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Aristobulus's father-in-law was taken, who was also his uncle : so those that were the mosi guilty he punished with decollation : but rewarded Faustus, and those with him that had fought so bravely, with glorious presents, and laid a tribute upon the country, and upon Jerusalem itself.

7. He also took away from the nation all those cities they had formerly taken, and that belonged to Celosyria, and made them subject to him that was at that time appointed to be the Roman president there, and reduced Judea within its proper bounds. He also rebuilt Gadara,* that had been demolished by the Jews, in order to gratify one Demetrius, who was of Gadara, and was one of his own freedmen. He also made other cities free from their dominion that lay in the midst of the country, such, I mean, as they had not demolished before that time, Hippos and Scythopolis, as also Pella, and Samaria, and Marissa : and, besides these, Ashdod, and Jamnia, and Arethusa ; and in like manner dealt he with the maritime cities, Gaza and Joppa, and Dora, and that which was anciently called Strato's Tower, but was afterward rebuilt with most magnificent edifices, and had its name changed to Cæsarea by king Herod : all which he restored to their own citizens, and put them under the province of Syria ; which province, ogether with Judea and the countries as far as Egypt and Euphrates, he committed to Scaurus as their governor, and gave him two legions to support him; while he made all the haste he could himself to go through Cilicia, in his way to Rome, having Aristobulus and his children along with him as his captives. They were two daughters and two sons; the one of which sons, Alexander, ran away as he was going, but the younger, Antigonus, with his sisters, were carried to Rome.

CHAP. VIII. Alexander, the Son of Aristobulus, who ran away from Pompey, makes an expedition against Hyrcanus ; but being overcome by Gabinius, he delivers up the Fortresses to him. After this Aristobulus escapes from Rome, and gathers an Army together; but being beaten by the Romans, he is brought back to Rome; with other Things relating to Gabinius,

Crassus, and Cassius. $1. In the mean time Scaurus made an expedition into Arabia, but was stopped by the difficulty of the places about Petra. However, he laid waste the country about Pella, though even there he was under great hardship ; for his army was afflicted with famine : in order to supply which want, Hyrcanus afforded hina some assistance, and sent him provisions by the means of Antipater; whom al. so Scaurus sent to Aretas, as one well acquainted with him, to induce him to pay him money to buy his peace. The king of Arabiat complied with the proposal, and gave him three hundred talents : upon which Scaurus drew his army out of Arabia.

2. But as for Alexander, the son of Aristobulus who ran away from Pompey, in some time he got a considerable band of men together, and lay heavy upon Hyrcanus, and overran Judea, and was likely to overturn him quickly ; and, in. deed, he had come to Jerusalem, and had ventured to rebuild its wall that was thrown down by Pompey, had not Gabinius, who was sent as successor to Scaurus into Syria, showed his bravery, as in many other points, so in making an expedition against Alexander; who, as he was afraid that he would attack him, so he

The coin of this Gadara still extant, with its date from this era, is a certain evidence of this its va building by Pompey, as Spanheim here assures us.

* Take the like attestation to the truth of this submission of Aretas, king of Arabia, to Scaurus the Ronan general, in the words of Dean Aldrich.—" Hence," says he, " is derived that old and famous Denarius belonging to the Emilian family (represented in Havercamp's edition, wherein Aretas ap years in a posture of supplication, and taking hold of a camel's bridle with his left hand, and with his right hand presenting a branch of the frankincense tree, with this inscription, M. SCAURUS EX S. C. and beneath, REX ARETAS."

got together a large army, composed of ten thousand footmen and fifteen hundred horsemen. He also built walls about proper places, Alexandrium. and Hyr canium, and Macherus, that lay upon the mountains of Arabia.

3. However, Gabinius sent before him Marcus Antonius, and followed him. self with his whole army ; but for the select body of soldiers that were about Antipater, and another body of Jews under the commands of Malichus and Pitholaus, these joined themselves to those captains that were about Marcus An. tonius, and met Alexander: to which body came Gabinius with his main army soon afterward; and as Alexander was not able to sustain the charge of the ene. mies' forces, now they were joined, he retired. But when he was come near to Jerusalem, he was forced to fight, and lost six thousand men in the battle ; three thousand of which fell down dead, and three thousand were taken alive; so he fled with the remainder to Alexandrium.

