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wa, on account of his relation to them. When Antony had heard both sides, be asked Hyrcanus, which party was the fittest to govern ? who replied, that Herod and his party were the fittest. Antony was glad of that answer; for he bad been formerly treated in an hospitable and obliging manner by his father Antipater, when he marched into Judea with Gabinius; so he constituted the brethren tetrarchs, and committed to them the government of Judea.

6. But when the ambassadors had indignation at this procedure, Antony took fifteen of them, and put them into custody, whom he was also going to kill pre. sently, and the rest he drove away with disgrace; on which occasion a still greater tumult arose at Jerusalem ; so they sent again a thousand ambassadors to Tyre, where Antony now abode, as he was marching to Jerusalem: upon these men, who made a clamour, he sent out the governor of Tyre, and ordered him to punish all that he could catch of them, and to settle those in the administration whom he had made tetrarchs.

7. But before this, Herod and Hyrcanus went out upon the sea-shore, and earnestly desired of these ambassadors that they would neither bring ruin upon themselves, nor war upon their native country by their rash contentions; and when they grew still more outrageous, Antony sent out armed men, and slew a great many, and wounded more of them; of whom those that were slain were buried by Hyrcanus, as were the wounded put under the care of physicians by him: yet would not those that had escaped be quiet still, but put the affairs of the city into such disorder, and so provoked Antony, that he slew thnse whom he had in bonds also


The Parthians bring Antigonus back into Judea, and cast Hyrcanus and Phasaelus into Prison. The Flight of Herod and the Taking of Jerusalem, and what

Hyrcanus and Phasaelus suffered. 1. Now two years afterward, when Barzapharnes, a governor among the Par. thians, and Pacorus, the king's son, had possessed themselves of Syria, and when Lysanias had already succeeded upon the death of his father Ptolemy, the son of Menneus, in the government [of Chalcis,] he prevailed with the governor, by a promise of a thousand talents and five hundred women, to bring back Anti. gonus to his kingdom, and to turn Hyrcanus out of it. Pacorus was by these means induced so to do, and marched along the sea-coast, while he ordered Bar. zapharnes to fall upon the Jews as he went along the Mediterranean part of the country; but of the maritime people, the Tyrians would not receive Pacorus, although those of Ptolemais and Sidon had received him; so he committed a troop of his horse to a certain cupbearer belonging to the royal family,of his own name [Paco rus,) and gave him orders to march into Judea, in order to learn the state of affairs among their enemies, and to help Antigonus when he should want his assistance

2. Now as these men were ravaging Carmel, many of the Jews ran together to Antigonus, and showed themselves ready to make an incursion into the coun. try; so he sent them before into that place called Drymus* [the woodland,] to seize upon the place ; wherenpon a battle was fought between them; and they drove the enemy away and pursued them, and ran after them as far as Jerusa. lem, and as their numbers increased they proceeded as far as the king's palace; but as Hyrcanus and Phasaelus received them with a strong body of men, there happened a battle in the market-place, in which Herod's party beat the enemy, and shut them up in the temple, and set sixty men in the houses adjoining as a

• This large and noted wood or woodland belonging to Carmel, called scopos by the Septuagint, is men rioned jo the Old Testament, 2 Kings, six. 23, and Isa xxviii. 24 and by Strabo, B. xvi. p. 758, as both Aldrich and Spanheim here remark very pertinently,

guard on them. But the people that were tumultuous against the brethren came in and burnt those men ; while Herod iu his rage for killing them, attacked and slew many of the people, till one party made incursions on the other by turns, day by day, in the way of ambushes, and slaughters were made continually among them.

