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4. But as soon as Antipater had conducted Cæsar out of Syria, he returned to Judea ; and the first thing he did was to rebuild that wall of his own country [Jerusalem) which Pompey had overthrown, and then to go over the country, and to quiet the tumults that were therein ; where he partly threatened and partly advised every one, and told them, that, “in case they would submit to Hyrcanus, they would live happily and peaceably, and enjoy what they possessed, and that with universal peace and quietness : but that, in case they hearkened to such as had some frigid hopes, by raising new troubles, to get themselves some gain, they should then find him to be their lord instead of their procurator; and find Hyr. canus to be a tyrant instead of a king; and both the Romans and Cæsar to be their enemies instead of rulers; for that they would not suffer him to be removed from the government whom they had made their governor.” And at the same time that he said this, he settled the affairs of the country by himself, because he saw that Hyrcanus was inactive, and not fit to manage the affairs of the king. dom. So he constituted his eldest son Phasaelus governor of Jerusalem and of the parts about it; he also sent his next son Herod, who was very young, * with equal authority into Galilee.

5. Now Herod was an active man, and soon found proper materials for his ac. tive spirit to work upon. As, therefore, he found that Hezekias, the head of the robbers, ran over the neighbouring parts of Syria, with a great band of men, he caught him and slew bim, and many more of the robbers with him ; which exploit was chiefly grateful to the Syrians, insomuch that hymns were sung in Herod's commendation, both in the villages and in the cities, as having procured their quietness, and having preserved what they possessed to them; on which occasion he became acquainted with Sextus Cæsar, a kinsman of the great Cæsar, and president of Syria. A just emulation of his glorious actions excited Phasaelus also to imitate him. Accordingly, he procured the goodwill of the inhabitants of Jerusalem by his own management of the city affairs, and did not abuse his power in any disagreeable manner; whence it came to pass, that the nation paid Antipater the respects that were due only to a king, and the honours they all yielled him were equal to the honours due to an absolute lord ; yet did he not abate any part of that good will or fidelity which he owed to Hyrcanus.

6. However, he found it impossible to escape envy in such his prosperity; for che glory of these young men affected even Hyrcanus himself already privately, though he said nothing of it to any body: but what he principally was grieved at was the great actions of Herod, and that so many messengers came one be fore another, and informed him of the great reputation he got in all his under. takings. There were also many people in the royal palace itself who inflame his envy at hịm; those, I mean, who were obstructed in their designs by the pru. dence either of the young men or of Antipater. These men said, that by com. mitting the public affairs to the management of Antipater and of his sons, he sat down with nothing but the bare name of a king withont any of its authority; and they asked him how long he would so far mistake himself, as to breed up kings against his own interest ? for that they did not now conceal their government of affairs any longer, but were plainly lords of the nation, and had thrust him out of his authority: that this was the case when Herod slew so many men without his giving him any command to do it, either by word of mouth or by his letter, and this in contradiction to the law of the Jews; who, therefore, in case he be not a king but a private man, still ought to come to his trial, and answer it to him, and to the laws of his country, which do not permit any one to be killed till he hath been condemned in judgment.

7. Now Hyrcanus was by degrees inflamed with these discourses, and at length could bear no longer, but he summoned Herod to take his trial : accord.

* Or 25 years of age. See tne note on Antiq. B. i. chap. xii. sect. 3; and on B. XIV ch. ix. Sect %; and of the War, B, ii. ch. xi. sect. 6; and Polyb. B; xyii. p. 725

with his army.

ingly, by his father's advice, and as soon as the affairs of Galilee would give him leave, he came up (to Jerusalem,] when he had first placed garrisons in Galilee : however, he came with a sufficient body of soldiers, so many, indeed, that he might not appear to have with him an army able to overthrow Hyrcanus's go vernment, nor yet so sew as to expose him to the insults of those that envied him However, Sextus Cæsar was in fear for the young man, lest he should be taken told of by his enemies, and be brought to punishment: so he sent some to de. nounce expressly to Hyrcanus, that he should acquit Herod of the capital charge against him; who acquitted him accordingly, as being otherwise inclined also so to do, for he loved Herod.

