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5. When Herod had encouraged them by this speech, and he saw with woat alacrity they went, he offered sacrifice to God; and after that sacrifice he passed over the river Jordan with his army, and pitched his camp about Philadelphia, near the enemy, and about a fortification that lay between them. He then shot at them at a distance, and was desirous to come to an engagement presently; for some of them had been sent beforehand to seize upon that fortification : but the king sent some who immediately beat them out of the fortification, while he him. self went in the forefront of the army, which he put in battle array every day, and invited the Arabians to fight. But as none of them came out of their camp, for they were in a terrible fright, and their general, Elthemus, was not able to say a word for fear; so Herod came upon them, and pulled their fortification to pieces, by which means they were compelled to come out to fight, which they did in disorder, and so that the horsemen and footmen were mixed together. They were, indeed, superior to the Jews in number, but inferior in their alacrity, al. hough they were obliged to expose themselves to danger by their very despair of victory

6. Now while they made opposition they had not a great number slain; but as soon as they turned their backs, a great many were trodden to pieces by the Jews, and a great many by themselves, and so perished, till five thousand were fallen down dead in their flight, while the rest of the multitude prevented their imme. diate death by crowding into the fortification. Herod encompassed these round and besieged them; and while they were ready to be taken by their enemies in arms, they had another additional distress upon them, which was thirst and want of water; for the king was above hearkening to their ambassadors, and when they offered five hundred talents as the price of their redemption, he pressed still harder upon them. And as they were burnt up by their thirst, they came out and volun. tarily delivered themselves up by multitudes to the Jews, till in five days time four thousand of them were put into bonds; and on the sixth day the multitude that were left despaired of saving themselves, and came out to fight; with these Herod fought and slew again about seven thousand, insomuch that he punished Arabia 60 severely, and so far extinguished the spirits of the men, that he was chosen by the nation for their ruler.

CHAP. XX.

Herod is confirmed in his Kingdom by Cæsar, and cultivates a Friendship with the Emperor by magnificent Presents ; while Cæsar returns his kindness by be. slowing on him that Part of his Kingdom which had been taken away from

it by Cleopatra, with the Addition of Zenodorus's Country also. § 1. But now Herod was under an immediate concern about a most important affair, on account of his friendship with Antony, who was already overcome at Actium by Caesar; yet he was more afraid than hurt; for Cæsar did not think he had quite undone Antony, while Herod continued his assistance to him. How. ever, the king resolved to expose himself to dangers: accordingly he sailed to Rhodes, where Cæsar then abode, and came to him without his diadem, and in the habit and appearance of a private person, but in his behaviour as a king. So he concealed nothing of the truth, but spake thus before his face :-"O Cæsar, as I was made king of the Jews by Antony, so do I profess that I have used my royal authority in the best manner, and entirely for his advantage; nor will I conceal this farther, that thou hadst certainly found me in arms, and an inseparable companion of his, had not the Arabians hindered me. However, I sent him as many auxiliaries as I was able, and many ten thousand (cori) of corn. Nay, indeed I did not desert iny benelacwr after the blow that was given him at Actium; but I gave him the best advice I was able, when I was no longer able to assist him io

the war; and I told him that there was but one way of recovering his affairs, and that was to kill Cleopatra ; and I promised him, that if she were once dead, I would afford him money and walls for his security, with an army and myself to assist him in his war against thee: but his affections for Cleopatra stopped his ears, as did God himself also, who hath bestowed the government on thee. I own myself also to be overcome together with him, and with this last fortune I have laid aside my diadem, and am come hither to thee, having my hopes of safety in thy virtue; and I desire that thou wilt first consider how faithful a friend, and not whose friend I have been.'

2. Cæsar replied to him thus :-“Nay, thou shalt not only be in safety, but thou shalt be a king, and that more firmly than thou wert before ; for thou art worthy to reign over a great many subjects, by reason of the fastness of thy friendship: and do thou endeavour to be equally constant in thy friendship to me, upon my good success, which is what I depend upon from the generosity of thy disposition. However, Antony hath done well in preferring Cleopatra to thee; for by this means we have gained thee by her madness, and thus thou hast begun to be my friend before I began to be thine; on which account Quintus Dedius hath written to me, that thou sentest him assistance against the gladiators. I do, therefore, assure thee, that I will confirm the kingdom to thee by decree : I shall also endeavour to do thee some further kindness hereafter, that thou mayest find no loss in the want of Antony."