3. Now when that festival which we call Pentecost was at hand, all the places about the temple, and the whole city, was full of a multitude of people that were come out of the country, and which were the greatest part of them armed also, ut which time Phasaelus guarded the wall, and Herod with a few guarded the royal palace; and when he made an assault upon his enemies, as they were out of their ranks, on the north quarter of the city, he slew a very great number of them, and put them all to flight; and some of them he shut up within the city and others within the outward rampart. In the meantime, Antigonus desired that Pacorus might be admitted to be a reconciler between them; and Phasaelus was prevailed upon to admit the Parthians into the city with five hundred horse, and to treat him in an hospitable manner, who pretended that he came to quell the tu. mult, but in reality he came to assist Antigonus: however, he laid a plot for Pha. saelus, and persuaded him to go as an ambassador to Barzapharnes, in order to put an end to the war, although Hernd was very earnest with him to the contrary, and exhorted him to kill the plotter, but not expose himself to the snares he had laid for him, because the barbarians are naturally perfidious. However, Pacorus went out and took Hyrcanus with him, that he might be the less suspected; he also left some of the horsemen,* called the Freemen, with Herod, and conducted Phasaelus with the rest.

4. But now when they were come to Galilee, they found that the people of that country had revolted and were in arms, who came very cunningly to their leader, and besought him to conceal his treacherous intentions by an obliging behaviour to them: accordingly, be at first made them presents, and afterward as they went away, laid ambushes for them; and when they were come to one of the maritime cities called Ecdippon, they perceived that a plot was laid for them; for they were there informed of the promise of a thousand talents, and how Antigonus had de. voted the greatest number of the women that were with him, among the five hundred, to the Parthians: they also perceived that an ambush was always laid for them by the barbarians in the night-time : they had been also seized upon be. fore this, unless they had waited for the seizure of Herod first at Jerusalem, be. cause if he were once informed of this treachery of theirs, he would take care of himself; nor was this a mere report, but they saw the guards already not far off them.

5. Nor would Phasaelus think of forsaking Hyrcanus and flying away, although Ophelius earnestly persuaded him to it; for this man had learned the whole scheme of the plot from Saramalla, the richest of all the Syrians. But Phasaelus went up to the Parthian governor, and reproached him to his face for laying this treacherous plot against them, and chiefly because he had done it for money; and he promised him, that he would give him more money for their preservation than Antigonus had promised to give for the kingdom. But the sly Parthian en. deavoured to remove all this suspicion by apologies and by oaths, and then went (to the other) Pacorus; immediately after which those Parthians who were left, and had it in charge, seized upon Phasaelus and Hyrcanus, who could do no more than curse their perfidiousness and their perjury.

6. In the mean time the cupbearer was sent (back,) and laid a plot how to seize upon Herod, by deluding him, and getting him out of the city, as he was commanded to do. But Herod suspected the barbarians from the beginning; and having then received intelligence that a messenger, who was to bring him the let.

* These accounts, both here and Antiq. B. xiv. ch. xiii. sect. 5, that the Parthians fought chiefly on horseback, and that only some few of their soldiers were freedmen, perfectly agree with Trogus Pom penis, in Justin, B. xlv. 2, 3, as Dean Aldrich well observes or this place.

ters that informed him of the treachery intended, had fallen among the enemy, he would not go out of the city, though Pacorus said very positively that he ought to go out and meet the messengers that brought the letters, for that the enemy had not taken them; and that the contents of them were not accounts of any plots upon them, but of what Phasaelus had done; yet had he heard from others that his brother was seized; and Alexandra,* the shrewdest woman in the world, Hyrcanus's daughter, begged of him that he would not go out, nor trust himself to those barbarians, who now were come to make an attempt upon him openly,

7. Now as Pacorus and his friends were considering how they might bring their plot to bear privately, because it was not possible to circumvent a man of so great prudence by openly attacking him, Herod prevented ther, and went off with the persons that were the most nearly related to him by night, and this with out their enemies being apprized of it. But as soon as the Parthians perceived it, they pursued after them; and as he gave orders for his mother and sister, and the young woman who was betrothed to him, with her mother, and his youngest brother, to make the best of their way, he himself, with his servants, took all the care they could to keep off the barbarians; and when, at every assault, he had slain a great many of them, he came to the strong hold of Masada.

