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in k man affairs; but when once they are found out, and are in danger of under. going the punishment due to their crimes, they endeavour to overthrow all the evidence against them, by appealing to God; which was the very thing which Antipater now did ; for whereas he had done every thing as if there were no God in the world; when he was on all sides distressed by justice, and when he had no other advantage to expect from any legal proofs, by which he might disprove the accusations liid against him, he impudently abused the majesty of God, and ascribed it to his power, that he had been preserved hitherto; and produced be. fore them all what difficulties he had ever undergone in his bold acting for his father's preservation.
7. So when Varus, upon asking Antipater what he had to say for himself, found that he had nothing to say besides his appeal to God, and saw that there was no end of that, he bid them bring the potion before the court, that he might see what virtue still remained in it; and when it was brought, and one that was condemned to die had drank it by Varus's command, he died presently. Then Varus got up, and departed out of the court, and went away the day following to Antioch, where his usual residence was, because that was the palace of the Syrians; upon which Herod laid his son in bonds. But what were Varus's discourses to Hierod was not known to the generality, and upon what words it was that he went away ; though it was also generally supposed that whatsoever Herod did afterward about his son, was done with his approbation. But when Herod had bound his son, he sent letters to Rome to Cæsar about him, and such messengers withal as should, by word of mouth, inform Cæsar of Antipater's wickedness. Now at this very time there was seized a letter of Antiphilus, written to Antipater out of Egypt (for he lived there ;) and when it was opened by the king, it was found to contain what follows: “I have sent thee Acme's letter, and hazarded my own life ; for thou knowest that I am in danger from two families, if I be discovered. I wish thee good success in thy affair.” These were the contents of this letter ; but the king made inquiry about the other letter also; for it did not appear: and Antiphilus's slave, who brought that letter which had been read, denied that he had received the other. But while the king was in doubt about it, one of Herod's friends seeing a seam upon the inner coat of the slave, and a doubling of the cloth (for he had two coats on,) he guessed that the letter might be within that doubling, which accordingly proved to be true. So they took out the letter, and its contents were these : “Acme to Antipater. I have written such a letter to thy father as thou desirest me. I have also taken a copy, and sent it, as if it cane from Salome to my lady (Livia ;] which, when thou readest, I know that Herod will punisha Salome, as plotting against hin.” Now this pretended letter of Salome's to her lady was composed by Angipater, in the name of Salome, as to its real ni
nieaning, but in the words of Acme. The letter was this: "Acme to king Herod. I have done my endeavour that nothing that is done against thee should be concealed from thee. So, upon my finding a letter of Salome written to my lady agaiist thee, I have written out a copy, and sent it to thee; with hazard to wyscii, but for thy advantage. The reason why she wrote it was this; that she hiù a mind to be married to Sylleus. Do thou therefore tear this letter in pieces, that i way not come into danger of my life.” Now Acme had written to Antipater himself and informed him that, in compliance with his command, she had both herself written to Herod, as if Salome had laid a sudden plot entirely against him, and had herself sent a copy of an epistle, as coming from Salome to her lady. Now Acme was a Jew by birth, and a servant to Julia, Cæsar's wife; and did this out of her friendship for Antipater, as having been corrupted by him with a large present of money, to assist in luis pernicious designs against his father and his aunt.
8. Hereupon Herod was so amazed at the prodigious wickedness of Antipater, that he was ready to have ordered him to be slain immediately, as a turbulent person in the most important concerns, and as one that had laid a plot pot only against himself, but against his sister also; and even corrupted Cæsar's own da
mestics. Salome also provoked him to it; beating her breast, and bidding him to kill her, if he could produce any credible testimony that she had acted in that
Herod also sent for his son, and asked him about this matter; and bid him contradict it if he could, and not suppress any thing he had to say for himself; and when he had not one word to say, he asked him, since he was every way caught in his villany, that he would make no farther delay, but discover his as. sociates in these his wicked designs. So he laid all upon Antiphilus ; but discu. vered nobody else. Hereupon Herod was in such great grief, that he was ready Lo send his son to Rome to Cæsar; there to give an account of these his wicked contrivances. But he soon became afraid, lest he might there, by the assistance of his friends, escape the danger he was in : so he kept hira bound as before: and sent more ambassadors and letters (to Rome] to accuse bis son ; and on ac. count of what assistance Acme had given him in his wicked designs, with copies of the epistles beforementioned.
