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2. In the mean time Ventidius, the Roman general, was sent out of Syria to restrain the incursions of the Parthians; and after he had done that, he came into Judea, in pretence, indeed, to assist Joseph and his party, but in reality to get money of Antigonus : and when he had pitched his camp very near to Jerusalem, as soon as he had got money enough, he went away with the greatest part of his forces; yet still did he leave Silo with some part of them, lest if he had taken them all away, his taking of bribes might have been too openly discovered. Now Antigonus hoped that the Parthians would come again to his assistance, and, there. fore, cultivated a good understanding with Silo in the mean sime, lest any inter. ruption should be given to his hopes.

3. Now by this time Herod had sailed out of Italy, and was come to Ptolemais: and as soon as he had gotten together no small army of foreigners and of his own countrymen, he marched through Galilee against Antigonus, wherein he was as. sisted by Ventidius and Silo, both whom Dellius,* a person sent by Antony, per. suaded to bring Herod [into his kingdom.] Now Ventidius was at this time among the cities, and composing the disturbances which had happened by means of the Parthians, as was Silo in Judea corrupted by the bribes that Antigonus had given him; yet was not Herod himself destitute of power, but the number of his forces increased every day as he went along; and all Galilee with few exceptions, joined themselves to him. So he proposed to himself to set about his most necessary enterprise, and that was Masada, in order to deliver his relations from the siege they endured. But still Joppa stood in his way, and hindered his going thither; for it was necessary to take that city first, which was in the enemies' hands, that when he should go to Jerusalem no fortress might be left in the enemies' power behind him. Silo also willingly joined him, as having now a plausible occasion of drawing off his forces [from Jerusalem :) and when the Jews pursued him, and pressed upon him [in his retreat;] Herod made an excursion upon them with a small body of his men, and soon put them to flight, and saved Silo, when he was in distress.

4. After this Herod took Joppa, and then made haste to Masada to free his relations. Now as he was marching many came in to him, induced some by their friendship to his father, some by the reputation he had already gained bimself

, and some in order to repay the benefits they had received from them both; but still what engaged the greatest number on his side was the hopes from him when he should be established in his kingdom ; so that he had gotten together already an army hard to be conquered. But Antigonus laid an ambush for him as he marched out, in which he did little or no harm to his enemies. However, he easily recovered his relations again that were in Masada, as well as the fortress Ressa, and then marched to Jerusalem, where the soldiers that were with Silo joined themselves to his own as did many out of the city, from a dread of his power.

5. Now when he had pitched his camp on the west side of the city, the guards that were there shot their arrows, and threw their darts at them, while others ran out in companies, and attacked those in the forefront; but Herod commanded proclamation to be made at the wall, that “ he was come for the good of the people and the preservation of the city, without any design to be revenged on his open enemies, but to grant oblivion to them, though they had been the most obstinate against him." Now the soldiers that were for Antigonus made a contrary clamour, and did neither permit any hody to hear that proclamation, nor to change their party; so Antigonus gave order to his forces to beat the enemy from the walls: accordingly, they soon threw their darts at them from the tow ers, and put them to flight.

6. And here it was that Silo discovered he had taken bribes ; for he set many of the soldiers to clamour about their want of necessaries, and to require their

* This Dellius is famous, or rather infamous, in the history of Mark Antony as Spanheim and Aldrich here uole, from the coins of Plutarch and Dio.


pay, in order to buy themselves food, and to demand that he would lead them into places convenient for their winter quarters, because all the parts about the city were laid waste by the means of Antigonus's army, which had taken all things away. By this he moved the army, and attempted to get them off the siege ; but Herod went to the captains that were under Silo, and to a great many of the soldiers and begged of them not to leave him, who was sent thither by Cæsar, and Antony, and the senate ; that he uld take care to have their wants supplied that very day. After the making of which entreaty he went hastily into the country, and brought thither so great an abundance of necessaries, that he cut off all Silo's pretences; and in order to provide that for the following days they should not want supplies, he sent to the people that were about Samuria (which city had joined itself to him) to bring corn, and wine, and oil, and cattle, to Jericho. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with or. ders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed; and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. Yet was not Herod idle, but took with him ten cohorts, five of them were Ro. mans and five were Jewish cohorts, together with some mercenary roops inter. mixed among them, and besides those a few horsemen, and came to Jericho, and when he came he found the city deserted; but that there were five hundred men, with their wives and children, who had taken possession of the tops of the moun. tains; these he took, and dismissed them, while the Romans fell upon the rest