8. Nay, he found by experience that the Jews fell more heavily upon him than did the Parthians, and created him troubles perpetually, and this ever since he was gotten sixty furlongs from the city: these sometimes brought it to a sort of a regular battle. Now in the place where Herod beat them and killed a great number of them, there he afterward built a citadel, in memory of the great actions he did there, and adorned it with the most costly palaces, and erected very strong fortifications, and called it from his own name Herodium. Now as they were in their flight many joined themselves to him every day; and at a place called Thressa of Idumea, his brother Joseph met him, and advised him to ease himself of a great number of his followers; because Masada would not contain so great a multitude, which were above nine thousand. Herod complied with this advice, and sent away the most cumbersome part of his retinue, that they might go into Idumea, and gave them provisions for their journey; but he got safe to the for. tress, with his nearest relations, and retained with him only the stoutest of his followers; and there it was that he left eight hundred of his men as a guard for the women, and provisions sufficient for a siege, but he made haste himself to Petrea of Arabia.

9. As for the Parthians in Jerusalem, they betook themselves to plundering, and fell upon the houses of those that were fled, and upon the king's palace, and spared nothing but Hyrcanus's money, which was not above three hundred talents They light on other men's money also, but not on so much as they hoped for for Herod, having a long while had a suspicion of the perfidiousness of the bar barians, had taken care to have what was most splendid among his treasures con veyed into Idumea, as every one belonging to him had in like manner done also. But the Parthians proceeded to that degree of injustice, as to fill all the country with war without denouncing it, and to demolish the city Murissa, and not only to set up Antigonus for king, but to deliver Phasaelus and Ilyrcanus bound into his hands, in order to their being tormented by him. Antigonus himself also bil off Hyrcanus's ears with his own teeth, as he fell dowu upon his knees to him, that so he might never be able, upon any mutation of affairs, to take the high priesthood again; for the high priests that officiated were to be complete and without blemish.

10. However, he failed in his purpose of abusing Phasaelus, by reason of his courage; for though he neither had the command of his sword nor of his hands, he prevented all abuses by dasbing his head against a stone ; so he demonstrated himself to be Herod's own brother, and Hyrcanus a most degenerate relation, and

Mariamne hero, in the copies

died with great bravery, and made the end of his life agreeable to the actions of it. There is also another report about his end, viz. that he recovered of that stroke, and that a surgeon, who was sent by Antigonus to heal him, filled the wound with poisonous ingredients, and so killed him; whichsoever of these deaths he came to, the beginning of it was glorious. It is also reported, that before he expired he was informed by a certain poor woman, how Herod had escaped out of their hands, and that he said thereupon," I now die with comfort, since ! leave behind me one alive that will avenge me of mine epernies.”

11. This was the death of Phasaelus; but the Parthians, although they had failed of the women they chiefly desired, yet did they put the government of Je. usalem into the hands of Antigonus, and took away Hyrcanus, and bound him, and carried him to Parthia.


When Herod is rejected in Arabia, he makes haste to Rome, where Antony and

Cæsar join their Interest to make him King of the Jews. § 1. Now Herod did the more zealously pursue his journey into Arabia, as making haste to get money of the king, while his brother was yet alive; by which money alone it was that he hoped to prevail upon the covetous temper of the barbarians to spare Phasaelus; for he reasoned thus with himself, that if the Arabian king was too forgetful of his father's friendship with him, and was too covetous to make him a free gift, he would, however, borrow of him as much as might redeem his brother, and put into his hands, as a pledge, the son of him that was to be redeemed : accordingly, he led his brother's son along with him, who was of the age of seven years. Now he was ready to give three hundred talents for his brother, and intended to desire the intercession of the Tyrians to get them ac. cepied; however, fate had been ton quick for his diligence; and since Phasaclus was dead, Herod's brotherly love was now in vain. Moreover, he was not able to find any lasting friendship among the Arabians; for their king, Malichus, sent to him immediately, and commanded him to return back out of his country, and used the name of the Parthians as a pretence for so doing, as though these had denounced to him by their ambassadors to cast Herod out of Arabia ; while in reality they had a mind to keep back what they owed to Antipater, and not be obliged to make requitals to his sons for the free gifis the father had made then He also took the impudent advice of those who, equally with himself, were willing 10 deprive Herod of what Antipater had deposited among them; and these men were the most potent of all whom he had in his kingdom.

