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of these grand secrets got abroad by their means. Nor should one le mistaken If he called the life of Antipater a mystery of wickedness ; for he either corrupted Alexander's acquaintance with money, or got into their favour by flatteries ; by which two means he gained all his designs, and brought them to betray their master, and to steal away, and reveal what he either did or said. Thus did be act a part very cunningly in all points, and wrought himself a passage by his calumnies with the greatest shrewdness ; while he put on a face as if he were a kind brother to Alexander and Aristobulus, but suborned other men to inform of what they did to Herod. And when any thing was told against Alexander, be would come in, and pretend [to be of his side,] and would begin to contradict what was said ; but would afterward contrive matters so privately, that the king should have an indignation at him. His general aim was this, to lay a plot, and to make it believed that Alexander lay in wait to kill his father; for nothing atforded so great a confirmation to these calumnies as did Antipater's apologies for him.

2. By these methods Herod was inflamed, and as much as his natural affection to the young men did every day diminish, so much did it increase towards Antipater. The courtiers also inclined to the same conduct, some of their own ac. cord and others by the king's injunction, as particularly did Ptolemy, the king's dearest friend, as also the king's brethren and all his children ; for Antipater was all in all : and what was the bitterest part of all to Alexander, Antipater's mother was also all in all : she was one that gave counsel against them, and was more barsh than a stepmother, and one that hated the queen's sons more than is usual to hate sons-in-law. All men did, therefore, already pay their respects to Antipater, in hopes of advantage ; and it was the king's command which alienated every body (from the brethren,] he having given this charge to his most intimate friends, that they should not come near, nor pay any regard to Alexander or tu his friends. Herod was also become terrible, not only to his domestics aboui the court, but to his friends abroad; for Cæsar had given such a privilege to no other king as he had given to him, which was this, that he might fetch back any me that fled from him, even out of a city that was not under his own jurisdiction Now the young men were not acquainted with the calumnies raised against them; for which reason they could not guard themselves against them, but fell under them; for their father did not make any public complaints against either of them: though in a little time they perceived how things were by his coldness to them, and by the great uneasiness he showed upon any thing that troubled him Antipater had also made their uncle Pheroras to be their enemy, as well as their aunt Salome, while he was always talking with her, as with a wife, and irritating her against them. Moreover, Alexander's wife, Glaphyra, augmented his hatred against them, by deriving her nobility and genealogy (from great persons,) and pretending that she was a lady superior to all others in that kingdom, as being derived by her father's side from Temenus, and by her mother's side from Darius, the son of Hystasper. She also frequently reproached Herod's sister and wives with the ignobility of their descent; and that they were every one chosen by him for their beauty, but not for their family. Now those wives of his were not a few : it being of old permitted to the Jews to marry many wives; and this king delighting in many, all which hated Alexander on account of Claphyra's boasting and reproaches.

3. Nay, Aristobulus had raised a quarrel between himself and Salome, who was his mother-in-law, besides the anger he had conceived at Glaphyra's re.

• That it was an immemorial custom among the Jews, and their forefathers, the patriarchs, to have someumes more wives, or wives and concubines, than one at the same time, and that this polygamy was not directly forbidden in the law of Moses, is evident; but that polygamy was ever properly and distinctly permitted in that law of Moses, in the places here cited by Dean Aldrich, Deut. xvii. 16, 17, or xxi. 15, or indeed, any where else does not appear to me. And what our Saviour says about the common Jewish divorces, which miay lay much greater claim to such a permission than polygamy, seems to me true in this case also; that Moses for the hardness of their hearts suffered them to have several wives at the same unje, but toat from the beginning it was not so, Matt. xix. 8; Mark, x 5.

proaches; for he perpetually upbraided his wife with the meanness of her famiry. and complained, that as he had married a woman of low family, so had his brother Alexander married one of royal blood. At this Salome's daughter wept, and told it her, with this addition, that Alexander threatened the mothers of his other brethren, that when he should come to the crown he would make them weave with their maidens, and would make those brothers of his country schoolmasters; and brake this jest upon them, that they had been very carefully instructed to fie them for such an employment. Hereupon Salome could not contain her anger, but told all to Herod : nor could her testimony be suspected, since it was against her own son-in-law. There was also another calumny that ran abroad, and in. flamed the king's mund; for he heard that these sons of his were perpetually speaking of their mother, and, among their lamentations for her, did not abstain from cursing him ; and that when he made presenís of any of Marianne's gan ments to his later wives, these threatened, that in a little time, instead of royal garments, they would clothe them in no better than haircloth.