the city, and plundered it, having found the houses full of all sorts of good things. So the king left a garrison at Jericho, and came back, and sent the Roman army into those cities which were come over to him, to take their winter quarters there, viz. into Judea, (or Idumea,] and Galilee, and Samaria. Antigontis also by bribes obtained of Silo to let a part of his army be received at Lydda, as a compliment to Antonius.


Herod takes Sepphoris, and subdues the Robbers that were in the Caves ; he after that avenges himself upon Macheras, as upon an Enemy of his, and goes to

Antony as he was besieging Samosata. $ 1. Su the Romans lived in plenty of all things, and rested from war. How. ever, Herod did not lie at rest, but seized upon Idumea, and kept it, with two thousand footmen and four hundred horsemen ; and this he did by sending his brother Joseph thither, that no innovation might be made by Antigonus. He also removed his mother, and all his relations who had been at Masada, to Sama. ria ; and when he had settled them securely, he marched to take the remaining parts of Galilee, and to drive away the garrisons placed there by Antigonus.

2. But when Herod had reached Sepphoris,* in a very great snow, he took the city without any difficulty, the guards, that should have kept it, flying away before it was assaulted; where he gave an opportunity to his followers that had been in distress to refresh themselves, there being in that city a great abundance of necessaries. After which he hasted away to the robbers that were in the caves, who overran a great part of the country, and did as great mischief to its inhabitants as a war itself could have done. Accordingly, he sent beforehand three cohorts of footmen and one troop of horsemen to the village Arbela, and came himself fortyt days aflerwards, with the rest of his forces. Yet were not

* This Sepphoris, the metropolis of Galilee, so often mentioned by Josephus, has coins still remaining SETIO.PHNI.N, as Spanheim here informs us. | This way of speaking after 40 days, is interpreted by Josephus himself on the 40th day: Antig the enemy affrighted at his assault, but met him in arms, for their skill was that of warriors, but their boldness was the boldness of robbers: when, therefore, it came to a pitched battle, they put to flight Herod's left wing with their right one; but Herod, wheeling about on the sudden from his own right wing, came to their assistance, and both made his own left wing return back from its flight, and fell upon the pursuers, and cooled their courage, till they could not bear the attempts that were made directly upon them, and so turned back and ran away,

3. But Herod followed them, and slew them as he followed them, and destroyed a great part of them, till those that remained were scattered beyond the river (Jordan,) and Galilee was freed from the terrors they had been under, excepting from those that remained and lay concealed in caves, which required longer time ere they could be conquered: in order to which Herod, in the first place, distri. buted the fruits of their former labours to the soldiers, and gave every one of them a hundred and fifty drachmæ of silver, and a great deal more to their commanders, and sent them into their winter quarters. He also sent to his youngest brother Pheroras to take care of a good market for them, where they might buy themselves provisions, and to build a wall about Alexandrium; who took care of both those injunctions accordingly.

