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hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this de. monstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years, and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe jus. tice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own ac. cord, or by the command of others : that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous: that he will ever show fidelity to all men, and especi. ally to those in authority; because no one obtains the government without God's assistance; and that if he be in authority, he will at no time whatever abuse his authority, nor endeavour to outshine his subjects, either in his garments, or any other finery: that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies : that he will keep his hands clear from theft and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal any thing from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no not though any one should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself: that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels* (or messengers.] These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves.
8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them, does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; for which reason they receive many of them again, when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death, to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of.
9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honour, after God himself, is the name of their legislator (Moses,) whom if any one blaspheme he is punished capitally. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labours on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. Nay, on the other days, they dig a small pit a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them, when they are first admitted among them,) and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit; after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for * This mention of the names of angels, so particularly preserved by the Essens, (if it means more than those messengers which were employed to bring them the peculiar books of their sect,) looks like a pre. lude to that worshipping of angels blamed by St. Paul as superstitious, and unlawful in some such sort of people as these Essens were, Coloss. ii. 8 ; as is the prayer to or towards the sun for his rising every moming, mentioned before, sect. 5, very like those not much later observances mademention of in the preaching of Peter, Authent. Rec. Part ii. page 669; and regarding a kind of worship of angels, of the month, and of the moon, and not celebrating the new moons, or other festivals, unless the moon appeared ; which, indeed, seeins to me the earliest mention of any regard to the moon's phasis in fixing to Jewish calendar; of which the Talmud and later rabbins talk so much, and upon so little very ancien foundation. VOL. II.
this purpose ; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a sula with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to theni.
10. Now after the time of their preparatory trial is over, they are parted into four classes ; and so far are the juniors inferior to the seniors, that if the seniors should be touched by the juniors, they must wash themselves, as if they had in. termixed themselves with the company of a foreigner. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the sim. plicity of their diet, nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They contemr the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the gene. rosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; and, indeed, our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legis. lator or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could not they be made to do either of them, no nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned-up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again.
11. For their doctrine is this, that bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and con. tinue for ever: and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural en. ticement; but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinion of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat; but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean ; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never ceasing punishments. And, indeed, the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods, and to the souls of the wicked the region of the ungodly in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are im mortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wick. edness, collected, whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death, and whereby the venement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that althougn they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. These are the divine doctrines of the Essens* about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy.
12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretellt things to come by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and be. ing perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom thai they miss in their predictions.
13. Moreover, there is another order of Essens, who agree with the rest as to their way of living, and customs, and laws, but differ from them in the point of marriage, as thinking that by not marrying they cut off the principal part of human
* Of these Jewish or Essene, and, indeed, Christian doctrines concerning souls, both good and bad, in Hades, see that excellent discourse or homily of our Josephus concerning Hades, at the end of voi. Il
+ Dean Aldrich reckons up three examples of this gift of prophecy in several of these Essens out of Josephus himself, viz. in the History of the War, B. i. ch. iii. sect. 5, Judas foretold the death of Anti conus at Stralo's Tower; B. ii. ch. vii. sect. 3; Simon foretold that Archelaus should reign but nine or en years; and Antiq. B. xv.ch. X. sect. 4, 65, Menehein foretold that Hero:l should be king, and should reign omunically, and enat for more than twenty or even thirty years. All which can.ie to pass accordingly
tife, which is the prospect of succession ; nay, rather, that if all men should be of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would fail. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their gar. merts on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essens.