3. When Cæsar had spoken such obliging things to the king, and had put the diadem again about his head, he proclaimed what he had bestowed on him by a decree, in which he enlarged in the commendation of the man after a magnifi. cent manner. Whereupon Herod obliged him to be kind to him by the presents he gave him, and he desired him to forgive Alexander, one of Antony's friends, who was become a supplicant to him. But Cæsar's anger against him prevailed, and he complained of the many and very great offences the man whom he petitioned for had been guilty of, and by that means he rejected his petition. After this Cæsar went for Egypt through Syria, when Herod received him with royal and rich entertainments; and then did he first of all ride along with Cæsar, as he was re viewing his army about Ptolemais, and feasted him with all his friends, and then distributed among the rest of the army what was necessary to feast them withal. He also made a plentiful provision of water for them, when they were to march as far as Pelusium, through a dry country, which he did also in like manner at their return thence: nor were there any necessaries wanting to that army. It. was, therefore, the opinion both of Cæsar and of his soldiers, that Ilerod's kingdom was too small for those generous presents he made them; for which reason, when Cæsar was come into Egypt, and Cleopatra and Antony were dead, he did not only bestow other marks of honour upon him, but made an addition to his kingdom, by giving him not only the country which had been taken from him by Cleopatra, but besides that Gadara, and Hippos, and Samaria ; and moreover, of the maritime cities Gaza,* and Anthedon, and Joppa, and Strato's Tower. He also made him a present of four hundred Galls [Galatians) as a guard for his body, which they had been to Cleopatra before. Nor did any thing so strongly induce Cæsar to make these presents, as the generosity of him that received them.

4. Moreover, after the first games at Actium, he added to his kingdom both the region called Trachonitis, and what lay in its neighbourhood, Batanea, and the country of Auranitis ; and that on the following occasion.-Zenodorus, who nad hired the house of Lysanias, had all along sent robbers out of Trachonitis among the Damascens, who thereupon had recourse to Vasro, the president of

Since Josephus both here, and in his Antiq. B. xv. ch. vii. sect. 3, reckons Gaza, which had been a . free city, among the cities given Herod by Augustus, and yet implies that Herod had made Costobaris a governor of it before, Antiq. B. xv. ch. vii. sect. 9; Harduin has some pretence frr saying that Josephus here contradicted himself. But, perhaps, Herod thought he had sufficient authority to put a governor into Gaza, after he was made tetrarch or king, in times of war, before the city was entirely delivered into his hande by A, gustus.

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Syria, and desired of him that he would represent the calamity they were i to Cæsar : when Cæsar was acquainted with it, he sent back orders that this nes of robbers should be destroyed. Varro, therefore, made an expedition against them, and cleared the land of those men, and took it away from Zenodorus Cæsar did also afterward bestow it on Herod, that it might not again become a re ceptacle for those robbers that had come against Damascus. He also made him a procurator of all Syria, and this on the tenth year afterward, when he came again into that province; and this was so established, that the other procurators could not do any thing in the adminstration without his advice; but when Zenodorus was dead, Cæsar bestowed on him all that land which lay between Trachonitis and Galilee. Yet what was still of more consequence to Herod, he was beloved by Cæsar next after Agrippa, and by Agrippa next after Cæsar; whence he ar. rived at a very great degree of felicity. Yet did the greatness of his soul ex. ceed it, and the main part of his magnanimity was extended to the promotion of piety.

CHAP. XXI.

Of the Temple and Cities that were built by Herod, and erected from the very Foundations ; as also of those other Edifices that were erected by him: and what Magnificence he showed to Foreigners; and how Fortune was in all Things

favourable to him. § 1. ACCORDINGLY, in the sixteenth year of his reign, Herod rebuilt the temple, and encompassed a piece of land about it with a wall, which land was twice as arge as that before enclosed. The expenses he laid out upon it were vastly large also, and the riches about it were unspeakable. A sign of which you have in the great cloisters that were erected about the temple, and the citadel* which was on its north side. The cloisters he built from the foundation, but the citadel he repaired at a vast expense; nor was it other than a royal palace, which he called Antonia, in honour of Antony. He also built himself a palace in the upper city, containing two very large and most beautiful apartments; to which the holy house itself could not be compared [in largeness.] l'he one apartment he named Cæsareum, and the other Agrippium, from his (two great] friends.

