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him over his son ; but as his pains were become very great, he was now ready ta faint for want of somewhat to eat: so he called for an apple, and a knife ; for it was his custom formerly to pare the apple himself, and soon afterwards to cut it and eat it. When he had got the knife he looked about, and had a mind to stab himself with it; and he had done it, had not his first-cousin Archiabus prevented him, and held his hand, and cried out loudly. Whereupon a woful lamentation echoed through the palace, and a great tumult was made, as if the king were dead. Upon which Ăntipater, who verily believed his father was deceased, grew bold in his discourse, as hoping to be immediately and entirely released from his bonds, and to take the kingdom into his hands, without any more ado; so he discoursed with the jailor about letting him go, and in that case promised him great things, both now and hereafter, as if that were the only thing now in question. But the jailor did not only refuse to do what Antipater would have him, but informed the king of his intentions, and how many solicitations he had from him [of that nature.) Hereupon Herod, who had formerly no affection or good will towards his son to restrain him, when he heard what the jailor said, he cried out, and beat his head, although he was at death's door, and raised himself upon his elbow, and sent for some of his guards, and commanded them to kill Antipater without any farther delay, and to do it presently, and to bury him in an ignoble manner at Hyr cania.
Concerning Herod's Death, and Testament, and Burial. § 1. And now Herod altered his testament upon the alteration of his mind; fot he appointed Antipas, to whom he had before left the kingdom, to be tetrarch on Galilee and Perea, and granted the kingdom to Archelaus. He also gave Gaulo. nitis, and Trachonitis, and Paneas to Philip, who was his son, but own brother tv Archelaus,* by the name of tetrarchy; and bequeathed Jamnia, and Ashdod, ano Phasaelis, to Salome his sister, with five hundred thousand [drachmæ] of silver that was coined. He also made provision for all the rest of his kindred, by giving them sums of money and annual revenues, and so left them all in a wealthy con. dition. He bequeathed also to Cesar ten millions (of drachmæ] of coined money, besides both vessels of gold and silver, and garments exceeding costly; to Julia, Cæsar's wife, and to certain others, five millions. When he had done these things, he died, the fifth day after he had caused Antipater to be slain ; having reigned, since he had procured Antigonus to be slain, thirty-four years ;t but since he had been declared king by the Romans, thirty-seven. A man he was of great barbarity towards all men equally, and a slave to his passion ; but above the consideration of what was right; yet was he favoured by fortune as much as any man ever was; for, from a private man he became a king: and though he were encompassed prith ten thousand dangers, he got clear of them all, and continued his life till a very
age. But then, as to the affairs of his family and children, in which in. deed, according to his own opinion, he was also very fortunate because he was able to conquer his enemies; yet, in my opinion, he was herein very
unfortunate. 2. But then Salome and Alexis, before the king's death was made known, dis* When it is here said, that Philip the tetrarch, and Archelaus the king or ethnarch, were forma proto or genuine brothers; if these words mean own brothers, or born of the same father and mother, there must be here some mistake; because they had jodeed the same father, Herod, but different mothers, the former Cleopatra, and Archelaus Malthace. They were indeed brought up altogether privately ai Rome like own brothers; and Philip was Archelaus's deputy when he went to have his kingdom com firme'l to him at Roine; ch. ix. sect. 3. and Of the War, B. ii.ch. ii. sect. 1, which intimacy is perhaps all that Josephus intended by the words before us.
+ These number of years for Herod's reign, 34, and 37, are the very same with those of the War, B.. chi xxxiii. sert. 8, and are among the principal chronological characters belonging to the reign or death. of Herod. See Harm. of the Evang. p. 150–155.
missed those that were shut up in the Hippodrome, and told them that the king or. dered them to go away to their own lands, and take care of their own affairs, which was esteemed by the nation a great benefit. And now the king's death was made public, when Salome and Alexis gathered the soldiery together in the amphitheatre at Jericho; and the first thing they did was, they read Herod's letter written to the soldiery thanking them for their fidelity and good will to him, and exhorting them to afford his son Archelaus, whom he had appointed for their king, like fidelity and good will. After which Ptolemy, who had the king's seal intrusted to bim, read the king's testament which was to be of force no otherwise than as it should stand when Cæsar had inspected it; so there was presently an acclamation made to Archelaus, as king; and the soldiers came by bands, and their com. manders with them, and promised the same good will to him, and readiness to serve him, which they had exhibited to Herod; and they prayed God to be as. sistant to him.