8. But Herod, supposing that he had escaped punishment with the consent of the king, retired to Sextus to Damascus, and got every thing ready in order not to obey him, if he should summons him again; whereupon those that were evil dis. posed irritated Hyrcanus, and told him, that Herod was gone away in anger, and was prepared to make war upon him; and as the king believed what they said, he knew not what to do, since he saw his antagonist was stronger than he was himself. And now, since Herod was made general of Celosyria and Samaria by Sextus Cæsar, he was formidable, not only from the good will which the nation bore him, but by the power he himself had ; insomuch that Hyrcanus fell into the utmost degree of terror, and expected he would presently march against him

9. Nor was he mistaken in the conjecture he made ; for Herod got his army together out of the anger he bare him for his threatening him with the accusation in a public court, and led it to Jerusalem, in order to throw Hyrcanus down from his kingdom ; and this he had soon done, unless his father and brother had gone out together, and broken the force of his fury; and this by exhorting him to carry his revenge no farther than to threatening and affrighting, but to spare the king, under whom he had been advanced to such a degree of power; and that he ought not to be so much provoked at his being tried, as to forget to be thankful that he was acquitted; nor so long to think upon what was of a melancholy nature, as to be ungrateful for his deliverance; and if we ought to reckon that God is the arbitrator of success in war, an unjust cause is of more disadvantage than any army can be of advantage ; and that therefore he ought not to be entirely confident of success in a case where he is to fight against his king, his supporter, and one that had often been his benefactor, and that had never been severe to him, any other. wise than as he had hearkened to evil counsellors, and this no farther than by bringing a shadow of injustice upon him. So Herod was prevailed upon by these arguments, and supposed that what he had already done was sufficient for his future hopes, and that he had enough shown his power to the nation.

10. In the meantime there was a disturbance among the Romans about Apa. mia, and a civil war occasioned by the treacherous* slaughter of Sextus Cæsar by Cecilius Bassus, which he perpetrated out of his good will to Pompey; he also took the authority over his forces; but as the rest of Cæsar's commanders attacked Bassus with their whole army, in order to punish him for his murder of Cæsar, Antipater also sent them assistance by his sons, both on account of hiin that was murdered, and on account of that Cæsar who was still alive, both of which were their friends; and as this war grew to be of a considerable length Marcus came out of Italy as successor to Sextus.

• Many writers of the Roman history give an account of this murder of Sextus Cesu, and of the ww of Apamia upon that occasion. They are cited in Dean Aldrich's pote.

YOL ld


Herod is made Procurator of all Syria ; Malichus is afraid of him, and takes Antipater off by Poison; whereupon the Tribunes of the Soldiers are

prevailed with to kill him. 1. THERE was at this time a mighty war raised among the Romans, upon the sudden and treacherous slaughter of Cæsar by Cassius and Brutus, after he had held the government for three years and seven months.* Upon this murder there were very great agitations; and the great men were mightily at difference one with another, and every one betook himself to that party where they had the greatest hopes of their own of advancing themselves. Accordingly, Cassius came into Syria, in order to receive the forces that were at Apamia, where he procured a reconciliation between Bassus and Marcus, and the legions which were at difference with him; so he raised the siege of Apamia, and took upon him the command of the army, and went about exacting tribute of the cities, and de. manding their money to such a degree as they were not able to bear.

2. So he gave command that the Jews should bring in seven hundred talents; whereupon Antipater, out of his dread of Cassius's threats, parted the raising of this sum among his sons, and among others of his acquaintance, and to be done immediately; and among them he required one Malichus, who was at enmity with him, to do his part also, which necessity forced him to do. Now Herod, in the first place, mitigated the passion of Cassius, by bringing his share out of Galilee, which was a hundred talents, on which account he was in the highest favour with him; and when he reproached the rest for being tardy, he was angry at the citics themselves : so he made slaves of Gophna, and Emmaus, and two others of less note; nay, he proceeded as if he would kill Malichus, because he had not made greater haste in exacting his tribute; but Antipater prevented the ruin of this man, and of the other cities, and got into Cassius's favour,t by bringing in a hundred talents immediately.