4. In the meantime Antony abode at Athens, while Ventidius called for Silo and Hercd to come to the war against the Parthians, but ordered them first to settle the affairs of Judea ; so Herod willingly dismissed Silo to go to Ventidius but he made an expedition himself against those that lay in the caves. Now these caves were in the precipices of craggy mountains, and could not be come at from any side, since they had only some winding pathways very narrow, by which they got up to them; but the rock that lay on their front had beneath it valleys of a vast depth, and of an almost perpendicular declivity; insomuch that the king was doubtful for a long time what 10 do, by reason of a kind of impossibility there was of attacking the place. Yet did he at length make use of a contrivance that was subject to the utmost hazard; for he let down the most hardy of his men in chests, and set them at the mouths of the dens. Now these men slew the robbers and their families, and when they made any resistance they sent in fire upon them (and burnt them;] and as Herod was desirous of saving some of them, he had proclamation made that they should come and deliver themselves up to him; but not one of them came willingly to him; and of those that were compelled to conie, many preferred death to captivity. And here a certain old man, the father of seven children, whose children, together with their mother, desired him to give them leave to go out, upon the assurance and right hand that was offered them, slew them after the following manner. He ordered every one of them to go out, while he stood himself at the cave's mouth, and slew that son of his per petually who went out. Herod was near enough to see this sight, and his bowels of compassion were moved at it, and he stretched out his right hand to the old man, and besought him to spare his children; yet did not he relent at all upon what he said, but over and above reproached Herod on the lowness of his descent, and slew his wife, as well as his children ; and when he had thrown their dead bodies down the precipice, he at last threw himself down after them.

5. By this means Herod subdued these caves, and the robbers that were ir them. He then left there a part of his army, as many as he thought sufficient, to prevent any sedition, and made Ptolemy their general, and returned to Sama. ria: he led also with him three thousand armed footmen and six hundred horse. inen against Antigonus. Now here those that used to raise tumults in Galilee, having liberty so to do upon his departure, fell unexpectedly upon Ptolemy, the B. xiv. chap. XV. sect. 4, in like manner, when Josephus says, chap. xxxiji. sect. 8, that Herod lived after he had ordered Antipater to be slain 5 days, this is by himself interpreted, Antiq. B. xvii. chap. vii. sect 1, that he died on the 5th day afterward. So also what is in this book, chap. xiii, sect. 1, after two years is, Antiq. B. xiv. chap. xiii

. sect. 3, on the second year. And Dean Aldrich here nates that inię way of speaking is familiaria Josephus

general of his forces, and slew him: they also laid the country waste, and then retired to the bogs, and to places not easily to be found. But when Herod was informed of this insurrection, he came to the assistance of the country immediately, and destroyed a great number of the seditious, and raised the sieges of all those fortresses they had besieged: he also exacted the tribute of a hundred talents of his enemies, as a penuliy for the mutations they had made in the country.

6. By this time the Parthians being already driven out of the country, and Pa. corus slain, Ventidius, by Antony's command, sent a thousand horsemen and two legions, as auxiliaries to Herod, against Antigonus. Now Antigonus besought Macheras, who was their general, by letter to come to his assistance, and made a great many mournful complaints about Herod’s violence and about the injuries he did to the kingdom, and promised to give him money for such his assistance : but be complied not with his invitation to betray his trust; for he did not contemn bim that sent him, especially while Herod gave him more money (than the other offered.) So he pretended friendship to Antigonus, but came as a spy to discover his affairs, although he did not therein comply with Herod, who dissuaded him from so doing. But Antigonus perceived what his intentions were beforehand, and excluded him out of the city, and defended himself against him as against an enemy from the walls, till Macheras was ashamed of what he had done, and retired to Emmaus to Herod; and as he was in a rage at his disappointment, he slew all the Jews whom he met with, without sparing those that were for Herod, but using them all as if they were for Antigonus.

7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of maladministration. But Macheras was made sensible of bis offences, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. However, Herod did not desist from his resolution of going to Antony: but when he heard that he was besieging Samosata* with a great army, which is a strong city near to Euphrates, he made the greater haste, as observing that this was a proper opportunity for showing at once his courage, and for doing what would greatly oblige Antony. Indeed, when he came, he soon made an end of that siege, and slew a great number of the barbarians, and took from them a large prey ; insomuch thatAntony, who ad. mired his courage formerly, did now admire it still more. Accordingly, he heaped many more honours upon him, and gave him more assured hopes that he should gaio his kingdom: and now King Antiochus was forced to deliver up Samosata


The Death of Joseph (Herod's Brother,] which had been signified to Herod in Dreams. How Herod was preserved twice, after a wonderful Manner. He cuts off the Head of Pappus, who was the Murderer of his Brother, and sends that Head to [his other Brother) Pheroras ; and in no long