3. After this was over they prepared for his funeral, it being Archelaus's care that the procession to his father's sepulchre should be very sumptuous. Accor. dingly, he brought out all his ornaments to adorn the pomp of the funeral. The body was carried upon a golden bier, embroidered with very precious stones of great variety, and it was covered over with purple, as well as the body itself: he had a diadem upon his head, and above it a crown of gold: he also had a sceptre n his right hand. About the bier were his sons and his numerous relations; next
these was the soldiery, distinguished according to their several countries and Jenominations: and they were put into the following order : first of all went his guards ; then the band of Thracians; and after them the Germans; and next the band of Galatians, every one in their habiliments of war; and behind these mar. ched the whole army in the same manner as they used to go out to war, and as they used to be put in array by their muster-masters and centurions; these were followed by five hundred of his domestics carrying spices. So they went eight furlongs,* to Herodium ; for there, by his own com
mmand, he was to be buried. And thus did Herod end his life.
4. Now Archelaus paid him so much respect as to continue his mourning tili the seventh day; for so many days are appointed for it by the law of our fathers. And when he had given a treat to the multitude, and left off his mourning, he went up into the temple. He had also acclamations and praises given him, which way soever he went, every one striving with the rest who should appear to use the loudest acclamations. So he ascended a high elevation inade for him, and tuok his seat in a throne made of gold, and spake kindly to the multitude, and de. clared, “ with what joy he received their acclamations, and the marks of the good will they showed to him; and returned them thanks that they did not remember the injuries his father had done them, to his disadvantage; and promised them, he would endeavour not to be behindhand with them in rewarding their alacrity in his service, after a suitable manner : but that he should abstain at present from the name of king, and that he should have the honour of that dignity, if Cæsar should confirm and settle that testament which his father had made; and that is was on this account, that when the army would have put the diadem on him at Jericho, he would not accept of that honour, which is usually so much desired, because it was not yet evident that he who was to be principally concerned in bestowing it, would give it him; although by his acceptance of the government, he should not want the ability of rewarding their kindness to him, and that it should be his endeavour, as to all things wherein they were concerned, to prove, in every respect, better than his father.” Whereupon the multitude, as it is usual with them, supposed, inat the first days of those that enter upon such governments declare the intentions of those that accept them; and so by how much Archelaus
• At eight sindia or furlongs a day, as here, Herod's funeral, conducted to Herodium (which lay at the distance from Jericho, where he died, of 200 stadia or furlongs; Of the War, B. i. ch. xxxii. sect. 9.) must have taken up roles than twenty-five days.
spake the more gently and civilly to them, by so much did they more highly praise him, and made application to him for the grant of what they desired. Sonie made a clamour that he would ease them of some of their annual payments ;, but others desired him to release those that were put into prison by Herod, who were many, and had been put there at several times; others of them required that he would take away those taxes which had been severely laid upon what was pub. licly sold and bought. So Archelaus contradicted them in nothing, since he pretended to do all things so as to get the good will of the multitude to him, as look. ing upon that good will to be a great step towards his preservation of the govern. ment. Hereupon he went and offered sacrifice to God, and then betook himself to feast with his friends.