Concerning the Disease that Herod fell into, and the Sedition which the Jews raised
thereupon ; with the Punishment of the Seditious. 9 1. Now Herod's ambassadors made haste to Rome: but went as instructed beforehand, what answers they were to make to the questions put to them. They also carried the epistles with them. But Herod now fell into a distemper; and made his will, and bequeathed his kingdom to [Antipas] his youngest son; and this out of that hatred to Archelaus and Philip, which the calumnies of Antipater had raised against them. He also bequeathed a thousand talents to Cæsar, and five hundred to Julia, Cæsar's wife, to Cæsar's children, and friends, and freed men. He also distributed among his sons and their sons his money, his revenues and his lands. He also made Salome his sister very rich; because she had con. tinued faithful to him in all his circumstances, and was never so rash as to do him any harm: and as he despaired of recovering, for he was about the seven. tieth year of his age, he grew fierce, and indulged the bitterest anger upon all occasions; the cause whereof was this: that he thought himself despised, and that the nation was pleased with his misfortures; besides which, he resented a scdition which some of the lower sort of men excited against him; the occasion of which was as follows:
2. There was one Judas, the son of Saripheus, and Matthias, the son of Mar. galothus, two of the most eloquent men among the Jews, and the most celebrated interpreters of the Jewish laws; and men weli beloved by the people, because of their education of their youth: for all that were studious of virtue frequented their lectures every day. These men, when they found that the king's distemper was incurable, excited the young men that they would pull down all those works which the king had erected contrary to the law of their fathers; and thereby obtain the rewards which the law will confer on them for such actions of piety; for that it was truly on account of Herod's rashness in making such things as the law had forbidden, that his other misfortunes, and this distemper also, which was so unusual among mankind, and with which he was now afflicted, came upon him: for Herod had caused such things to be made which were contrary to the law, of which he was accused by Judas and Matthias; for the king had erected over the great gate of the temple a large golden eagle of great value, and had dedicated it o the temple. - Now the law forbids those that propose to live according to ii, to orect images* or representations of any living creature. So these wise men Dersuaded [their scholars] to pull down the golden eagle; alleging, that " although
• That the making of images, without an intention to worship them, was not unlawful to the Jews rom the note on Antiq. B. viii ch. vii. sect. 5.
they should incur any danger, which might bring them to their deaths, the virtue of the action now proposed to them would appear much more advantageous to them than the pleasures of life; since they would die for the preservation and observation of the law of their fathers ; since they would also acquire an everlasting fame and commendation; since they would be both commended by the present generation, and leave an example of life that would never be forgotten to posterity; since that common calamity of dying cannot be avoided by our living so as to escape any such dangers ; that therefore it is a right thing for those who are in love with a virtuous conduct, to wait for that fatal hour by such a behaviour as may carry them out of the world with praise and honour : and that this will alleviate death to a great degree, thus to come at it by the performance of brave actions, which bring us into danger of it; and at the same time, to leave that reputation behind them to their children, and to all their relations, whether they be men or women; which will be of great advantage to them afterward."