Time he besieges Jerusalem, and marries Mariamne. $ 1. In the meantime Herod's affairs in Judea were in an alı state. He had left his brother Joseph with full power, but had charged him to make no attempte against Antigonus till his return; for that Macheras would not be such an as. sistant as he could depend on, as it appeared by what he had done already; but as soon as Joseph had heard that his brother was at a very great distance, he neglected the charge he had received, and marched towards Jericho with five cohorts which Macheras sent with him. This movement was intended for seizing * This Sainosata, the metropolis of Comagena, is well known from its coios, as Spanheim here assurog * Deap Aldsich also confirms what Josephus here potes, that Herod was a great meaws of taking them cier bv Ausony, and that from Plutarch and Dio

on the corn, as it was now in the midst of summer; but when his enemies at tacked him in the mountains, and in places which were difficult to pass, he was both killed himself, as he was very bravely fighting in the battle, and the entire Roman cohorts were destroyed; for these cohorts were new raised men, gathered out of Syria, and there was no mixture of those called veteran soldiers among them, who might have supported those that were unskilful in war.

2. This victory was not sufficient for Antigonus, but he proceeded to that de. gree of rage as to treat the dead body of Joseph barbarously; for when he had gotten possession of the bodies of those that were slain, he cut off his head, although his brother Pberoras would have given fifty talents as a price of redemption for it. And now the affairs of Galilee were put into such disorder after this victory of Antigonus, that those of Antigonus's party brought the principal men that were on Herod's side to the lake, and there drowned them. There was a great change made also in Idumea, where Macheras was building a wall about one of the fortresses, which was called Gittha. But Herod had not yet been informed of these things; for after the taking of Samosata, and when Antony had set Sosius over the affairs of Syria, and given him orders to assist Herod against Antigonus, he departed into Egypt; but Sosius sent two legions before him into Judea to assist Herod, and followed himself soon after with the rest of his army.

3. Now when Herod was at Daphne, by Antioch, he had some dreams which clearly foreboded his brother's death ; and as he leaped out of his bed in a dis. turbed manner, there came messengers that acquainted him with that calamity, So when he had lamented this misfortune for a while, hè put off the main part of his mourning, and made haste to march against his enemies; and when he had performed a march that was above his strength, and was gone as far as Libanus, he

got him eight hundred men of those that lived near to that mountain as his assistants, and joined with him one Roman legion, with which, before it was day, he made an irruption into Galilee, and met bis enemies, and drove them back to the place which they had left. He also made an immediate and continued at. tack upon the fortress. Yet was he forced by a most terrible storm to pitch his camp in the neighbouring villages before he could take it : but when, after a few days time, the second legion that came from Antony joined themselves to him, the enemy were affrighted at his power, and left their fortifications in the nighttime.

4. After this he marched through Jericho, as making what haste he could to be avenged on his brother's murderers; where happened to him a providential sign, out of which, when he had unexpectedly escaped, he had the reputation of being very near to God; for that day there feasted with him many of the prin. cipal men, and after that feast was over, and all the guests were gone out, the house fell down immediately. And as he judged this to be a common signal of what dangers he should undergo, and how he should escape them in the war that he was going about, he in the morning set forward with his army,

when about six thousand of his enemies came running down from the mountains, and began to fight with those in his forefront; yet durst they not be so very bold as to engage the Romans hand to hand, but threw stones and darts at them at a distance; by which means they wounded a considerable number; in which action Herod's own side was wounded with a dart.

5. Now as Antigonus had a mind to appear to exceed Herod, not only in the courage but in the number of his men, he sent Pappus, one of his companions, with an army against Samaria, whose fortune it was to oppose Macheras; but Herod overran the enemies' country, and demolished five little cities, and de. stroyed two thousand men that were in them, and burned their houses, and theri returned to his camp; but his head quarters were at the village called Cana.

6. Now a great multitude of Jews resorted to him every day, both out of Jericho and the other parts of the country. Some were moved

so to do out of

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