2. So when Herod had found that the Arabians were his enemies, and this for those very reasons whence he hoped they would have been ihe most friendly, and had give them such an answer as his passion suggested, he returned back and weat for Egypt. Now he lodged the first evening at one of the temples of thal country, in order to meet with those whom he left behind ; but on the next day word was brought him, as he was going to Rhinocurura, that his brother was dead, and how he came by his death ; and when he had lamented him 78 much as his present circumstances would bear, he soon laid aside such cares, and pro ceeded on his journey. But now, after some time, the king of Arabia repented of what he had done, and sent presently away messengers to call him back; Herod had prevented them, and was come to Pelusium, where he could not obtain a pas. sage

from those that lay with the fleet; so he besought their captains to let his go by them: accordingly, out of the reverence they bore to the fame and dignity of the man, they conducted him to Alexandria; and when he came into the city, he was received by Cleopatra with great splendour, who hoped he might be per. suaded 10 be commander of her forces in the expedition she was now about, bid he rejected the queen's solicitatiolls : and being ncither affrighted at the height of that storm which then happened, nor at the tumults that were now in Italy, he sailed for Rome.

3. But as he was in peril about Pamphilia, and obliged to cast out the greatest part of the ship's lading, he with difficulty got safe to Řhodes, a place which had been grievously harassed in the war with Cassius. He was there received by his friends, Ptolemy and Sappinius; and although he was then in want of money, he fitted up a three decked ship of very great magnitude, wherein he and his friends sailed to Brundusium,* and went thence to Rome with all speed; where he first of all went to Antory, on account of the friendship his father had with him, and laid before him the calamities of himself and of his family, and that he had left his nearest relations besieged in a fortress, and had sailed to him through a storm, to make supplication to him for assistance.

4. Hereupon Antony was moved to compassion at the change that had been made in Herod's affairs, and this both upon his calling to mind how hospitably he had been treated by Antipater, but more especially on account of Herod's own virtue ; so he then resolved to get him made king of the Jews, whom he had bimself forinerly made tetrarch. The contest also that he had with Antigonus was another inducement, and that of no less weight than the great regard he had for Herod; for he looked upon Antigonus as a seditious person, and an enemy of the Romans: and as for Cesar, Herod found him better prepared than Antony, as remembering very fresh the wars he had gone through together with his father, the hospitable treatment he had met with from him, and the entire good will he had shown to him, besides the activity which he saw in Herod himself. So he called the senate together, wherein Messalas, and after him Aratinus, produced Herod before them, and gave a full account of the merits of his father, and his own good will to the Romans. At the same time they demonstrated, that Antigonus was their enemy, not only because he soon quarrelled with them, but be. cause he now overlooked the Romans, and took the government by the means of the Parthians. These reasons greatly moved the senate ; at which juncture An. tony came in, and told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king ; so they all gave their votes for it. And, when the senate was separated, Antony and Cæsar went out, with Herod between them ; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices and to lay the decree in the Capitol: Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign.


Antigonus besieges those that were in Masada, whom Herod frees from Confinement, when he came back from Rome, and presently marches to Jerusalem, where he

finds Silo corrupted by Bribes. 1. Now during this time, Antigonus besieged those that were in Masada, who had all other necessaries in sufficient quantity, but were in want of water ; ow which account Joseph, Herod's brother, was disposed to run away to the Arabians, with two hundred of his own friends, because he had heard that Malichus repented of his offences with regard to Herod; and he had been so quick as to have been gone out of the fortress already, unless, on that very night when he was going away, there had fallen a great deal of rain, insomuch that his reservoirs were full of water, and so he was under no necessity of running away. After which, there, fore, they made an irruption upon Antigonus's party, and slew a great many of

some in open battles and some in private ambush; nor had they always success in their attempts, for sometimes they were beaten and ran away. This Brentesium, or Brundusium, has coins still preserved, on which is written BPENAHIIONN,


ar Spanheim informs us.



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