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2 post with the king. At the same time also, there came forces, both horsemer.

and footmen, from the king, and Sylla their commander, who was the captain of this guard; this Sylla pitched his camp at five furlongs distance from Julias, and set a guard upon the roads, both that which led to Čana, and that which led to the fortress Gamala, that he might hinder their inhabitants from getting provisions out of Galilee

72. As soon as I had gotten intelligence of this, I sent two thousand armed men, and a captain over them, whose name was Jeremiah, who raised a bank a furlong off Julias, near to the river Jordan, and did no more than skirmish with the enemy; till I took three thousand soldiers myself, and came to them. But on the next day, when I had laid an ambush in a certain valley, not far from the banks, I provoked those that belonged to the king to come to a battle, and gave orders to my own soldiers to turn their backs upon them, until they should have drawn the eneiny away from their camp, and brought them out into the field, which was done accordingly; for Sylla, supposing that our party did really run away, was ready to pursue them, when our soldiers that lay in ambush took them on their backs, and put them all into great disorder. Í also immediately made a sudden turn with my own forces, and met those of the king's party, and put them to fight. And I had performed great things that day, if a certain fate had not been my hinderance; for the horse on which I rode, and upon whose back I fought, fell into a quagmire, and threw me on the ground, and I was bruised on my wrist, and carried into a village named Cepharnome or Capernaum. When my soldiers heard of this, they were afraid I had been worse hurt than I was; and so they did not go on with :heir pursuit any farther, but ret:rned in very great concern for me. I therefore sent for the physicians, and while I was under their hand, I continued feverish that day; and, as the physicians directed, I was at night re moved to Taricheæ.

73. When Sylla and his party were informed what had happened to me, they took courage again; and understanding that the watch was negligently kept in our camp, they by night placed a body of horsemen in ambush beyond Jordan, and when it was day they provoked us to fight; and as we did not refuse it, bus came into the plain, their horsemen appeared out of that ambush in which they had lain, and put our men into disorder, and made them run away ; so they sleu six men of our side. Yet did they not go off with the victory at last ; for when they heard that some armed men were sallied from Taricheæ to Julias they were afraid and retired.

74. It was not now long before Vespasian came to Tyre, and king Agrippa with him; but the Tyrians began to speak reproachfully of the king, and called aim an enemy to the Romans. For they said, that Philip, the general of his army, had betrayed the royal palace, and the Roman forces that were in Jeru. salem, and that it was done by his command. When Vespasian heard this re. port, he rebuked the Tyrians, for abusing a man who was both a king, and a friend to the Romans; but he exhorted the king to send Philip to Rome, to answer for what he had done before Nero. But when Philip was sent thither, he did not come into the sight of Nero, for he found him very near death on ac. count of the troubles that then happened, and a civil war; and so he returned to the king. But when Vespasian was come to Ptolemais, the chief men of De capolis of Syria made a clamour against Justus of Tiberias, because he had sel their villages on fire: so Vespasian delivered him to the king, to be put to death by those under the king's jurisdietion; yet did the king (only) put him into bonds, and concealed what he had done from Vespasian, as I have before related. But the people of Sepphoris met Vespasian, and saluted him, and had forces sent them, with Placidus their commander: he also went up with them, as I also fol. lowed them, till Vespasian came into Galilee. As to which coming of his, ana after what manner it was ordered, and how he fought his first battle with me near the village of Taricheæ, and how from thence they went to Jotapata, and how I


was taken alive and bound, and how I was afterwards loosed, with all that was done by me in the Jewish war, and during the siege of Jerusalem, I have accu. rately related them in the books concerning the War of the Jews. However, it will, I think, be fit for me to add now an account of those actions of my lifc, which I have not related in that book of the Jewish War.

75. For when the siege of Jotapata was over, and I was among the Romans, I was kept with much care, by means of the great respect that Vespasian showed

Moreover, at his command I married a virgin,* who was from among the captives of that country: yet did she not live with me long, but was divorced, upon my being freed from my bonds, and my going to Alexandria. However, I married another wife at Alexandria, and was thence sent, together with Titus, to the siege of Jerusalem, and was frequently in danger of being put to death : while both the Jews were very desirous to get me under their power, in order to have me punished; and the Romans also, wherever they were beaten, supposed that it was occasioned by my treachery, and made continual clamours to the em. perors, and desired that they would bring me to that punishment, as a traitor to them: but Titus Cæsar was well acquainted with the uncertain fortune of war, and returned no answer to the soldiers' vehement solicitations against me. More. over, when the city of Jerusalem was taken by force, Titus Cæsar persuaded me frequently to take whatsoever I would out of the ruins of my country, and said, that he gave me leave so do. But when my country was destroyed, I thought nothiag else to be of any value, which I could take and keep as a comfort under my calamities; so I made this request to Titus, that my family might have their liberty; I had also the holy bookst by Titus's concession. Nor was it long afier that I asked of him the life of my brother, and of fifty friends with him, and was not denied. When I also went once to the temple, by the permission of Titus, where there were a great multitude of captive women and children, I got all those that I remembered as among my own friends and acquaintance to be set free, being in number about one hundred and ninety; and so I delivered them without their paying any price of redemption, and restored them to their former fortune. And when I was sent by Titus Cæsar with Cerealius, and a thousand horsemen, to a certain village called Thecoa, in order to know whether it were a place fit for a camp, as I came back, I saw many captives crucified, and remembered three of them as my former acquaintance. I was very sorry at this in my mind, and went with tears in my eyes to Titus, and told him of them; so he immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have the greatest care taken of them in order to their recovery; yet two of them died under the physician's hands, while the third recovered.

