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å must be reproachfill to write lies, when they must be known by tne readers to be such. But then, an undertaking to preserve the memory of what hath not been before recorded, and to represent the affairs of one's own time to those that come afterwards, is really worthy of praise and commendation. Now he is to be esteemed to have taken good pains in earnest, not who does no more than change the disposition and order of other men's works, but he who not only re. lates what had not been related before, but composes an entire body of history of his own : accordingly, I have been at great charges, and have taken very great pains (about this history,] though I be a foreigner; and do dedicate this work, as a memorial of great actions, both to the Greeks and to the Barbarians. But for some of our own principal men, their mouths are wide and open, and their tongues loosed presently, for gain and lawsuits, but quite muzzled up when they are to write history, where they must speak truth, and gather facts together with a great deal of pains; and so they leave the writing such histories to weaker people, and to such as are not acquainted with the actions of princes. Yet shall the real truth of historical facts be preferred by us, how much soever it be neglected among the Greek historians.
6. To write concerning the antiquities of the Jews, who they were (originally,] and how they revolted from the Egyptians, and what country they travelled over, and what countries they seized upon afterward, and how they were removed out of them, I think this not to be a fit opportunity, and on other accounts also superfluous; and this because many Jews before me have composed the histories of our ancestors very exactly, as have some of the Greeks done it also, and have translated our histories into their own tongue, aud have not much mistaken the truth in their histories. But then, where the writers of these affairs, and our prophets leave off, thence shall I take my rise, and begin my history. Now as to what concerns that war, which happened in my own time, I will go over it very largely, and with all the diligence I am able; but for what preceded mine own age, that I shall run over very briefly.
7. (For example, I shall relate] how Antiochus, who was named Epiphanes took Jerusalem by force, and held it three years and three months, and was then ejected out of the country by the sons of Asamoneus; after that, how their pos terity quarrelled about the government, and brought upon their settlement the Romans and Pompey; how Herod also, the son of Antipater, dissolved their go vernment, and brought Sosius upon them; as also, how our people made a sedi. tron upon Herod's death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quinti. lius Varus was in that country; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius, and what places the Jews assaulted in an hostile manner in the first sallies of the war.
8. As also, [I shall relate] how they built walls about the neighbouring cities; and how Nero, upon Cestius's defeat was in fear of the entire event of the war, and thereupon made Vespasian general in this war; and how this Vespasian, with the elder* of his sons, made an expedition into the country of Judea; what was the number of the Roman army that he made use of; and how many of his auxiliaries were cut off in all Galilee; and how he took some of its cities entirely, and by force, and others of them by treaty, and on terms. Now when I am come so far, I shall describe the good order of the Romans in war, and the discipline of their legions; the amplitude of both the Galilees, with its nature, and the li nits of Judea. And, besides this, I shall particularly go over what is peculiar to the country, the lakes and fountains that are in them, and what miseries hap poned to every city as they were taken; and all this with accuracy, as I saw the things done or suffered in them. For I shall not conceal any of the calamities ) myself endured, since I shall relate them to such as know the truth of them. 2. After this, [I shall relate] how, when the Jews' affairs were become very
bad, Nero died, and Vespasian, when he was going to attack Jerusalem, was called back to take the government upon him ; what signs happened to him rela. ting to his gaining that government, and what mutations of government then hap. pened at Rome, and how he was unwillingly made emperor by his soldiers, and how upon his departure to Egypt, to take upon him the government of the em. pire, the affairs of the Jews became very tumultuous ; as also how the tyrants rose up against them, and fell into dissensions amongst themselves.
10. Moreover, [I shall relate] how Titus marched out of Egypt into Judea the second time; as also how, and where, and how many forces he got together: and in what state the city was by the means of the seditious at his coming ; what attacks he made and how many ramparts he cast up; of the three walls that encompassed the city, and their measures; of the strength of the city, and the structure of the temple and holy house ; and besides, the measures of those edifices, and of the altar, and all accurately determined. A description also of certain of their festivals, and seven * purifications of purity, and the sacred ministrations of the priests, with the garments of the priest, and of the high priests, and of the nature of the most holy place of the temple, without conceal. ing any thing, or adding any thing to the known truth of things.