3. However, when Cassius was gone, Malichus forgot the kindness that An. tipater had done him, and laid frequent plots against him that had saved him, as making haste to get him out of the way, who was an obstacle to his wicked prac. tices; but Antipater was so much afraid of the power and cunning of the man that he went beyond Jordan in order to get an army to guard himself against his treacherous designs: but when Malichus was caught in his plot, he put upon Antipater's sons by his impudence; for he thoroughly deluded Phasaelus, who was the guardian of Jerusalem, and Herod who was intrusted with the weapons o war, and this by a great many excuses and oaths, and persuaded them to pro. cure his reconciliation to his father. Thus was he preserved again by Antipater who dissuaded Marcus, the then president of Syria, from his resolution of killing Malichus on account of his attempts for innovation,

4. Upon the war between Cassius and Brutus, on one side, against the younger Cæsar (Augustus) and Antony, on the other, Cassius and Marcus got together an army out of Syria ; and because Herod was likely to have a great share in pro viding necessaries, they then made him a procurator of all Syria, and gave him an army of foot and horse.

Cassius promised him also, that after the war was over, he would make him king of Judea: but it so happened, that the power and

• In the Antiquities, B. xiv. ch. xi. sect. 1, the duration of the reign of Julius Cæsar is 3 years 6 months, but here 3 years 7 months, beginning rightly, says Dean Allrich, fron: his second dictatorship. b is probable the real dura'jon might be 3 years and between 6 and 7 months.

It appears evidently by Josephus's accounts, both here and in his Antiquities, B. xiv. ch. xi. sect. 2 that this Cassius, one of Cxsar's murderers, was a bitter oppressor and 'exacter of tribute in Judea These 700 talents amounding w 300,000l. sterling, and are about half the yearly revenues of King Herod afterwards. See the note on Antiq. B. xvii. ch. xi. sect. 4. It also appears, that Galilee then paid no more than 100 walones or the 7th part of the entire sun to be levied in all the country.

hopes of his son became the cause of his perdition; for as Malichus was afraid of this, he corrupted one of the king's cupbearers with money to give a poisoned potion to Antipater; so he became a sacrifice to Malichus's wickedness, and died at a feast. He was a man in other respects active in the management of affairs, and one that recovered the government to Hyrcanus, and preserved it in his hands

5. However, Malichus, when he was suspected of poisoning Antipater, and when the multitude were angry at him for it, denied it, and made the people be. lieve he was not guilty. He also prepared to make a greater figure, and raised soldiers; for he did not suppose that Herod would be quiet, who, indeed came upon him with an army presently, in order to avenge his father's death; but upon hearing the advice of his brother Phasaelus not to punish him in an open manner, lest the multitude should fall into a sedition, he admitted of Malichus's apology, and professed that he cleared him of that suspicion: he also made a pompous funeral for his father.

6. So Herod went to Samaria, which was then in a tumult, and settled the city in peace; after which, at the [Pentecost] festival, he returned to Jerusalem, having his armed men with him; hereupon Hyrcanus, at the request of Malichus, who feared his approach, forbade them to introduce foreigners to mix themselves with the people of the country, while they were purifying themselves : but Herod despised the pretence, and him that gave that command, and came in by night • upon which Malichus came to him, and bewailed Antipater; Herod also made him believe (he admitted of his lamentation as real,) although he had much ado :o restrain his passion at him: however, he did himself bewail the murder of his father, in his letter to Cassius, who on other accounts, also hated Malichus; Cas. sius sent him word back, that he should avenge his father's death upon him, and privately gave order to the tribunes that were under him, that they should assist Herod in a righteous action he was about.

7. And because, upon the taking of Laodicea by Cassius, the men of power were gotten together from all quarters, with presents and crowns in their hands, Herod allotted this time for the punishment of Malichus.

When Malichus sus. pected that, and was at Tyre, he resolved to withdraw his son privately from among the Tyrians, who was a hostage there, while he got ready to fly away into Judea ; the despair he was in of escaping excited hini to think of greater things; for he hoped that he should raise the nation to a revolt from the Romans, while Cassius was busy about the war against Antony, and that he should easily depose Hyrcanus, and get the crown for himself.