4. Now upon these accounts, though Herod was somewhat afraid of the young men's high spirit, yet did he not despair of reducing them to a better mind; bus before he went to Rome, whither he was now going by sea, he called them to him, and partly threatened them a little as a king ; but for the main he admonished them as a father, and exhorted them to love their brethren ; and told them, that he would pardon their former offences, if they would amend for the time to come But they refuted the calumnies that had been raised of them, and said they were false ; and alleged that their actions were sufficient for their vindication ; and said withal, that he himself ought to shut his ears against such tales, and not be too easy in believing them, for that there would never be wanting those that would tell lies to their disadvantage, as long as any would give ear to them.

5. When they had thus soon pacified him, as being their father, they got clear of the present fear they were in. Yet did they see occasion for sorrow in some time afterward ; for they knew that Salome as well as their uncle Pheroras were their enemies, who were both of them heavy and severe persons, and especially Pheroras, who was a partner with Herod in all the affairs of the kingdom, ex cepting his diadem. He had also a hundred talents of his own revenue, and en joyed the advantage of all the land beyond Jordan, which he had received as a gift from his brother, who had asked of Cæsar to make him a tetrarch, as he was made acordingly. Herod had also given him a wife out of the royal family, who was no other than his own wife's sister, and after her death had solemnly espoused to him his own eldest daughter, with a dowry of three hundred talenta ; but PheToras refused to consummate this royal marriage, out of his affection to a maid servant of his.

Upon which account Herod was very angry, and gave that daughter in marriage to a brother's son of his (Joseph, ] who was slain afterward by the Parthians : but in some time he laid aside his anger against Pheroras, and

as one not able to overcome his foolish passion for the maid 6. Nay, Pheroras had been accused long before, while the queen [Mariamne]

alive, as if he were in a plot to poison Herod ; and there came then so great a number of informers, that Herod himself, though he was an exceeding lover of

was brought to believe what was said, and to be afraid of it also : and when he had brought many of those that were under suspicion to the torture, he came at last to Pheroras's own friends ; none of which did openly confess the crime, but they owned that he had made preparations to take her whom he loved and run away to the Parthians. Costobarus also, the husband of Salome, to whom the king had given her in marriage, after her former husband had been put to death for adultery, was instrumental in bringing about this contrivance and flight of his. Nor did Salome escape all calumny upon herself: for her brother Pheroras accused her, that she had made an agreement to marry Syb leus

, the procurator of Obodas, king of Arabia, who was at bitter enmity with

pardoned him, servant.


his brethren,

Herod; but when she was convicted of this, and of all that Pheroras had accused ber, she obtained her pardon. The king also pardoned Pheroras himself the crimes he had been accused of.

7. But the storm of the whole family was removed to Alexander, and all of rested upon his head. There were three eunuchs who were in the highest esteem with the king, as was plain by the offices they were in about him for one of them was appointed to be his butler, another of them got his supver ready for him, and the third put him into bed, and lay down by himn. Now Alexander had prevailed with these men by large gifts to let him use them after in obscene manner; which when it was told to the king, they were tortured, and found guilty, and presently confessed the criminal conversation he had with them. They also discovered the promises by which they were induced so to do, and how they were deluded by Alexander, who had told them, that “they ought not to fix their hopes upon Herod, an old man, and one so shameless as to colous his hair, unless they thought that would make him young again; but that they ought to fix their attention on him, who was to be his successor in the kingdom, whether he would or not; and who in no long time would avenge himself on his enemies, and make his friends happy and blessed, and themselves in the first place : that the men of power did already pay respect to Alexander privately, and that the captains of the soldiery and the officers did secretly come to him.”