76. But when Titus had composed the troubles in Judea, and conjectured that the lands which I had in Judea would bring me in no profit, because a garrison to guard the country was afterwards to pitch there, he gave me another country in the plain. And when he was going away to Rome, he made choice of me to sail along with him, and paid me great respect: and when we were come to Rome, I had great care taken of me by Vespasian; for he gave me an apartment in his own house, which he lived in before he came to the empire. He also honoured me with the privilege of a Roman citizen; and gave me an annual pen. sion; and continued to respect me to the end of his life, without any abatement of his kindness to me; which very thing made me envied, and trought me into danger; for a certain Jew, whose name was Jonathan, who had raised a lumult in Cyrene, and had persuaded two thousand men of that country to join with him, was the occasion of their ruin. But when he was bound by the governor of that country, he told him, that I had sent him both weapons and money. However, de could not conceal his being a liar from Vespasian, who condemned him to die; according to which sentence he was put to death. Nay, after that, when those that envied my good fortune did frequently bring accusations against me, by God's providence 1 escaped them all. I also received from Vespasian po small quan. tity of land, as a free gitt in Judea; about which time I divorced my wife also, as not pleased with her behaviour, though not till she had been the mother of three children, two of which are dead, and one, whom I nained Hyrcanus, is alive. After this I married a wife who bad lived at Crete, but a Jewess by birth; a woman she was of eminent parents, and such as were the most illustrious in all the country, and whose character was beyond that of most other women, as her future life did demonstrate. By her I had two sons, the elder was named Justus, and the next Simonides, who was also named Agrippa. And these were the cir. cumstances of my domestic affairs. However, the kindness of the emperor to me continued still the same: for when Vespasian was dead, Titus, who succeeded him in the government, kept up the same respect for me which I had from his father; and when I had frequent accusations laid against me, he would not be. hieve them. And Domitian, who succeeded, still augmented his respects to me for he punished those Jews that were my accusers, and gave command that a servant of mine, who was an eunuch, and my accuser, should be punished. He also made that country I had in Judea, tax free; which is a mark of the greatest honour to hiin who hath it; nay, Domitia, the wife of Cæsar, continued to do me kindnesses. And this is the account of the actions of my whole life: and let others judge of my character by them as they please. But to thee, 0 Epaphroditus,* thou most excellent of men, do I dedicate all this treatise of our Antiquities, and so for the present, I here conclude the whole.

* Here Josephus, a priest, honestly confesses that he did that at the command of Vespasian, which he had before told us was not lawful för a priest to do by the law of Moses, Antiq. B. iii. ch. xii. sect. 2. I mean the taking a captive woman to wife. See also against A pion, B. i. ch. vii. Bur he seerns to have been quickly sensible that his compliance with the command of an emperor would not excuse him, for he soon put her away, as Reland justly observes here.

☆ Of this most reinarkable clause, and its most important consequences, see Essay on the Old Testa mont, page 193195

• Of this Epaphroditus, see the note on the Preface to the Autiquities.







$ 1.* WHEREAS the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those not only that have been in our times, but in a manner of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations ; while some men, who were not concerned in the affairs themselves, have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner; and while those that were there present have given false accounts of things, and this either out of a humour of flattery to the Romans, or of hatred towards the Jews ; and while their writings contain sometimes accusations, and sometimes encomiums but nowhere the accurate truth of the facts; I have proposed to myself; for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians :f I Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterwards [am the author of this work.]