8. But fate laughed at the hopes he had; for Herod foresaw what he was so zealous about, and invited both Hyrcanus and him to supper ; but calling one of the principal servants that stood by him to him, he sent him out, as though it were to get things ready for supper, but in reality, to give notice beforehand about the plot that was laid against him : accordingly, they called to mind what orders Cassius bad given them, and went out of the city with their swords in their hands, upon the seashore, were they encompassed Malichus round about, and killed himi with many wounds: upon which Hyrcanus was immediately affrighted, till he swooned away, and fell down at the surprise he was in ; and it was with difficul. ly that he was recovered; when he asked, who it was that had killed Malichus ? and when one of the tribunes replied, that it was done by the command of Cas sius, " Then, said he, Cassius hath saved both me and my country, by cutting off one that was laying plots against them both.” Whether he spake according to his own sentiments, or whether his fear was such, that he was obliged to commend the action by saying so, is uncertain; however, by this inethod Herod inflicted painishment upon Malichus.


Phasaelus is too hard for Felix; Herod also overcomes Antigonus in battle ; and the Jews accuse both Herod and Phasaelus ; but Antonius acquits them,

and makes them Tetrarchs. §. 1. WHEN Cassius was gone out of Syria, another sedition arose at Jerusalemn wherein Felix assaulted Phasaelus with an army, that he might revenge the death of Malichus upon Herod, by falling upon his brother. Now Herod happened then to be with Fabius, the governor of Damascus ; and as he was going to his brother's assistance, he was detained by sickness : in the meantime Phasaelus was by himself too hard for Felix, and reproached Hyrcanus on account of his in gratitude, both for what assistance he had afforded Malichus, and for overlooking Malichus's brother, when he possessed himself of the fortresses ; for he had got ten a great many of them already, and among them the strongest of them all, Masada.

2. However, nothing could be sufficient for him against the force of Herod, who, as soon as he was recovered, took the other fortresses again, and drove him out of Masada in the posture of a supplicant : he also drove away Marion the tyrant of the Tyrians out of Galilee, when he had already possessed himself of three fortified places ; but as to those Tyrians whom he had caught, he preserved them all alive ; nay, some of them he gave presents to, and so sent them away and thereby procured good will to himself from the city, and hatred to the tyrant Marion had, indeed, obtained that tyrannical power of Cassius, who* set tyrante over all Syria ; and out of his hatred to Herod it was that he assisied Antigonus the son of Aristobulus, and principally on Fabius's account whom Antigonus had made his assistant by money, and had him, accordingly, on his side when he made his descent; but it was Ptolemy, the kinsman of Antigonus, that supplied all that he wanted.

3. When Herod had fought against these in the avenues of Judea, he was conqueror in the battle, and drove away Antigonus, returuing to Jerusalem belov. ed by every body, for the glorious actions he had done ; for those who did not before favour him, did join themselves to him now, because of his marriage into the family of Hyrcanus ; for as he had formerly married a wife out of his own country of no ignoble blood, who was called Doris, of whom he begat Antipater so did he now marry Mariamne the daughter of Alexander, the son of Aristobu lus, and the grand-daughter of Hyrcanus, and was become thereby a relation of che king.

4. But when Cæsar and Antony had slain Cassius near Philippi, and Cæsar was gone to Italy, and Antony to Asia, amongst the rest of the cities which sent ambassadors to Antony, unto Bithyhia, the great men of the Jews came also, and accused Phasaelus and Herod that they kept the government by force, and that Hyrcanus had no more than an honourable name. Herod appeared ready to answer this accusation ; and having made Antony his friend by the large sums of money which he gave him, he brought bim to such a temper, as not to hear the others speak against him; and thus did they part at this time.

5. However, after this there came a hundred of the principal men among the Jews to Daphne by Antioch to Antony who was already in love with Cleopatra to the degree of slavery: these Jews put those men that were the most potent both in dignity and eloquence foremost, and accused the brethren. t But Mes. sala opposed them, and defended the brethren, and that while Hyrcanus stood by

• Here we see that Cassius set tyrants over all Syria ; so that his assisting to destroy Cæsar does ro meni to have proceeded frown his true eal for public' liberty, but from a desire to be a tyrant hinisell

• Plasieclus and Herod

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