11. After this, I shall relate the barbarity of the tyrants towards the people of their own nation, as well as the indulgence of the Romans in sparing foreigners; and how often Titus out of his desire to preserve the city and the temple, in. vited the seditious to come to terms of accommodation. I shall distinguish also the sufferings of the people and their calamities ; how far they were afflicted by the sedition, and how far by the famine, and at length were taken. Nor shall 1 omn to mention the misfortunes of the deserters, nor the punishment inflicted on the captives; as also, how the temple was burnt, against the consent of Cæsar, and how many sacred things that had been laid up in the temple were snatched ont of the fire ; the destructon also of the entire city, with the signs and wonders that went before it; and the taking of the tyrants captives, and the multitude of those that were made slaves, and into what different misfortunes they were every one distributed. Moreover, what the Romans did to the remains of the war, and how they demolished the strong holds that were in the country, and how Titus went over the whole country, and settled its affairs ; together with his return into Italy, and his triumph.
12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books ; and have left no oc. casion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acqui.inted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truih, but not for those that please themselves (with fictitious relations.] And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter.
* These 7, or rather 5, degrees of purity, or purification, are enumerated breafter, B.1 ch. 1.06 The Rabbins make 10 degrees of them, as Reland there informs us.
THE JEWISH WAR.
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS.
FROM THE TAKING OF JERUSALEM BY ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, TO THE
DEATH OF HEROD THE GREAT.
How the City Jerusalem was taken, and the Temple pillaged [by Antiochus Epiphanes : As also, concerning the Actions of the Maccabees, Matthias
and Judas; and concerning the Death of Judas. § 1. Ar the same time that Antiochus , who was called Epiphanes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemny about his right to the whole country of Syria, a great sedition fell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a contention about obtaining the government; while each of those that were of dignity could noi endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high priests got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city, who fled to Antiochus and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king, being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and blew a great multitude of those that favoured Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. But Onias the high priest fled to Ptolemy, and received a palace from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jeru. salem, and a temple that was like* its temple, concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter.
2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the siege, le compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swine's flesh upon the altar; against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked commands joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremest wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened the city every day with open destruction, till at length he provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themselves.
• I see little difference in the several accounts in Josephus about the Egg, tian temple Onion, of which large complaints are made by his commentators. Onias, it seems, hoped to have made it very like that at Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions; and so he appears to have really done as far as he was able and thought proper. Of this ten:ple, see Antiq. B. xiii. ch. iii $ 1,2,3. and'Or the War, B. vii. ch. x. 63
3. Accordingly, Matthias, the son of Asamoneus, one of the priests who lived n a village called Modin, armed himself, together with his own family, which had five of his own sons in it, and slew Bacchides with daggers; and thereupon, out of the fear of the many garrisons (of the enemy,) he died to the mountains ; and so many of the people followed him, that he was encouraged to come down from the mountains, and to give battle to Antiochus's generals, when he beat them, and drove them out of Judea. So he came to the government by this his success, and became the prince of his own people by their own free consent, and then died, leaving the government to Judas his eldest son.
4. Now Judas, supposing that Antiochus would not lie still, gathered an army out of his own countrymen, and was the first that made a league of friendship with the Romans, and drove Epiphanes out of the country when he had made a second expedition into it, and this by giving him a great defeat there; and when he was warmed by this great success, he made an assault upon the garrison that was in the city, for it had not been cut off hitherto; so he ejected them out of the upper city, and drove the soldiers into the lower, which part of the city was called the Citadel. He then got the temple under his power, and cleansed the whole place, and walled it round about, and made new vessels for sacred ministrations, and brought them into the temple, because the former vessels had been profanedo He also built another altar, and began to offer the sacrifices; and when the city had already received its sacred constitution again, Antiochus died; whose son Antiochus succeeded him in the kingdom, and in his hatred to the Jews also.
5. So this Antiochus got together fifty thousand footmen, and five thousand borsemen, and four score elephants, and marched through Judea, into the moun. tainous parts. He then took Bethsura, which was a small city; but at a place called Bethzacharias, where the passage was narrow, Judas met him with his army. However, before the forces joined battle, Judas's brother Eleazar, seeing the very highest of the elephants adorned with a large tower, and with military trappings of gold to guard him, and supposing that Antiochus himself was upon him, he ran a great way before his own army, and, citting his way through the enemies' troops, he got up to the elephant; yet could he not reach him who seemed to be the king, by reason of his being so high; but still he ran his weapon into the belly of the beast, and brought him down upon himself, and was crushed to death, having done no more than attempted great things, and showed that he preferred glory before life. Now he that governed the elephant was but a priFate man; and had he proved to be Antiochus, Eleazar had performed nothing more by this bold stroke than that it might appear he chose to die, when he had he bare hope of thereby doing a glorious action; nay, this disappointment proved un omen to his brother (Judas) how the entire battle would end. It is true that the Jews fought it out bravely for a long time, but the king's forces being supe. nior in number, and having fortune on their side, obtained the victory. And when a great many of his men were slain, Judas took the rest with him, and fled to the toparchy of Gophna. So Antiochus went to Jerusalem, and stayed there but a few days, for he wanted provisions, and so he went his way. He left indeed a garrison behind him, such as he thought sufficient to keep the place, but drew the rest of his army off, to take their winter quarters in Syria.
