive ? for thou hast had it written these twenty years, and then mightest thou have had the testimony of thy accuracy. But now, when these men are no longer with us, and thou thinkest thou canst not be contradicted, thou venturest to publish it. But then I was not in like man. ner afraid of my own writing, but I offered my books to the emperors them. selves, when the facts were almost under men's eyes; for I was conscious to myself, that I had observed the truth of the facts; and as I expected to have their attestation to them, so I was not deceived in such expectation. More. over, I immediately presented my history to many other persons, some of which were concerned in the war, as was king Agrippa, and some of his kindred. Now the emperor Titus was so desirous that the knowledge of these affairs should be taken from the books alone, that he subscribed his own hand to them, and ordered that they should be published; and for king Agrippa, he wrote me sixty-two letters, and attested to the truth of what I had therein delivered; two of which letters I have here subjoined, and thou mayest thereby know their contents. “King Agrippa to Josephus, bis dear friend, sendeth greeting. I have read over thy book with great pleasure, and it appears to me, that thou hast done it much more accurately, and with greater care, than have the other writers. Send me the rest of these books. Farewell
, my dear friend.” “King Agrippa to Josephus, his dear friend, sendeth greeting. It seems by what thou hast written, that thou standest in need of no instruction, in order to our information from the beginning. However, when thou comest to me, I will inform thee of a great many things which thou dost not know.” So when this history was per. fected, Agrippa, neither by way of battery, which was not agreeable to him, nor by way of irony, as thou wilt say (for he was entirely a stranger to such an evil disposition of mind,) but he wrote thus by way of attestation to what was true, as all that read histories may do. And so much shall be said concerning Justus,* which I am obliged to add by way of digression.
6. Now when I had settled the affairs of Tiberias, and had assembled my friends as a Sanhedrim, I consulted what I should do as to John. Whereupon it
* The character of this history of Justus of Tiberias, the rival of our Josephus, which is now lost, with As only renaining fragment, are given us by a very able critic, Photius, who read that history. It is in the 38rd code of his Bibliotheca, and runs thus. “I have read (says Photius) the chronology of Justus of Tiberias, whose title is this, (The chronology of the Kings of Judah, which succeeded one another. This (Justus) came out of the city Tiberias in Galilee. He begins his history from Moses, and ends it na till the death of Agrippa, the seventh (ruler) of the family of Herod, and the last king of the Jews; who took the government under Claudius, had it augmented under Nero, and still more augmented by Vespasian. He died in the third year of Trajan, where also his history ends. He is very concise in his language, and slightly passes over those affairs that were most necessary to be insisted on; and being under the Jewish prejudices, as indeed he was himself also a Jew by birth, he inakes not the least mes tion of the appearance of Christ, or what things happened to him, or of the wonderful works that he did. He was the son of a certain Jew whose name was Pistus. He was a man, as he is described by Josephus of a most profligate character; a slave both to money and to pleasures. In public affairs he was oppo. site to Josephus; and it is related, that he laid many plois against him, but that Josephus, though helad his enemy frequently under his power, did only reproach him
in words, and so let him go without farthes puuishment. He says also, that the history which this man wrote is, for the main, fabulous and chiefs us to those parts where he describes the Roman was wiib tbe Jews, and the taking of Jerusalem."
appeared to be the opinion of all the Galileans, that I should arm them all, and march against John, and punish him as the author of all the disorders that had happened. Yet was I not pleased with their determination; as purposing to compose these troubles without bloodshed. Upon this I exhorted them to use the utmost care to learn the names of all that were under John; which when they had done, and I thereby was apprized who the men were, I published an edict, wherein I offered security and my right hand to such of John's party as had a mind to repent; and I allowed twenty days time to such as would take this most advantageous course for themselves. I also threatened, that unless they threw down their arms, I would burn their houses, and expose their goods to public sale. When the men heard of this, they were in no small disorder, and deserted John; and, to the number of four thousand, threw down their arms, and came to me. So that no others staid with John but his own citizens, and about fitteen hundred strangers that came from the metropolis of Tyre: and, when John saw that he had been outwitted by my stratagem, he continued afterward in his own country, and was in great fear of me.