14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned, the Pl.arisees are those who are esteemed most skilful in the exact explication of their laws, and in. troduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate for provideuce) and to God, and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men; although fate does cooperate in every action. They say, that all the souls are incorruptible, but that the souls* of good men only are removed into other bodies, but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose
that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; and they say, that to act what is good or what is evil is at men's own choice; and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord and regard for the public; but the behaviour of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were stranger to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
The Death of Salome. The Cities which Herod and Philip built. Pilate occasions Disturbances. Tiberius puts Agrippa into Bonds; but Caius frees him from
them, and makes him King. Herod Antipas is banished. | 1. And now as the etnarchy of Archelaus was fallen into a Roman province, the other sons of Herod, Philip, and that Herod who was called Antipas, each of them
upon them the administration of their own tetrarchies; for when Salome died she bequeathed to Julia, the wife of Augustus, both her toparchy, and Jamnia, also ber plantation of palm-trees that were at Phasaelis.f But when the Roman empire was translated to Tiberius, the son of Julia, upon the death of Augustus, who had
• There is so much more here about the Essens than is ciled froin Josephus in Porphyry and Eusebius, and yet so much less about the Pharisees and Sadducees, the two other Jewish sects, than would naturally be expected in proportion to the Essens or third sect, nay, than seenis to be referred to by himself elsewhere, that one is tempted to suppose Josephus had at first written less of the one and inore of the two others than his preseni copies afford us; as also, that by some unknown accident our present copies are here made up of the larger edition in the first case, and the smaller in the second. "See the note in Havercamp's edition. However, what Josephus says in the name of the Pharisees, that only the souls of goud men go out of one body into another, although all souls are immortal, and still the souls of the bad are liable to eternal punishment; as also what he says afterward, Antiq. B. xviii. chap. i. sect. 3, that the soul's vigour is immortal; and thai under the earth they receive rewards or punishments according as their lives have been virtuous or vicious in the present world; that to the bad is allotted an eternal prison, out that the good are permitted to live again in this world, are nearly agreeable to the docrines of Chris banity. Only Josephus's rejection of the return of the wicked into other bodies, or into this world, which be grants to the good, looks somewhat like a contradiction to St. Paul's account of the doctrine of the ews, that they themselves allow that there should be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjusi, Acts, ch. xxiv. 15. Yet because Josephus's account is that of the Pharisees, and St. Paul's that of the ews in general, and of himself, the contradiction is no: very certain.
We have here in that Greek MS. which was once Alexander Petavius's, but it is now in the library a Leyden, two most remarkable additions to the common copies, though deemed worth little remark by the editor; which upon the mention of Tiberius's coming to the empire, inserts first the famous testimony of Josephus concerning Jesus Christ, as it stands veroatim in the Antiquities, B. xviii. chap. ii. sect.
reigned fifty-seven years, six months, and two days, both Herod and Philip cont pued in their tetrarchies; and the latter of them built the city Cæsarea, at the foun cains of Jordan, and in the region of Paneas; as also the city of Julias, in the Lowe Gaulanitis. Herod also built the city Tiberias in Galilee, and in Perea (beyono Jordan) another that was also called Julias.
2. Now Pilate, who was sent as procurator into Judea by Tiberius, sent by night those images of Cæsar that are called ensigns into Jerusalem. This excited a very great tumult among the Jews when it was day; for those that were near them were astonished at the sight of them, as indications that their laws were trodden under foot; for those laws do not permit any sort of image to be brought into the city. Nay, besides the indignation which the citizens had themselves at this procedure, a vast number of people came running out of the country. These came zealously to Pilate to Cæsarea, and besought him to carry those ensigns out of Jerusalem, and to preserve them their an. cient laws inviolable; but upon Pilate's denial of their request, they fell down postrate upon the ground, and continued immoveable in that posture for five days and as many nights.
3. On the next day Pilate sat upon his tribunal in the open market-place, and called to him the multitude, as desirous to give them an answer; and then gave a signal to the soldiers that they should all by agreement at once encompass the Jews with their weapons ; so the band of soldiers stood round about the Jews in three ranks. The Jews were under the utmost consternation at that unexpected sight : Pilate also said to them, that they should be cut in pieces, unless they would admit of Cæsar's images, and gave intimation to the soldiers to draw their naked swords. Hereupon the Jews, as it were at one signal, fell down in vast numbers together, and exposed their necks bare, and cried out, that they were sooner ready to be slain, than that their laws should be transgressed. Hereupon Pilate was greatly surprised at their prodigious superstition, and gave order that the ensigns should be presently carried out of Jerusalem.
4. After this he raised another disturbance, by expending that sacred treasure which is called Corban* upon aqueducts, whereby he brought water from the distance of four hundred furlongs. At this the multitude had indignation ; and when Pilate was come to Jerusalem, they came about his tribunal and made a clamour at it. Now when he was apprized asorehand of this disturbance, he niixed his own soldiers in their armour with the multitude ; and ordered them to conceal themselves under the habits of private men, and not, indeed, to use their swords, but with their staves to beat those that made the clamour.