8. These confessions did so terrify Herod, that he durst not immediately publish hem; but he sent spies abroad privately by night and by day, who should make a close inquiry after all that was done and said ; and when any one were but suspected (of treason,] he put them to death, insomuch that the palace was full of horribly unjust proceedings; for every body forged calumnies, as they were chemselves in a state of enmity or hatred against others; and many there were who abused the king's bloody passion to the disadvantage of those with whom they oad quarrels, and lies were easily believed, and punishments were inflicted sooner chan the calumnies were forged: he who had just then been accusing another, was accused himself, and was led away to execution, together with him whom he had convicted; for the danger the king was in of his life made examinations be very short. He also proceeded to such a degree of bitterness, that he could not look on any of those that were not accused with a pleasant countenance, but was in a most barbarous disposition towards his own friends. Accordingly

, he forbade a great many of them to come to court, and to those whom he had not power to punish actually he spake harshly ; but for Antipater, be insulted Alexander, now he was under his misfortunes, and got a stout company of his kindred together, and raised all sorts of calumny against him: and for the king he was brought to such a degree of terror by those prodigious slanders and con. trivances, that he fancied he saw Alexander coming to him with a drawn sword in his hand; so he caused him to be seized upon immediately and bound, and feil to examining his friends by torture, many of whom died (under the torture,] but would discover nothing, nor say any thing against their consciences; but some of them being forced to speak falsely by the pains they endured, said that Alex. ander and his brother Aristobulus, plotted against him, and waited for an oppor tunity to kill him as he was hunting, and then to fly away to Rome. These accusations, though they were of an incredible nature, and only framed upon the great distress they were in, were readily believed by the king, who thought it soma comfort to him, after he had bound his son, that it might appear he had not dowo it unjustly


Archelaus procures a Reconciliation between Alexander, Pheroras, and Herod. $1. Now as to Alexander, since he perceived it impossible to persuade his father that he was innocent,] he resolved to meet his calamities how severe soever they were ; so he composed four books against his enemies, and confessed that he had been in a plot; but declared withal that the greatest part (of the courtiers) were in a plot with him, and chiefly Pheroras and Salome ; nay, that Salome once came, and forced him to lie with her in the night-time, whether he would or not. These books were put into Herod's hands, and made a great clamour against the men in power. And now it was that Archelaus came hastily into Judea, as being affrighted for his son-in-law and his daughter; and he came as a proper assistant, and in a very prudent manner, and by a stratagem he obliged the king not to execute what he had threatened ; for when he was come to him, he cried out, " Where in the world is this wretched son-in-law of mine? Where shall I see that head of his which contrived to murder his father, which I will tear to pieces with my own hands. I will do the same also to my daughter, who hath such a fine hasband : for although she be not a partner in the plot, yet, by being the wife of such a creature, she is polluted. And I cannot but admire at thy patience, against whom this plot is laid, if Alexander be still alive ; for as I came with what haste I could from Cappadocia, I expected to find him put to death for his crimes long ago; but still in order to make an examination with thee about my daughter, whom out of regard to thee, and thy dignity, I had espoused to him in marriage; but now we must take counsel about them both ; and if thy paternal affection be a great, that thou canst not punish thy son, who hath plutted against thee, let us change our right hands, and let us succeed one to the other in expressing our rage upon this occasion.”