2. Now at the time when this great concussion of affairs happened, the affairs of the Romans were themselves in great disorder. Those Jews also who were for innovations then arose when the times were disturbed ; they were also in a flourishing condition for strength and riches, insomuch that the affairs of the east were then exceedingly tumultuous, while some hoped for gain, and others were afraid of loss in such troubles; for the Jews hoped that all of their nation which were beyond Euphrates would have raised an insurrection together with them. The Gauls also, in the neighbourhood of the Romans, were in motion, and the Celtæ were not quiet ; but all was in disorder after the death of Nero. And the opportunity now offered induced many to aim at the royal power; and the sol

I have already observed more than once, that this history of the Jewish war was Josephus's first work and published about A. D. 75, when he was but 38 years of age : and that when he wrote it, he was not thoroughly acquainted with several circu.nstances of history, from the days of Antiochus Epipbanes, with which it begins, till nearly his own times, contained in the first and former part of the second bork and so committed many involuntary errors therein. Toat he published his Antiquities 18 years after ward, in the 13th year of Domitian, A. D. 93, when he was much more completely acquainted with those ancient times, and after he had perused those most authentic histories, the first book of Maccabees, and the chronicles of the priesthood of Joho Hyrcanus, &c. That, accordingly, he then reviewed those parts of this work, and gave the public a more faithful, complete, and accurate account of the facto therein related, and honestly corrected the errors he had before run into.

+ Who these Upper Barbarians, remore from the sea, were, Josephus himself will inform us, sect. 2 viz. the Parthians and Babylonians, and reniotest Arabians (or the Jews among thein ;) besides the Jews beyond Euphrates, and the Adiabeni or Assyrians. Whence we also learn that these Parthians, Baby ioniaus, the remotest Arabians (or at least the Jews among them,) as also the Jews beyond Euphrates, and the Ajiabeni or Assyrians, understood Josephus's Hebrew, or rather Chaldaic books of the Jewish War, before they were put into the Greek language

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diery affected change, out of the hopes of getting money. I thought it, there fore, an absurd thing to see the truth falsified in affairs of such great conse quence, and to take no notice of it; but to suffer those Greeks and Romans that were not in the wars to be ignorant of these thicgs, and to read either Hatteries or fictions, while the Parthians, and Babylonians, and the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni, by my means knew accurately both whence the war begun, what miseries it brought upon us, and after what manner it ended.

3. It is true, these writers have the confidence to call their accounts histories, wherein yet they seem to me to fail of their own purpose, as well as to relate pothing that is sound. For they have a mind to demonstrate the greatness of the Romans, while they still diminish and lessen thc actions of the Jews ; as no! discerning how it cannot be that those must appear to be great, who have only conquered those that were little. Nor are they ashamed to overlook the length of the war, the multitude of the Roman forces who so greatly suffered in it, or the might of the commanders, whose great labours about Jerusalem will be deemed inglorious, if what they achieved be reckoned but a small matter.

4. However, I will not go into the other extreme, out of opposition to these men who extol the Romans, nor will I determine to raise the actions of my coun. trymen too high ; but I will prosecute the actions of both parties with accuracy. Yet shall I suit my language to the passions I am under, as to the affairs I de. scribe ; and must be allowed to indulge some lamentations upon the miseries un. dergone by my own country : for that it was a seditious temper of our own that destroyed it, and that they were the tyrants ainong the Jews who brought thu Roman power upon us, who unwillingly attacked us, and occasioned the burn ing of our holy temple, Titus Cæsar, who destroyed it, is himself a witness who, during the entire war, pitied the people who were kept under by the sedi tious, and did often voluntarily delay the taking of the city, and allowed time to the siege, in order to let the authors have opportunity for repentance. But if any one makes an unjust accusation against us, when we speak so passionately about the tyrants or the robbers, or sorely bewail the misfortunes of our country let him indulge my affections herein, though it be contrary to the rules for writ ing history; because it had so come to pass that our city Jerusalem had arrived. at a higher degree of felicity than any other city under the Roman government, and yet at last fell into the sorest of calamities again. Accordingly, it appears to me, that the* misfortunes of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they be compared to these of the Jews, are not so considerable as they were ; while the authors of them were not foreigners neither. This makes it impossible for me to contain my lamentations. But if any one be inflexible in his censures of me, let him attribute the facts themselves to the historical part, and the lamenta. tions to the writer himself only.

5. However, I may justly blame the learned men among the Greeks, who when such great actions have been done in their own times, which upon the com. parison quite eclipse the old wars, do yet sit as judges of those affairs, and pass bitter censures upon

the labours of the best writers of antiquity ; which moderns, although they may be superior to the old writers in eloquence, yet are they infe. rior to them in the execution of what they intended to do: while these also write new histories about the Assyrians and Medes, as if the ancient writers had not described their affairs as they ought to have done, although these be as far infe. rior to them in abilities, as they are different in their notions from them: for of old every one took upon them to write what happened in his own time ; whero their immediate concern in the actions made their promises of value : and where

That these calamities of the Jews, who were our Saviour's murderers, were to be the greatest that hadever been since the beginning of the world, our Saviour had directly foretold, Matt. xxiv. 21 ; Mark, xii. 19; Luke, xxi. 23, 24; and that they proved to be such accordingly, Josephus is here a most au thentis witness.

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