3. And with such discourses as this did these men excite the young men to this action; and a report being come to them that the king was dead, this was an addition to the wise men's persuasions; so, in the very middle of the day, they got upon the place, they puiled down the eagle, and cut it into pieces with axes, while a great number of the people were in the temple. And now the king's captain upon hearing what the undertaking was, and supposing it was a thing of a higher nature ihan it proved to be, came up thither, having a great band of soldiers with him : such as was sufficient to put a stop to the multitude of those who pulled down what was dedicaied to God; so he fell upon them unexpectedly, and as they were upon this bold attempt, in a foolish presumption rather than a cautious cir. cumspection, as is usual with the multitude: and while they were in disorder and incautious of what was for their advantage; so he caught no fewer than forty of the young men, who had the courage to stay behind when the rest ran away. together with the authors of this bold attempt, Judas and Matthias, who thought it an ignominious thing to retire upon his approach, and led them to the king. And when they were come to the king, and he had asked them if they had been so bold as to pull down what he had dedicated to God? “Yes (said they,) what oras contrived we contrived; and what hath been performed, we performed it; and that with such a virtuous courage as becomes men: for we have given our assistance to those things which were dedicated to the majesty of God; and we have provided for what we have learned by hearing the law; and it ought not to be wondered at if we esteem those laws which Moses had suggested to him, and were taught him by God, and which he wrote and left behind him, more worthy of observation than thy commands. Accordingly we will undergo death, and all sorts of punishment which thou canst inflict upon us with pleasure, since we are conscious to ourselves that we shall die, not for any unrighteous actions, but for our love to religion." And thus they all said ; and their courage was still equal to their profession, and equal to that with which they readily set about this under. taking. And when the king had ordered them to be bound, he sent them to Jericho, and called together the principal men among the Jews; and when they were come, he made them assemble in the theatre ; and because he could not himself stand, he lay upon a couch, and "enumerated the many labours that he had long endured on their account; and his building of the temple, and what a vast charge that was to him; while the Asamoneans, during the hundred and twenty-five years of their government, had not been able to perform any so great a work for the honour of God as that was : that he had also adorned it with very valuable donations; on which account he hoped that he had left himself a me. morial, and procured himself a reputation after his death. He then cried out, that these men had not abstained from affronting him, even in his life-time; but that in the very day-time, and in the sight of the multitude, they had abused him to that degrec as to fall upon what he had dedicated ; and in that way of abuse bad pulled it dowo to the ground. They pretended, indeed, that they did it to affront him; but if any one consider the thing truly, they will find that they were guilty of sacrilege towards God therein."
4. Buż the people, on account of Herod’s barbarous temper, and for fear ho should be so cruel as to inflict punishment on them, said, “What was done, was done without their approbation; and that it seemed to them that the actors might well be punished for what they had done.” But as for Herod, he dealt more mildly with others of the assembly ;] but he deprived Matthias of the high priesthood, as in part on occasion of this action, and made Joazar, who was Matthias's wife's brother, high priest in his stead. Now it happened that during the time of the high priesthood of this Matthias, there was another person made high priest for a single day : that very day which the Jews observed as a fast. The occasion was this: this Matthias the high priest, on the night before that day when the fast was to be celebrated, seemed in a dream to have conversation with his wife; and because he could not officiate himself on that account, Joseph, the son of Eilemus, his kinsman, assisted him in that sacred office.* But Herod deprived this Matthias of the high priesthood; and burnt the other Matthias, who had raised the sedition, with his companions, alive. And that very night there was an eclipse of the moon.t
5. But now Herod's distemper greatly increased upon him after a severe man ner, and this by God's judgment upon him for his sins; for a fire wed in bin slowly, which did not so much appear to the touch outwardly, as it augmented his pains inwardly; for it brought upon himn a vehement appetite to eating, which he could not avoid to supply with one sort of food or other. His entrails were also exulcerated, and thechief violence of his pain lay on his colon: an aqueous and transparent liquor also had settled itself about his feet, and a like matter afflicted him at the bottom of his belly. Nay, farther his privy-member was putrified, and produced worms: and when he sat upright he had a difficulty of breathing, which was very loathsome, on account of the stench of his breath, and the quickness of its returns: he had also convulsions in all parts of his body, which increased his stench to an insufferable degree. It was said by those who pretended to divine, and who were endued with wisdom to foretell such things, that God inflicted this punishment on the king on account of his great impiety: yet was he still in hopes of recovering, though his afflictions seemed greater than any one could bear. He also sent for physicians, and did not refuse to follow what they prescribed for his assistance: and went beyond the river Jordan, and bathed himself in the warm baths that were at Callirrhoe, which, besides their other general virtues, were also fit to drink; which water runs into the lake called Asphaltitis. And when the physicians once thought fit to have him bathed in a vessel full of oil, it was sup. posed that he was just dying ; but upon the lamentable cries of his domestics, he revived: and having no longer the least hopes of recovering, he gave order that every soldier should be paid fifty drachmæ; and he also gave a great deal to their commanders, and to his friends, and came again to Jericho, where he grew so choleric that it brought him to do all things like a mad man; and though he were near his death, he contrived the following designs:–He commanded that all the principal men of the entire Jewish nation, wheresoever they lived, should be called