2. When he had made this pompous declaration, he got Herod to remit of his anger, though he were in disorder; who thereupon gave him the books which Alexander had composed to be read by him, and as he came to every head, he considered of it, together with Herod. So Archelaus took hence the occasion for that stratagem which he made use of, and by degrees he laid the blame on those men whose names were in these books, and especially upon Pheroras ; and when he saw that the king believed him, [to be in earnest, he said, “We must consider whether the young man be not himself plotted against by such a num. ber of wicked wretches, and not thou plotted against by the young man; for I cannot see any occasion for his falling into so horrid a crime, since he enjoys the advantages of royalty already, and has the expectation of being one of thy suc. Cessors ; I mean this, unless there were some persons that persuaded him to it, and such persons as make an ill use of the facility they know there is to persuade Foung men; for by such persons not only young men are sometimes imposed up. on, but old men also, and by them sometimes are the most illustrious families and kingdoms overturned.”

3. Herod assented to what he had said, and, by degrees, abated of his anger against Alexander; but was more angry at Pheroras; for the principal subject of the four books was Pheroras, who perceiving that the king's inclinations changed on a sudden, and that Archelaus's friendship could do every thing with him, and that he had no honourable method of preserving himself, he procured his safety

So he left Alexander, and had recourse to Archelaus, wl? told him, that "he did not see how he could get him excused, now he was directly caught in so many crimes, whereby it was evidently demonstrated that he had plotted against the king, and had been the cause of those misfortunes which the


by his impudence.



young man was now under, unless he would moreover leave off his cunning kna. very, and his denials of what he was charged withal, and confess the charge, and implore pardon of his brother, who still had a kindness for him; but that if he would do so, he would afford bim all the assistance he was able.”

4. With this advice Pheroras complied, and, putting himself into such a habit as might most move compassion, he came with black cloth upon bis body, and 'cars in his eyes, and threw himself down at Herod's feet, and begged his pardon for what he had done; and confessed that he had acted very wickedly, and was guilty of every thing that he had been accused of, and lamented that disorder of his mind and distraction which his love to a woman, he said, had brought him to. So when Archelaus had brought Pheroras to accuse and bear witness against himself, he then made an excuse for him, and mitigated Herod's anger towards bim, and this by using certain domestical examples ; - for that when he had suf. fered much greater mischiefs from a brother of his own, he preferred the obliga. tions of nature before the passion of revenge : because it is in kingdoms as it is in gross bodies, where some member or other is ever swelled by the body's weight, in which case it is not proper to cut off such member, but to heal it by a gentle inethod of cure." 5. Upon Archelaus's saying this, and much more to the same purpose,

Herod's displeasure against Pheroras was mollified; yet did he persevere in his own in. dignation against Alexander, and said, he would have his daughter divorced, and taken away from him, and this till he had brought Herod to that pass, that, contrary to his former behaviour to him, he petitioned Archelaus for the young man, and that he would let his daughter continue espoused to him: but Archelaus made laim strongly believe that he would permit her to be married to any one else, but not to Alexander, because he looked upon it as a very valuable advantage, that the relation they had contracted by that affinity, and the privileges that went along with it, might be preserved. And when the king said, that his son would take it for a great favour to him, if he would not dissolve that marriage especially since they had already children between the young man and her, and since that wife of his was so well beloved by him, and that as while she remains his wife she would be a great preservative to him, and keep him from offending, as he had formerly done; so if she should be once torn away from him, she would be the cause of his falling into despair; because such young men's attempts are best mollified, when they are diverted from them by settling their affections at home. So Archelaus complied with what Herod desired, but not without difficulty, and was both himself reconciled to the young man, and reconciled his father to him also. However, he said he must, by all means, be sent to Rome to discourse with Cæsar, because he had already written a full account to him of this whole matter.

6. Thus a period was put 10 Archelaus's stratagem, whereby he delivered his son-in-law out of the dangers he was in; but when these reconciliations were over, they spent their time in feastings and agreeable entertainments. And when Ar. chelaus was going away, Herod made bim a present of seventy talents, with golden throne set with precious stories, and some eunuchs, and a concubine who was called Pannychis. He also paid due honours to every one of his friends according to their dignity. In like manner did all the king's kindred, by his com m.end, make glorious presents to Archelaus; and so he was conducted on bis way by Herod and his nobility as far as Antioch

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