4. Now when Gabinius was come to Alexandrium, because he found a great many there encamped, he tried, by promising them pardon for their former of. fences, to induce them to come over to him, before it came to a fight; but when they would hearken to no terms of accommodation, he slew a great number of them, and shut up a great number in the citadel. Now Marcus Antonius, their leader, signalized himself in this battle, who as he always showed great courage, so did he never show it so much as now; but Gabinius, leaving forces to take the citadel, went away himself, and settled the cities that had not been demolished, and rebuilt those that had been destroyed. Accordingly, upon his injunctions, the following cities were restored, Scythopolis, and Samaria, and Anthedon, and Apollonia, and Jamnia, and Raphia, and Marissa, and Adoreus, and Gamal, and Ashdod, and many others; while a great number of men readily ran to each of them, and became their inhabitants.

5. When Gabinius bad taken care of these cities, he returned to Alexandrium, and pressed on the siege. So when Alexander despaired of ever obtaining the government, he sent ambassadors to him, and prayed him to forgive what he had offended him in, and gave up to him the remaining fortresses, Hyrcanium and Macheris, as he put Alexandrium into his hands afterwards : all which Gabinius demolished, at the persuasion of Alexander's mother, that they might not be re ceptacles of men in a second war. She was now there in order to mollify Gabinius, out of her concern for her relations that were captives at Rome, which were her husband and her other children. After this Gabinius brought Hyrcanus to Jerusalem, and committed the care of the temple to him; but ordained the other political government to be an aristocracy. He also parted the whole nation into five conventions, assigning one portion to Jerusalem, another to Gadara ; that another should belong to Amathus, a fourth to Jericho, and to the fifth division was alloted Sepphoris, a city of Galilee. Su the people were glad to be thus freed from monarchical govertiment, and were governed for the future by an aristocracy.

6. Yet did Aristobulus afford another foundation for new disturbances. He fled away from Rome, and got together again many of the Jews that were desirous of a change, such as had borne an affection to him of old : and when he had laken Alexandrium in the first place, he attempted to build a wall about it; but as soon as Gabinius had sent an army against him under Sisenna, and Antonius, and Servilius, he was aware of it, and retreated to Macherus. And as for the unprofitable multitude, he dismissed them, and ouly marched on with those that were armed, being to the number of eight thousand, among whom was Pitholaus, who had been the lieutenant at Jerusalem, but deserted to Aristobulus with a thousand of his men: so the Romans followed him; and when it came to a bat de, Aristobulus's party for a long while fought courageously: but at length the were overborne by the Romans, and of them five thousand fell down dead, and about two thousand Aed to a certain little hill, but the thousand that remained with Aristobulus broke through the Roman army, and marched together to Mai enerus; and when the king had lodged the first night upon its ruins, he was ir. hopes of raising another army, if the war would but cease awhile ; accordingly be fortified that strong hold, though it were done after a poor manner. But the Romans falling upon him, he resisted even beyond his abilities for two days, and then was taken, and brought a prisoner to Gabinius, with Antigonus nis son, who had fled away together with him from Rome, and from Gabinius he was carried to Rome again : Wherefore, the senate put him under confinement, but returned his children back into Judea, because Gabinius informed them by letters that he had promised Aristobulus's mother to do so, for her delivering the fortresses up to him.

7. But now as Gabinius was marching to the war against the Parthians, he was hindered by Ptolemy, whom, upon his return from Euphrates, he brought back into Egypt, making use of Hyrcanus and Antipater to provide every thing that was necessary for this expedition ; for Antipater furnished him with money, and weapons, and corn, and auxiliaries ; he also prevailed with che Jews that were there, and guarded the avenues at Pelusium, to let them pass. But now upon Gabinius's absence, the other part of Syria was in motion, and Alexander the son of Aristobulus, brought the Jews to a revolt again. Accordingly, he got together a very great army, and set about killing all the Romans that were in tie country : hereupon Gabinius was afraid (for he was come back already out of Egypt and obliged to come back quickly by these tumults,) and sent Antipater, who prevailed with some of the revolters to be quiet. However, thirty thousand still continued with Alexander, who was himself eager to fight also : accord. ingly, Gabinius went out to fight; when the Jews met him, and as the battle was fought near mount Tabor, ten thousand of them were slain, and the rest of the multitude dispersed themselves and fled away. So Gabinius came to Jerusalem, and settled the government as Antipater would have it ; thence he marched, and fought and beat the Nabateans : as for Mithridates and Orsanes, who fled out of Parthia, he sent them away privately, but gave it out among the soldiers that they had run away,