2. Yet did he not preserve their memory by particular buildings only, with their names given them, but his generosity went as far as entire cities; for when he had built a most beautiful wall round a country in Samaria, twenty furlongs long, and had brought six thousand inhabitants into it, and had allotted to it a most fruitful piece of land, and in the midst of this city, thus built, had erected a very large temple to Cæsar, and had laid round about it a portion of sacred land of three furlongs and a half, he called the city Sebaste, from Sebastus or Augustus, and settled the affairs of the city after a most regular manner.

3. And when Cæsar had further bestowed upon him another additional coun try, he built there also a temple of white marble, hard by the fountains of Jor dan : the place is called Panium, where is a top of a mountain that is raised an immense height, and at its side, beneath, or at its bottom, a dark cave opens itself; within which there is a horrible precipice, that descends abruptly to a vas! depth : it contains a mighty quantity of water, which is immoveable; and when any body lets down any thing to measure the depth of the earth beneath tle water, no length of cord is sufficient to reach it. Now the fountains of Jordan

. This fort was first built, as is supposed, by John Hyrcanus, see Prid. at the year 207, and called Bee ns, the Tower or Citadel. It was afterwards rebuilt, with great improvements, by Herod, under the government of Antonius, and was named from him the Tower of Antonia ; and about the time when Herod rebuilt the tempie, he seems to have put his last hand to it. See Antiq. B. xviii. ch. v. sect * of the War, B. i. ch. iii. sect. 3; and ch. v. sect. 4. It lay on the north-west side of the temple, and one a quarter as large.

rise at the roots of this cavity outwardly; and, as some think, this is the utmost, origin of Jordan ; but we shall speak of that matter more accurately in our fol. lowing history

4. But the king erected other places at Jericho also, between the citadel Cy. pros and the former palace, such as were better and more useful than the former for travellers, and named then from the same friends of his. To say all at once, there was not any place of his kingdom fit for the purpose that was permitted to be without somewhat that was for Cæsar's honour; and when he had filled his own country with temples, he poured out the like plentiful marks of esteem into his province, and built many cities, which he called Cæsareas.

5. And when he observed that there was a city by the sea-side, which was much decayed its name was Strato's Tower,) but that the place, by the happi. ness of its situation, was capable of great improvements from his liberality, he rebuilt it all with white stone, and adorned it with several most splendid palaces, wherein he especially demonstrated his magnanimity: for the case was this, that all the seashore between Dora and Joppa, in the middle between which this city is situated, had no good haven, insomuch that every one that sailed from Phe. nicia for Egypt was obliged to lie in the stormy sea, by reason of the south winds that threatened them ; which winds if it blew but a little fresh, such vast waves are raised, and dash upon the rocks, that upon their retreat the sea is in a great ferment for a long way. But the king by the expenses he was at, and the libe. ral disposal of them, overcame nature, and built a haven larger than was the Pyreum* [at Athens ;] and in the inner retirements of the water he built other deep stations (for the ships also.]

6. Now, although the place where he built was greatly opposite to his pur. poses, yet did he so fully struggle with that difficulty, that the firmness of his building could not easily be conquered by the sea ; and the beauty and ornament of the works was such, as though he had not had any difficulty in the operation, for when he had measured out as large a space as we have before mentioned, he let down stones into twenty fathom water, the greatest part of which were fifty feet in length, and nine in depth, and ten in breadth, and some still larger. But when the haven was filled up to that depth, he enlarged that wall which was thus already extant above the sea, till it was two hundred feet wide; one hun. dred of which had buildings before it, in order to break the force of the waves, shence it was called Procumutia, or the first breaker of the waves ; but the rest of the space was under a stone wall that ran round it. On this wall wero very large towers, the principal and most beautiful of which was called Drusium from Drusus, who was son-in-law to Cæsar.

7. There were also a great number of arches where the mariners dwelt; and all the place before them round about was a large valley, or walk, for a key [or landing place] to those that came on shore ; but the entrance was on the north, because the north wind was there the most gentle of all the winds. At the mouth of the haven were on each side three great Colossi, supported by pillars, where those Colossi that are on your left hand, as you sail into the port, are supported by a solid tower, but those on the right hand are supported by two upright stones *oined together, which stones were larger than that tower which was on the other side of the entrance. Now there were continual edifices joined to the haven, which were also themselves 'of white stone ; and to this haven did the nar. row streets of the city lead, and were built at equal distances one from another, And over against the mouth of the haven, upon an elevation, there was a temple for Cæsar, which was excellent both in beauty and largeness; and therein was a Colossus of Cæsar, not less than that of Jupiter Olympius, which it was made to