6. Now after the king was departed, Judas was not idle; for as many of his own nation came to him, so did he gather those that had escaped out of the battle together, and gave battle again to Antiochus's generals at a village called Adasa: and being too hard for his enemies in the battle, and killing a great number of them, he was at last himself slain also. Nor was it many days afterward thai his brother John had a plot laid against him by Antiochus's party, and was slain by them.
Concerning the Successors of Judas, who were Jonathan, and Simeon, and
John Hyrcanus. 1. WHEN Jonathan, who was Judas's brother, succeeded him, he behaved himself with great circumspection in other respects with relation to his own people; and he corroborated his authority by preserving his friendship with the Romans. He also made a league with Antiochus's son. Yet was not all this sufficient for his security; for the tyrant Trypho, who was guardian to Antio. chus's son, laid a plot against him; and, besides that, endeavoured to take off his friends, and caught Jonathan by a wile, as he was going to Ptolemais to Antio. chus, with a few persons in his company, and put him in bonds, and then made an expedition against the Jews; but when he was afterward driven away by Simeon, who was Jonathan's brother, and was enraged at his defeat, he put Jona. than to death.
2. However, Simeon managed the public affairs after a courageous manner, and took Gazara, and Joppa, and Jamnia, which were cities in the neighbourhood. He also got the garrison under, and demolished the citadel. He was afterward an auxiliary to Antiochus against Trypho, whom he besieged in Dora, before he went on his expedition against the Medes: yet could not he make the king ashamed of his ambition, though he had assisted him in killing Trypho; for it was not long ere Antiochus sent Cendebeus his general with an army to lay waste Judea, and to subdue Sinieon : yet he, though he were now in years, conducted the war as if he were a much younger man. He also sent his sons with a band of strong men against Antiochus, while he took part of the army himself with him, and feil upon him from another quarter : he also laid a great many men in ambush in many places of the mountains, and was superior in all his attacks upon them; and when he had been conqueror after so glorious a manner, he was made high priest, and also freed the Jews from the dominion of the Macedonians, after a hundred and seventy years of the empire [of Seleucus.]
3. This Siineon also had a plot laid against him, and was slain at a feast by his son-in-law Ptolemy, who put his wife and two sons into prison, and sent some persons to kill John, who was also* called Hyrcanus. But when the young man was intormed of their coming beforehand, he made haste to get to the city, as having a great confidence in the people there, both on account of the memory of the glorious actions of his father, and of the hatred they could not but bear to the injustice of Ptolemy. Ptolemy also made an attempt to get into the city by ano ther gate, but was repelled by the people, who had just then admitted of Hyrca. nus ; so he retired presently to one of the fortresses that were above Jericho, which was called Dagon. Now when Hyrcanus had received the high priesthood, which his father had held before, and had offered sacrifice to God, he made great haste to attack Ptolemy, that he might afford relief to his mother and brethren.
4. So he laid siege to the fortress, and was superior to Ptolemy in other re. spects, but was overcome by him as to the just affection she had for his rela. tions); for when Ptolemy was distressed, he brought forth his mother and his brethren, and set them upon the wall, and beat them with rods in every body's sight, and threatened, that, unless he would go away immediately; he would
* Why this John the son of Simeon, the high priest, and governor of the Jews, was called Hyrcanus, Josephus no where informs us; nor is he called other than John at the end of the first book of the Maccabees. However, Sextus Senensis; when he gives us an epitome of the Greek version of the book here abridged by Josephus or of the chronicles of this John Hyrcanus, then extant, assures us that he was cal led Hyrcanus, from his conquest of one of that name. Ses Authent Rec. Part. i. p. 207. But of this younger Antiochus, see Dean Aldrich's note here