8. In the meantime Crassus came as successor to Gabinius in Syria. He took away all the rest of the gold belonging to the temple of Jerusalem, in order to furnish himself for his expedition against the Parthians. He also took away the two thousand talents which Pompey had not touched; but when he had passed over Euphrates, he perished himself and his army with him ; concerning whick affairs this is not a proper time to speak [more largely.)

9. But now Cassius, after Crassus, put a stop to the Parthians, who were marching in order to enter Syria. Cassius had fled into that province, and, when he had taken possession of the same, he made a hasty march into Judea ; and, upon his taking Taricheæ, he carried thirty thousand Jews into slavery. He also slew Pitholaus, who had supported the seditious followers of Aristobulus; and it was Antipater who advised him so to do. Now this Antipater married a wife of an eminent family among the Arabians, whose name was Cypros, and had four sons born to him by her, Phasaelus and Herod, who was afterwards king, and besides these, Joseph and Pheroras; and he had a daughter whose name was Salome. Now as he made himself friends among the men of power everywhere, by the kind offices he did them, and the hospitable manner that he treated them, so did he contract the greatest friendship with the king of Arabia, by marrying his relation, insomuch, that when he made war with Aristobulus, he sent and intrusted his children with him. So when Cassius had forced Alexander to come to terms and to be quiet, he returned to Euphrates, in order to prevent the Par thians from repassing it; concerning which matter* we shall speak elsewhere

* This citation is now wanting.


Aristobulus is taken off by Pompey's Friends, as is his Son Alexander by Scipio. Antipater cultivates a Friendship with Cæsar after Pompey's Death; he also

performs great Actions in that War wherein he assisted Mithridates. § 1. Now upon the flight of Pompey and of the senate beyond the Ionian sea, Cæsar got Rome and the empire under his power, and released Aristobulus from his bonds. He also committed two legions to him, and sent him in haste into Syria, as hoping that, hy his means, he should easily conquer that country and the parts adjoining to Judea. But envy prevented any effect of Aristobulus's alacrity and the hopes of Cæsar; for he was taken off by poison, given him by those of Pompey's party; and for a long while he had not so much as a burial vouchsafed him in his own country; but his dead body lay (above ground,) preserved in honey, until it was sent to the Jews by Antony, in order to be buried in the royal sepulchres.

2. His son Alexander also was beheaded by Scipio at Antioch, and that by the command of Pompey, and upon an accusation laid against him before his tribunal, for the niischiefs he had done to the Romans. But Ptolemy, the son of Meneus, who was then ruler of Chalcis under Libanus, took bis brethren to him, by sending nis son Philippio for them to Ascalon, who took Antigonus, as well as his sisters, away from Aristobulus's wife, and brought them to his father: and falling in kve with the youngest daughter, he married her, and was afterwards slain by his fa. ther on her account: for Ptolemy himself, after he had slain his son, married her, whose name was Alexandra; on account of which marriage he took the greater care of her brother and sister.

3. Now after Pompey was dead, Antipater changed sides, and cultivated a friendship with Cæsar. And since Mithridates of Pergamus, with the forces he led against Egypt, was excluded from the avenues about Pelusium, and was forced to stay at Ascalon, he persuaded the Arabians, among whom he had lived, to as. sist him, and came himself to him at the head of three thousand armed men. He also encouraged the men of power in Syria to come to his assistance, as also of the inhabitants of Libanus, Ptolemy, and Jamblicus, and another Ptolemy; by which means the cities of that country came readily into this war; insomuch that Mithridates ventured now, in dependence upon the additional strength that he had gotten by Antipater, to march forward to Pelusium; and when they refused him a passage through it, he besieged the city; in the attack of which place Antipater principally signalized himself, for he brought down that part of the wall which was over against him, and leaped first of all into the city with the men that were about him.