• That Josephus speaks truth when he assures us, that “ the haven of this Cæsarea was made by Herod not less, nay rather larger, than that famous haven at Athens, called the Pyreum,” will appear, says Dean Aldrich, to him who compares the description of that at Athens in Thucydides and Pausa. nias with this of Cæsarea in Josephus here, and in the Antiq. B. xv. ch. ix. sect. 6; and B. xvii. ch. i. wet. 1.

resemble. The other Colossus of Rome was equal to that of Juno at Argos. Se ne dedicated the city to the province, and the haven to the sailors there, but the bonour of the building he ascribed to Cæsar,* and named it Cæsarea accordingly.

8. He also built the other edifices, the amphitheatre, and theatre, and market. place, in a manner agrecable to that denomination; and appointed games every fifth

year, and called them, in like manner, Cæsar's Games ; and he first bimself proposed the largest prizes upon the hundred and ninety second Olympiad; in which not only the victors themselves, but those that came next to them, and even those that came in the third place, were partakers of his royal bounty. He also rebuilt Anthedon, a city that lay on the coast, and had been demolished in the wars, and named it Agrippeum. Moreover, he had so very great a kindness for his friend Agrippa, that he had his name engraven upon that gate which he had himself erected in the temple.

9. Herod was also a lover of his father, if any other person ever was so ; for he made a monument for his father, even that city which he built in the finest plain that was in his kingdom, and which had rivers and trees in abundance, and named it Antipatris. He also built a wall about a citadel that lay above Jericho, and was a very strong and very fine building, and dedicated it to his mother, and called it Cypros. Moreover, he dedicated a lower that was at Jerusalem, and called it by the name of his brother Phasaelus, whose structure, and largeness, and magnificence, we shall describe hereafter. He also built another city in the valley that leads northward from Jericho, and named it Phasaelis.

10. And as he transmitted to eternity his family and friends, so did he not ne glect a memorial for himself, but built a fortress upon a mountain towards Arabia, and named it from himself Herodium;t and he called that hill that was of the shape of a woman's breast, and was sixty furlongs distant from Jerusalem, by the same name. He also bestowed much curious art upon it, with great ambition, and built round towers all about the top of it, and filled up the remaining space with most costly palaces round about, insomuch that not only the sight of the inner apartments was splendid, but great wealth was laid out on the outer walls, and partitions, and roofs also. Besides this, he brought a mighty quantity of water from a great distance, and at vast charges, and raised an ascent to it of two hundred steps of the whitest marble; for the hill was itself moderate y high, and entirely factitious. He also built other palaces about the roots of the hill, sufficient to receive the furniture that was put into them, with his friends also, inso. much that on account of its containing all necessaries, the fortress might seem to be a city, but by the bounds it had, a palace only.

11. And when he had built so much, he showed the greatness of his soul to no small number of foreign cities. He built places for exercise at Tripoli, and Da. mascus, and Ptolemais; he built a wall about Byblus; as also large rooms, and cloisters, and temples, and market-places at Berytus and Tyre, with theatres al Sidon and Damascus. He also built aqueducts for those Laodiceans who lived by the seaside ; and for those of Ascalon he built baths and costly fountains, as also cloisters round a court, that were admirable both for their workmanship and largeness. Moreover, he dedicated groves and meadows to some people ; nay, pot a few cities there were who had lands of his donation, as if they were parts of his own kingdom. He also bestowed annual revenues, and those for ever also, on the settlements for exercises, and appointed for them, as well as for the people of Cos, that such rewards should never be wanting. He also gave corn to all such as wanted it, and conferred upon Rhodes large sums of money for building

* These buildings of cities by the name of Cæsar, and institution of solemn games in honour of Augustus Cæsar, as here and in the Antiquities related of Herod by Josephus, the Roman historians attest to as things then frequent in the provinces of that empire, as Dean Aldrich observes on this chapter.

+ There were two cities or citadels called Herodiums in Judea, and both mentioned by Josephus, not only here, but Antiq. B. xiv. ch. xii. sect. 9; B. xv. ch. ix. sect

. 6: Of the War, B. i. ch. xjii sect. 8; B. iii. ch. iii. sect. 5. One of them was 200, and the other 60 furlongs distant from Jerusalem. One of Sen is mentioned by Pliny, Hist. Nat. B. v. ch. xiv. as Dean Aldrich observes here.

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