* This fact, that one Joseph was made high priest for a single day, on occasion of the action here specified, that befell Matthias, the real high priest, in his sleep, the night before the great day of expiation, is attested to both in the Mishna and Talmud, as Dr. Hudson here informs us. And indeed, fro! his fact, thus fully attested, we may confute that pretended rule in the Talmud here mentioned, and ex deavoured to be excused by Reland, that the high priest was not suffered to sleep the night before that great day of expiatioa; which watching would surely rather unfit him for the many important duties he was to perform on that solemn day, than dispose him duly to perform them. Nor do such Talmudical rules, when unsupported by better evidence, much less when contradicted thereby, seemn to me of weiglu epough to deserve that so great a man as Reland should spend his time in endeavours at their vindication
- This eclipse of the moon (which is the only eclipse of either of the lumiparies mentioned by our Josephus in any of his writings) is of the greatest consequence for the determination of the time for the death of Herod and Antipater, and for the birth and entire chronology of Jesus Christ. It happened March 13th, in the year of the Julian period 4710, and the 4th year before the Christian æra. See its cal culatioa by the rules of astronomy, at the end of the Astronomical Lectures, edit. Lat page 451, 452
to him. Accordingly, there were a great number that came, because the whole nation was called, and all men heard of this call, and death was the penalty of such as should despise the epistles that were sent to call them. And now the king was in a wild rage against them all, the innocent as well as those that had afforded him ground for accusations; and when they were come, he ordered them to be all shut up in the hippodrome,* and sent for his sister Salome, and her husband Alexis, and spake thus to them: “I shall die in a little time, so great are my pains; which death ought to be cheerfully borne, and to be welcomed by all men , but what principally troubles me is this, that I shall die without being lamented; and without such mourning as men usually expect at a king's death. For that he was not unacquainted with the temper of the Jews, that his death would be a thing very desirable, and exceedingly acceptable to them; because during his lifetime they were ready to revolt from him, and to abuse the donations he had dedicated w God : that it therefore was their business to resolve to afford him some allevia. vion of his great sorrows on this occasion ; for that, if they do not refuse him their consent in what he desires, he shall have a great morning at his funeral, and such as never any king had before him; for then the whole nation would mourn from their very soul, which otherwise would be done in sport and mockery only. He desired, therefore, that as soon as they see he hath given up the ghost, they shall place soldiers round the hippodrome, while they do not know that he is dead; and that they shall not deelare his death to the multitude till this is done, but that they shall give orders to have those that are in custody shot with their darts : and that this slaughter of them all will cause that he shall not miss to rejoice on a double account. That as he is dying, they will make him secure that his will shall be executed in what he charges them to do: and that he shall have the honour of a memorable mourning at his funeral. So he deplored his condition with tears in his eyes, and obtested them by the kindness due from them, as of his kindred, and by the faith they owed to God; and begged of them that they would not hinder him of this honourable mourning at his funeral.” So they promised him not to transgress his commands.
6. Now any one may easily discover the temper of this man's mind, which not only took pleasure in doing what he had done formerly against his relations, our of the love of life, but by those commands of his which savoured of no humanity: since he took care, when he was departing out of this life, that the whole nation should be put into mourning; and indeed made desolate of their dearest kindred, when he gave order that one out of every family should be slain, although they had done nothing that was unjust, or that was against him, nor were they accused of any other crimes ; while as is usual for those who have any regard to virtue, to lay aside their hatred at such a time, even with respect to those they justly esteemed their enemies.
Herod had Thoughts of killing Himself with his own Hand : and a little
afterwards he orders Antipater to be slain. 1. As he was giving these commands to his relations, there carrie letters from his ambassadors, who had been sent to Rome unto Cæsar, whion, when they were read, their purport was this: that “Acme was slain by Cesar, out of his indignation at what hand she had in Antipater's wicked practices: and that as to Antipater himself, Cæsar left it to Herod to act as became a father and a king, and either to banish him or take away his life, which he pleased.” When Herod heard this he was somewhat better, out of the pleasure he had from the contents of the letters; and was elevated at the death of Acme, and at the power that was given
• A place for the horse-racel.