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therefore, Varus had settled matters at Jerusalem after this manner, and had left the former legion there as a garrison, he returned to Antioch.


The Jews greatly complain of Archelaus, and desire that they may be made subject to the Roman Governors. But when Cæsar had heard what they had to say, he distributed Herod's Dominions among his Sons, according to his own


§ 1. But now came another accusation from the Jews against Archelaus at Rome, which he was to answer to. It was made by those ambassadors who, be. fore the revolt, had come, by Varus's permission, to plead for the liberty of their country: those that came were fifty in number, but there were more than eight thousand of the Jews at Rome who supported them. And when Cæsar had as sembled a council of the principal Romans in Apollo's temple,* that was in the palace (this was what he had himself built and adorned at a vast expense,) the multitude of the Jews stood with the ambassadors, and on the other side stood Archelaus with his friends; but as for the kindred of Archelaus, they stood on neither side; for to stand on Archelaus's side, their hatred to him and envy at him would not give them leave, while yet they were afraid to be seen by Civsar with his accusers. Besides these, there was present Archelaus's brother, Philip, being sent thither beforehand out of kindness by Varus for two reasons; the one was this, that he might be assisting to Archelaus; and the other was this, that in case Cæsar should make a distribution of what Flerod possessed among bis pos. terity, he might obtain some share of it."

2. And now, upon the permission that was given to the accusers to speak, they in the first place went over Herod's breaches of their law, and said, that “he was not a king, but the most barbarous of all tyrants, and that they had found him to be such by the sufferings they underwent from him: that when a very great number had been slain by him, those that were left had endured such miseries, that they called those that were dead happy men; that he had not only tortured the bodies of his subjects, but entire cities, and had done much harm to the cities of his own country, while he adorned those that belonged to foreigners; and he shed the blood of Jews, in order to do kindnesses to those people that were out of their bounds : that he had filled the nation full of poverty and of the greatest iniquity, instead of that happiness and those laws which they had anciently en. joyed : that, in short, the Jews had borne more calamities from Herod in a few years, than had their forefathers during all that interval of time that had passed since they had come out of Babylon, and returned home, in the reign of Xerxes:t that, however, the nation was come to so low a condition, by being inured to hard. ships, that they submitted to his successor of their own accord, though he brought them into bitter slavery: that, accordingly, they readily called Archelaus, though he was the son of so great a tyrant, King, after the decease of his father, and joined with him in mourning for the death of Herod, and in wishing him good suc. cess in that his succession; while yet this Archelaus, lest he should be in danger of not being thought the genuine son of Herod, began his reign with the murder of three thousand citizens, as if he had a mind to offer so many bloody sacrifices to God for his government, and to fill the temple with the like number of dead hodies at that festival: that, however, those that were left after so many miseries

* This hoiding a council in the temple of Apollo, in the emperor's palace at Rome, by Augustus, and even the building of this temple magnificenuly by himself in that palace, are exactly agreeable to Au gustus, in his elrier years, as Aldrich and Spanheim oliserve and prove from Suetonius and i'ropertius.

+ Here we have a strong confirmation that it was derxes, and not Artaxerxes, uprler whom the main part of the Jews relurned out of the Babylonian captivity, i, e. in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. 'l be same thing is in the Antinuities. B. xi. ch. V. sect. i.

had just reason to consider now at last the calamities they had undergono, and to oppose themselves, like soldiers in war, to receive those stripes upon their faces (but not upon their backs as hitherto.) Wherefore they prayed, that the Romano vould have compassion upon the spoor] remains of Judea, and not expose what was left to them to such as barbarously tore them to pieces, and that they would join their country to Syria, and administer the government by their own com. manders; whereby it would [soon] be demonstrated, that those who are now un. der the calumny of seditious persons, and lovers of war, know how to bear go. vernors, that are set over them, if they be but tolerable ones.” So the Jews con. cluded their accusation with this request. Then rose up Nicholas, and confuted the accusations which were brought against the kings, and himself accused the Jewish nation as hard to be ruled, and as naturally disobedient to kings. He also reproached all those kinsmen of Archelaus who had left him, and were gone over to his accusers.