How the People raised a Sedition against Archelaus, and how he sailed to Rome. § 1. At this time also it was that some of the Jews got together, out of a desire of innovation. They lamented Matthias, and those that were slain with him by Herod, who had not any respect paid them by a funeral mourning out of the fear men were in or that man ; they were those who had been condemned for pulling down the golden eagle. The people made a great clamour and lamentation hereupon, and cast some reproaches against the king also, as if that tended to alleviate the miseries of the deceased. These people asseinbled together, and desired of Archelaus, that, in way of revenge on their account, he would inflict punishment on those who had been honoured by Herod ; and that, in the first and principal place, he would deprive that high priest whom Herod had made, and would choose one more agreeable to the law, and of greater purity, to officiate as high priest. This was granted by Archelaus, although he was mightily offended at their importunity, because he proposed to himself to go to Rome immediately, to look after Cæsar's determination about him. However, he sent the general of his forces to use persuasions, and to tell them that the death which was inflicted on their friends was according to the law; and to represent to them, that their petitions about these things were carried to a great height of injury to him; that the time was not now proper for such petitions, but required their unanimity until such time as he should be established in the government by the consent of Cæsar, and should then be come back to them ; for that he would then consult with them in common concerning the purport of their petitions, but that th
ought at present to be quiet, lest they should seem seditous persons. 2. So when the king had suggested these things, and instructed his general in what he was to say, he sent him away to the people; but they made a clamour, and would not give him leave to speak, and put him in danger of his life, and as many more as were desirous to venture upon saying openly any thing which might reduce them to a sober mind, and prevent their going on in their present courses; because they had more concern to have all their own wills performed chan to yield obedience to their governors ; thinking it to be a thing insufferable, that, while Herod was alive, they should lose those that were the most dear to them, and that when he was dead, they could not get the actors to be punished So they went on with their designs after a violent manner, and thought all to be lawful and right which tended to please them, and being unskilful in foreseeing what dangers they incurred; and when they had suspicion of such a thing, yet did the present pleasure they took in the punishment of those they deemed their enemies overweigh all such considerations, and although Archelaus sent many Lo speak to them, yet they treated them not as messengers sent by him, but as persons that came of their own accord to mitigate their anger, and would not les one of them speak. The sodition also was made by such as were in a great place
sion; and it was evident that they were proceeding farther in seditious practices, by the multitude's running so fast upon them.
3. Now upon the approach of that feast of unleavened bread, which the law of their fathers had appointed for the Jews at this time, which is called the pas. sover,* and is a memorial of their deliverance out of Egypt (when they offer sacrifices with great alacrity, and when they are required to slay more sacrifices in number than at any other festival; and when an innumerable multitude came thisher out of the country, nay, from beyond its limits also, in order to worship God;) the seditious lamented Judas and Matthias, those teachers of the laws, and kept together in the temple, and had plenty of food, because these seditivus persons were not ashamed to beg it. And as Archelaus was afraid lest some fer. rible thing should spring up by means of these men's madness, he sent a regiment of armed men, and with them a captain of a thousand, to suppress the violent et. forts of the seditious, before the whole multitude should be infected with the like madness; and gave them ihis charge, that if they found any much more openly seditious than others, and more busy in tumultuous practices, they should bring them to him. But those that were seditions on account of those teachers of the law, irritated the people by the noise and clamour they used to encourage the people in their designs; so they made an assault upon the soldiers, and came up io them, and stoned the greatest part of them, although some of them ran away wounded, and their captain among them: and when they had thus done, they re. turned to the sacrifices which were already in their hands. Now Archelaus thought there was no way to preserve the entire government, but by cutting off those who made this attempt upon it; so he sent out the whole army upon them, und sent the horsemen to prevent those that had their tents without the temple, froin assisting those that were within the temple, and to kill such as ran away from the footmen, when they thought themselves out of danger, which horsemen jew three thousand men, while the rest went to the neighbouring inountains. Chen did Archelaus order proclamation to be made to them all, that they should etire to their own homes ; so they went away, and left the festival out of fear of somewhat worse which would follow, although they had been so bold, by reason of their want of instruction. So Archelaus went down to the sea with his mo. ther, and took with him Nicolaus and Ptolemy, and many others of his friends, and left Philip, his brother, as governor of all things belonging both to his own tamily and to the public. There went out also with him Salome, Herod's sister, who took with her her children, and many of her kindred were with her; which kindred of hers went, as they pretended, to assist Archelaus in gaining the king. dom, but in reality to oppose him, and chiefly to make loud complaints of what he had done in the temple. But Sabinus, Cæsar's steward for Syrian affairs, as he was making haste into Judea, to preserve Herod's effects, met with Archelaus at Cæsarea ; but Varus (president of Syria) came at that time, and restrained him from meddling with them, for he was there as sent for by Archelaus, by the means of Ptolemy. And Sabinus, out of regard to Varus, did neither seize upon any of the castles that were among the Jews, nor did he seal up the treasures in them, but permitted Archelaus to have them until Cæsar should declare his resolution about them; so that upon his promise, he tarried still at Cæsarea. But after Archelaus was sailed for Rome, and Varus was removed to Antioch, Sabi. nus went to Jerusalem, and seized on the king's palace. He also sent for the keepers of the garrisons, and for all those that had the charge of Herod's effects, and declared publicly, that he should require them to give an account of what they had ; and he disposed of the castles in the manner he pleased; but those who kept them did not neglect what Archelaus had given them in command, but continued to keep all things in the manner that had been enjoined them; and their pretence was, that they kept them all for Cæsar.