67. But about this time it was that the people of Sepphoris grew insolent, and took up arms, out of a confidence they had in the strength of their walls, and because they saw me engaged in other affairs also. So they sent to Cestius Gallus, who was president of Syria, and desired that he would either come quickly to them, and take their city under his protection, or send them a garrison. Accordingly Gallus promised them to come, but did not send word when he would come: and, when I had learned so much, I took the soldiers that were with me, and made an assault upon the people of Sepphoris, and took the city by force. The Galileans took this opportunity, as thinking they had now a proper time for showing their hatred to them, since they bore ill will to that city also. They then exerted themselves, as if they would destroy them all utterly, with those that sojourned there also. So they ran upon them, and set their houses on fire, as finding them without inhabitants; for the men out of fear ran together to the ci. tadel. So the Galileans carried off every thing, and omitted no kind of desolation which they could bring upon their countrymen. When I saw this, I was exceed. ingly troubled at it, and commanded them to leave off, and put them in mind that it was not agreeable to piety to do such things to their countrymen : but since they neither would hearken to what I exhorted, nor to what I commanded them to do (for the hatred they bore to the people there was too hard for my exhorta. tions to them,)I bid those my friends, who were most faithful to me, and were about me, to give out reports, as if the Romans were falling upon the other part of the city with a great army; and this I did, that, by such a report being spread abroad, I might restrain the violence of the Galileans, and preserve the city of Sepphoris. And at length this stratagem had its effect; for, upon hearing this report, they were in fear for themselves, and so they left off plundering, and ran away; and this more especially, because they saw me, their general, do the same also; for, that I might cause this report to be believed, I pretended to be in fear as well as they. Thus were the inhabitants of Sepphoris unexpectedly preserved by this contrivance of mine.
68. Nay indeed, Tiberias had like to have been plundered by the Galileans also upon the following occasion: the chief men of the senate wrote to the king, ano desired that he would come to them, and take possession of their city. The king promised to come, and wrote a letter in answer to theirs, and gave it to one of his bed-chamber, whose name was Crispus, and who was by birth a Jew, to carry it to Tiberias. When the Galileans knew that this man carried such a letter, they caught him, and brought him to me; but as soon as the whole multitude heard of it, they were enraged, and betook themselves to their arms. So a great many of them got together from all quarters the next day, and came to the city Asochis, where I then lodged, and made heavy clamours, and called the city Tí berias a traitor to them, and a friend to the king; and desired leave or me to go down and utterly destroy it; for they bore the like ill will to the people of Tibe. rias, as they did to those of Sepphoris.
69. When I heard this, I was in doubt what to do, and hesitated by what means I might deliver Tiberias from the rage of the Galileans; for I could not deny that those of Tiberias had written to the king, and had invited him to come to them, for his letters to them in answer thereto would fully prove the truth of that. So I sat a long time musing with myself, and then said to them, “I know well enough that the people of Tiberias have offended; nor shall I forbid you to plunder the city. However, such things ought to be done with discretion; for they of Tibe. rias have not been the only betrayers of our liberty, but many of the most eminent patriots of the Galileans, as they pretended to be, have done the same. Tarry therefore till I shall thoroughly find out those authors of our danger, and then you shall have them all at once under your power, wich all such as you shall your. selves bring in also.” Upon my saying this I pacified the multitude, and they left off their anger, and went their ways; and I gave orders that he who brought the king's letters should be put into bonds; but in a few days I pretended that I was obliged, by a necessary affair of my own, to go out of the kingdom. I then called Crispus privately, and ordered him to make the soldier that kept him drunk, and to run away to the king. So when Tiberias was in danger of being utterly destroyed a second time, it escaped the danger by my skilful management, and the care that I had for its preservation.
70. About this time it was that Justus, the son of Pistus, without my knowledge, ran away to the king; the occasion of which I will here relate. Upon the be. ginning of the war between the Jews and the Romans, the people of Tiberias resolved to submit to the king, and not to revolt from the Romans; while Justus tried to persuade them to betake themselves to their arms, as being himself de. sirous of innovations, and having hopes of obtaining the government of Galilee, as well as of his own country (Tiberias) also. Yet did he not obtain what he hoped for; because the Galileans bore ill will to those of Tiberias, and this on account of their anger at what miseries they had suffered from them before the war; thence it was, that they would not endure that Justus should be their gover. nor. I myself also, who had been entrusted by the community of Jerusalem with the government of Galilee, did frequently come to that degree of rage at Justus, that I had almost resolved to kill him, as not able to bear his mischievous dispo. sition. He was therefore much afraid of me, lest at length my passion should come to extremity; so he went to the king, as supposing that he should dwell better, and more safely with him.
71. Now when the people of Sepphoris had, in so surprising a manner, escaped their first danger, they sent to Cestius Gallus, and desired him to come to them immediately, and take possession of their city, or else to send forces sufficient to repress all their enemies' incursions upon them; and at the last they did prevail with Gallus to send them a considerable army, both of horse and foot, which came in the night-time, and which they admitted into the city. But when the country round about it was harassed by the Roman army, I took those soldiers that were about me, and came to Garisme ; where I cast up a bank, a good way off the city Sepphoris; and when I was at twenty furlongs distance, I came upon it by night, and made an assault upon its walls with my forces; and when I had ordered a considerable number of my soldiers to scale them with ladders, I became master of the greater part of the city. But soon after, our unacquaintedness with tho places forced us to retire, atter we had killed twelve of the Roman footmen, and two horsemen, and a few of the people of Sepphoris, with the loss of only a single man of our own. And when it afterwards came to a battle in the plain against the horsemen, and we had undergone the dangers of it courageously for a long time, we were beaten; for upon the Romans encompassing me about, my soldiers were afraid, and fed back. There fell in that battle one of those that had been Intrusted to guard my body; his nam s Justus, who at this time hodhin nan.