3. So Cæsar, after he had heard both sides, dissolved the assembly for that time; but a few days afterward he gave the one half of Herod's kingdom to Ar. chelaus, by the name of Ethnarch, and promised to make him king also after. Ward, if he rendered himself worthy of that dignity. But as to the other half, he divided it into two tetrarchies, and gave them to two other sons of Herod, the one of them to Philip, and the other to that Antipas who contested the kingdom with Archelaus. Under this last was Perea and Galilee, with a revenue of two hundred talents : but Batanea, and Trachonitis, and Auranitis, and certain parts of Zeno's house about Jamnia, with a revenue of a hundred talents, were made sabject to Philip; while Idumea, and all Judea and Samaria, were parts of the ethoarchy of Archelaus, although Samaria was eased of one quarter of its taxes, out of regard to their not having revolted with the rest of the nation. He also made subject to him the following cities, viz. Strato's Tower, and Sebaste, and Joppa, and Jerusalem; but as to the Grecian cities, Gaza, and Gadara, and Hippos, he cut them off from the kingdom, and added them to Syria. Now the revenue of the country that was given to Archelaus was four hundred talents, Salome also, besides what the king had left her in his testaments, was now made mistress of Jamnia, and Ashdod, and Phasaelis. Cæsar did, moreover, bestow upon her the royal palace of Ascalon; by all which she got together a revenue of sixty talents; but he put her house under the ethnarchy of Archelaus. And for the rest of Herod's offspring, they received what was bequeathed to them in his testaments; but, besides that, Cæsar granted to Herod's two virgin daughters five hundred thousand (drachmæ) of silver, and gave them in marriage to the sons of Pheroras : but after this family distribution, he gave between them what bad been bequeathed to him by Herod, which was a thousand talents, reserving to himself only some inconsiderable presents in honour of the deceased,


The History of the spurious Alexander. Archelaus is banished, and Graphyra

dies, after what was to happen to both of them had been shown them in Dreams. $ 1. In the meantime there was a man, who was by birth a Jew, but brought up at Sidon with one of the Roman freedmen, who falsely pretended, on account of the resemblance of their countenances, that he was that Alexander who was slain by Herod. This man came to Rome in hopes of not being detected. He had one who was his assistant, of his own nation, and who knew all the affairs of the kingdom, and instructed him to say how those that were sent to kill him and Aristobulus had pity upon them, and stole them away, by putting bodies that were like theirs in their places. This man deceived the Jews that were at Crete, and got a great d al of money of them for travelling in splendour ; and thence

sailed to Melos, where he was thought so certainly genuine, that he got a great deal more money, and prevailed with those that had treated him to sail along with him to Rome. So he landed at Dicearcbia (Puteoli,] and got very large presents from the Jews who dwelt there, and was conducted by his father's friends as if he were a king ; nay, the resemblance in his countenance procured him so much credit, that those who had seen Alexander, and had known him very well, would take their oaths that he was the very same person. Accordingly, the whole body of the Jews that were at Rome ran out in crowds to see him, and ar innumerable multitude there was which stood in the narrow places through whick he was carried ; for those of Melos were so far distracted, that they carried hin in a sedan, and maintained a royal attendance for him at their own proper charges.

2. But Cæsar, who knew perfectly well the lineaments of Alexander's face because he had been accused by Herod before him, discerned the fallacy in his countenance even before he saw the man. However, he suffered the agreeable fame that went of him to have some weight with him, and sent Celadus, one who well knew Alexander, and ordered him to bring the young man to him. But when Cæsar saw him, he immediately discerned a difference in his countenance; and when he had discovered that his whole body was of a more robust texture, and like that of a slave, he understood the whole was a contrivance. But the impudence of what he said greatly provoked him to be angry at him; for when he was asked about Aristobulus, he said, that “ he was also preserved alive, and was left on purpose in Cyprus, for fear of treachery, because it would be harder for plotters to get them both in their power while they were separate.” Then did Cæsar take him by himself privately, and said to him, “ I will give thee thy life, if thou wilt discover who it was that persuaded thee to forge such stories." So he said that he would discover him; and followed Cæsar, and pointed to that Jew who abused the resemblance of his face to get money; for that he had re. ceived more presents in every city than ever Alexander did while he was alive. Cæsar laughed at the contrivance, and put this spurious Alexander among his rowers, on account of the strength of his body, but ordered him that persuaded him to be put to death. But for the people of Melos, they had been sufficiently punished for their folly, by the expenses they had been at on his account.

3. And now Archelaus took possession of his ethnarchy, and used not the Jews only but the Samaritans also barbarously, and this out of his resentment to their old quarress with him. Whereupon they both of them sent ambassadors against him to Cæsar; and in the ninth year of his government he was banished to Vienna, a city of Gaul, and his effects were put into Cæsar's treasury. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Cæsar, he seemed to see nine ears of corn, full and large, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had sent for the di. viners, and some of the Chaldeans, and inquired of them what they thought it portended; and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had ano. ther, Simon, one of the sect of the Essens, said, that “he thought the ears of corn denoted years, and the oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their ploughing they made an alteration of the country: that, therefore, he should reign as many years as there were ears of corn, and after he had passed through various alterations of fortune, should die.” Now five days after Archelaus had heard this interpretation, he was called to his trial.