• This passover, when the sedition here mentioned was moved against Archelaus, was not one, but thirteen months after the eclipse of the moon already inentioned. VOL II.
4. At the same time also did Antipas, another of Herod's sons, sail to Rome, in order to gain the government; being buoyed up by Salome with promises, that he should take that government; and that he was a much honester and fitter man than Archelaus for that authority ; since Herod had, in his former testament, deemed him the worthiest to be made king, which ought to be esteemed more valid than his latter testament. Antipas also brought with him his mother, and Ptolemy, the brother of Nicolaus, one that had been Herod's most honoured friend, and was now zealous for Antipas; but it was Ireneus the orator, and one who, on account of his reputation for sagacity, was intrusted with the affairs of the kingdom, who most of all encouraged him to attempt to gain the kingdom : by whose means it was that, when some advised him to yield to Archelaus, as to his elder brother, and who had been declared king by their father's last will, he would not submit so to do. And when he was come to Rome, all his relations revolted to him; not out of their good will to him, but out of their hatred to Archelaus; though indeed they were most of all desirous of gaining their liberty, and to be put un. der a Roman governor; but if there were too great an opposition made to that, they thought Antipas preferable to Archelaus, and so joined with him in order to procure the kingdom for him. Sabinus also by letters accused Archelaus to Cæsar.
5. Now when Archelaus had sent in his papers to Cæsar, wherein he pleaded bis right to the kingdom, and his father's testament, with the accounts of Herod's money, and with Ptolemy, who brought Herod's seal, he so expected the event; but when Cæsar had read these papers, and Varus’s and Sabinus's letters, with the accounts of the money, and what were the annual incomes of the kingdom. and understood that Antipas had also sent letters to lay claim to the kingdom, he summoned his friends together, to know their opinions, and with them Caius, the son of Agrippa, and of Julia his daughter, whom he had adopted, and took him, and made him sit first of all, and desired such as pleased to speak their minds about the affairs now before them. Now Antipater, Salome's son, a very subtlo orator, and a bitter enemy to Archelaus, spake first to this purpose: That" it was ridiculous in Archelaus to plead now to have the kingdom given him, since ve had, in reality, taken already the power over it to himself before Cæsar had granted it to him; and appealed to those bold actions of his, in destroying so many at the Jewish festival ; and, if the men had acted unjustly, it was but fit the punishing them should have been reserved to those that were out of the country, but had the power to punish them; and not been executed by a man that, if he pretended to be a king, he did an injury to Cæsar, by usurping that authority before it was determined for him by Cæsar; but, if he owned himself to be a private person, his case was much worse, since he, who was putting in for the kingdom, could by no means expect to have that power granted him, of which he had already deprived Cæsar [by taking it to himself.] He also touched sharply upon him, and appealed to his changing the commanders in the army, and his sitting in the royal throne beforehand, and his determination of lawsuits; all done as if he were no other than a king. He appealed also to his concessions to those that petitioned him on a public account, and indeed doing such things, than which he could devise no greater if he had been already settled in the kingdom by Cæsar. He also ascribed to him the releasing of the prisoners that were in the Hippodrome, and many other things, that either had been cer. tainly done by him, or were believed to be done, and easily might be believed to have been done, because they were of such a nature, as to be usually done by young men, and by such as, out of a desire of ruling, seize upon the govern. ment too soon. He also charged him with his neglect of the funeral mourning for his father, and with having merry meetings the very night in which he died; and that it was thence the multitude took the handle of raising a tumult and if Archelaus could thus requite his dead father, who had bestowed such benefits upon him, and bequeathed such great things to him, by pretending to shed tears for him in the day time, like an actor on the stage, but every night making