4. Thus was Pelusium laken. But still as they were marching on, those Egyp tian Jews that inhabited the country, called the country of Onias, stopped them Then did Antipater not only persuade them not to stop them, but to afford provi. sions for their army; on which account, even the people about Memphis would not fight against them, but of their own accord joined Mithridates. Whereupon he went round about Delta, and fought the rest of the Egyptians at a place called the Jews Camp: nay, when he was in danger in the battle, with all his right wing Antipater wheeled about, and came along the bank of the river to him; for he had beaten those that opposed him as he led the left wing. After which success he fell upon those that pursued Mithridates, and slew a great many of them, and pursued the reinainder so far that he took their camp, while he lost no more than fourscore of his own men; as Mithridates lost during the pursuit that was made after him about eight hundred. He was also himself saved unexpectedly, and became an irreproachable witness to Cæsar of the great actions of Antipater.

3. Whereupon Cæsar encouraged Antipater to undertake other hazardous enterprises for him, and that by giving him great commendations and hopes of reward: in all which enterprises he readily exposed himself to many dangers, and became a most courageous warrior, and had many wounds almost all over his body, as demonstrations of his valour. And when Cæsar had settled the affairs of Figypt, and was returning into Syria again, he gave him the privilege of a Ro. man citizen, and freedom from taxes, and rendered him an object of admiration by the honours and marks of friendship he bestowed upon him. On this account it was also that he confirmed Hyrcanus in the high priesthood.


Cæsar makes Antipater Procurator of Judea; as does Antipater appoint Phasaelus to be Governor of Jerusalem, and Herod Governor of Galilee ; who in some Time was called to answer for himself [before the Sanhedrim,] where he is acquitted. Sextus Cæsar is treacherously killed by Bassus ; and

is succeeded by Marcus. 1. ABOUT this time it was that Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, came to Cæsar, and became, in a surprising manner, the occasion of Antipater's farther advancement: for whereas he ought to have lamented that his father appeared to have been poisoned on account of his quarrels with Pompey, and to have complained of Scipio's barbarity towards his brother, and not to mix any invidious passion when he was suing for mercy; besides those things, he came before Cæsar, and accused Hyrcanus and Antipater, how they had driven him and his brethren entirely out of their native country, and had acted, in a great many in. stances, unjustly and extravagantly with relation to their nation; and that as to the assistance they had sent him into Egypt, it was not done out of good will to him, but out of the fear they were in from former quarrels, and in order to gain pardon for their friendship to [his enemy) Pompey.

2. Hereupon Antipater threw away his garments, and showed the multitude of the wounds he had, and said, that " as to his good will to Cæsar, he had no occasion to say a word, because his body cried aloud, though he said nothing himself; that he wondered at Antigonus's boldness, while he was himself no other than the son of an enemy to the Romans, and of a fugitive, and had it by in. heritance from his father to be fond of innovations and seditions, that he should undertake to accuse other men before the Roman governor, and endeavour to gain some advantages to himself, when he ought to be contented that he was suf. fered to live; for that the reason of his desire of governing public affairs was not so much because he was in want of it, but because, if he could once obtain the same, he might stir up a sedition among the Jews, and use what he should gain from the Romans to the disservice of those that gave it him.

3. Wten Cæsar heard this, he declared Hyrcanus to be the most worthy of the high priesthood, and gave leave to Antipater to choose what authority he pleased; but he left the determination of such dignity to him that bestowed the dignity upon him; so he was constituted procurator of all Judea, and obtained leave moreover to rebuild* those walls of his country that had been thrown down. These honorary grants Cæsar sent orders to have engraved in the Capitol, that they might stand there as indications of his own justice and of the virtue of Antipater.

• What is here noted by Hudson and Spanheim, that his grant of leave to rebuild the walls of the cities of Judea was made by Julius Cæsar, not as here to Antipater, but to Hyrcanus, Antiq. B. xiv chap. viii. sect. 5, has hardly an appearance of a contradiction Antipater being now, perhaps, considered oplv as Hyrcanus's deputy and minister ; although he afterwards made a cipher or Hyrcanus, and under preai decency of behaviour to biin took the real authority to himself.

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