He then gave the signal from his tribunal (to do as he had bidden them.] Now the Jews were 80 sadly beaten, that many of them perished by the stripes they received, and many of them perished as trodden to death by themselves; by which means the multitude was astonished at the calamity of those that were slain, and held their peace,
5. In the meantime Agrippa, the son of that Aristobulus who had been slain by his father Herod, came to Tiberius to accuse Herod the tetrarch ; who not admit. ting of his accusation he stayed at Rome, and cultivated a friendship with others of the men of note, but principally with Caius the son of Germanicus, who was then but a private person. Now this Agrippa, at a certain time, feasted Caius; and as he was very complaisant to him on several other accounts, he at length stretched out his hands, and openly wished that Tiberius might die, and that he might quickly see him emperor of the world. This was told to Tiberius by one of Agrippa's domestics, who thereupon was very angry, and ordered Agrippa to be bound, and with sone parts of that excellent discourse or homily of Josephus concerning Hades, annexed to the work. But what is here principally to be noted is this, that in this homily, Josephus, baving just mentioned Christ, as God the Word, and the Judge of the world, appointed by the Father, &c. adds, that he had himself elsewhere spoken about him more nicely or particularly.
This use of corban, or oblation, as here applied to the sacred money dedicated to God in the treasury of the temple, illustrates our Saviour's words, Mark, vii. 11, 12.
bad him very ill treated in the prison for six months, until Tiberius died, after he had reigned twenty-two years six months and three days.
6. But when Caius was made Cæsar, he released Agrippa from his bonds, and made him king of Philip's tetrarchy, who was now dead; but when Agrippa had arrived at that degree of dignity, he inflamed the ambitious desires of Herod the tetrarch, who was chiefly induced to hope for the royal authority by his wife Herodias, who reproached him for his sloth, and told him, that it was only because he would not sail to Cæsar that he was destitute of that great dignity; for since Cæsar had made Agrippa a king from a private person, much more would he ad. Fance him from a tetrarch to that dignity. These arguments prevailed with Her. od, so that he came to Caius, by whom he was punished for his ambition, by being banished into Spain ; for Agrippa followed him in order to accuse him ; to whom also Cajus gave his tetrarchy by way of addition. So Herod died in Spain, whither his wife had followed him.
Caius commands that his Statue should be set up in the Temple itself; and what
Petronius did thereupon. $1. Now Caius Cæsar did so grossly abuse the fortune he had arrived at, as to take himself to be a god, and to desire to be so called also, and to cut off those of the greatest nobility out of his country. He also extended his impiety as far as the Jews. Accordingly, he sent Petronius with an army to Jerusalem, to place his statues* in the temple : and commanded him, that, in case the Jews would not admit of them, he would slay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest of the nation intɔ captivity: but God concerned himself with these his commands. However, Petronius marched out of Antioch into Judea with three legions and many Syrian auxiliaries. Now as to the Jews, some of them could not believe the stories that spake of a war; but those that did believe them were in the ut. most distress how to defend themselves; and the terror diffused itself presently through them all; for the army was already come to Ptolemais.
2. This Ptolemais is a maritime city of Galilee, built in the great plain. It is encompassed with mountains; that on the east side, sixty furlongs off, belongs to Galilee; but that on the south belongs to Carmel, which is distant from it a hun. dred and twenty furlongs; and that on the north is the highest of them all, and is called by the people of the country the ladder of the Tyrians, which is at the distance of a hundred furlongs. The very small river Belust runs by it, at the distance of two furlongs; near which there is Memnon'st monument, and hath near it a place no larger than a hundred cubits, which deserves admiration ; for the place is round and hollow, and affords such sand as glass is made of: which place, when it hath been emptied by the many ships there loaded, it is filled again by the winds, which bring into it, as it were on purpose, that sand which lay re. mote, and was no more than bare common sand, while this mine presently turns it into glassy sand. And what is to me still more wonderful, that glassy sand which is superfluous, and is once removed out of the place, becomes bare common sand again. And this is the nature of the place we are speaking of.
3. But now the Jews got together in great numbers, with their wives and chil. dren, into that plain that was by Ptolemais, and made supplication to Petronius,
* Tacitus owns that Cajus commanded the Jews to place his effigies in their temple, though he may be mistaken when he adds, that the Jews thereupon took arms.
+ This account of the place near the mouth of the river Belus in Phenicia, whence came that sand out of which the ancients made their glass, is a known thing in history, particularly in Tacitus and Strabo, and more largely in Pliny.
This Mennon had several monuments, and one of them appears, both by Strabo and Diodorus, to bave been in Syria, and not improbably in this very place.