4. I cannot also but think it worthy to be recorded, what dream Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, had, who had at first been wife to Alex. ander, who was the brother of Archelaus, concerning whom we have been discour sing. This Alexander was the son of Herod the king, by whom he was put to deain as we have already related. This Glaphyra was married, after his death, to Juba king of Libya, and after his death, was returned home, and lived a widow with. her father. Then it was that Archelaus the ethnarch saw her, and fell so deeply in love with her, that he divorced Mariamne who was then his wife, and marria

ber. When, therefore, she was come into Judea, and had been there for a little while, she thought she saw Alexander stand by her, and that he said to her, " Thy marriage with the king of Libya might have been sufficient for thee ; but hou wast not contented with him, but hast returned again to my family, to a third nusband, and him, thou impudent woman, hast thou chosen for thine husband who is my brother. However, I shall not overlook the injury thou hast offered me; I shall (soon) have thee again, whether thou wilt or no.” Now Glaphyra hardly purvived the narration of this dream of hers two days.


Irchelaus's Ethnarchy is reduced into a [Roman] Province. The Sedition of Judas

of Galilee.

The Three Sects of the Jews. À 1. And now Archelaus's part of Judea was reduced into a province; and Co ponius, one of the equestrian order among the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the power of [life and] death put into his hands by Cæsar. Under his administration it was that a certain Galilean, whose name was Judas, prevailed with his country men to revolt, and said they were cowards, if they would endure to pay a tax to the Romans, and would, after God, submit to mortal men as their lords. This man was a teacher of a peculiar sect of his own, and was not at all like the rest of those their leaders.

2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees, of the second the Sadducees, and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essens. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have These Essens reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence and the conquest over our passions as a virtue. They neglect wedlock, but choose out other persons children while they are pliable and fit for learning, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them according to their own manners. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succesion of man. kind thereby continued ; but they guard against the lascivious behaviour of wo. men, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man.

3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there any one to be found among them, who þath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order, insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty or excess of riches, but every one's possessions are intermingled with every other's possessions, and so there is, as it were, one pa. trimony among all the brethren. They think that oil is a defilement; and if any of them be anointed, without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body ; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common af. fairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the uses of thenı all.

4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own : and they go into such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them: For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take

weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to pro. vide

garments and other necessaries for them. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow the change of garments or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to


pieces, or worn out by time. Nor do they either buy or sell any thing to one ano ther, but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and re. ceives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and ab though there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please.

5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary: for before sun. rising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers, which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made supplication for its rising. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators to exes. cise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labour with great diligence till the fifth hour : after which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any one of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the diningroom, as into a certain holy temple, and quietly set themselves down ; upon which the baker lays them loaves in order : the cook also brings a single plate of one sort of food, and sets it before every one of them; but a priest says grace before meat, and it is unlawful for any one to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin and when they end they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them, after which they lay aside their (white) garments, and betake themselves to their labours again till the evening; then they return home to supper, after the same manner, and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamour or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them.

6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunc tions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at every one's own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succour to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. They dispense their

anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace: whatsover they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than per. jury;* for they say, that he who cannot be believed, without (swearing by] God, is already condemned. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body, and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers.

7. But now, if any one hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not im. mediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the forementioned girdle, and the white garment. And when he * This practice of the Essens, in refusing to swear, and esteeming swearing on ordinary occasions worse than perjury, is delivered here in general words, as are the parallel injunctions of our Saviour, Matt. v. 34; xxiii. 16; and of St. James, v. 12; but all admit of particular exceptions, for solemn causes, and on great and necessary occasions. Thus these very Essens, who here do zealously avoid swearing, are related, in the very next section, to admit pone till they take tremendous oaths to perform their several duties to God and to their neighbour, without supposing they thereby break this rule not to swear at all. The case is the same in Christiani:y, as we learu from the Apostolical Constitutions, which, although they agree with Christ and St. James in forbidding to swear in general, ch. v. 12; ch. vi. 23; yet do they ex. plain it elsewhere, by avoiding 10 swear falsely, and to swear

often and in vain, ch. ii

. 36; and again, by not swearing at all, but withal adding, that if that cannot be avoided, to swear truly, ch. vii 3, which abuer daptly explain to us the nature of the measures of this general injunction

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