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first for their laws, and in the next place for themselves. So he was prevailed upon by the multitude of the supplicants, and by their supplications, and left his army and the statues at Ptolemais, and then went forward into Galilee and called Sogether the multitude, and all the men of note, to Tiberias, and showed them the power of the Romans and the threatenings of Cæsar; and, besides this, proved that their petition was unreasonable, because, while all the nations in subjection o them had placed the images of Cæsar in their several cities among the rest of their gods, for them alone to oppose it was almost like the behaviour of revolters, and was injurious to Cæsar.
4. And when they insisted on their law, and the custom of their country, and how it was not only not permitted them to make either an image of God, or, indeed, of a man, and to put it in any despicable part of their country, much less in the temple itself, Petronius replied, "And am not I also, said he, bound to keep the law of my own lord ? For if I transgress it, and spare you, it is but just that I perish ; while he that sent me, and not I, will commence a war against you ; for I am under command as well as you." Hereupon the whole multitude cried out, that “they were ready to suffer for their law.” Petronius then quieted them, and said to them,“Will you, then, make war against Cæsar;" The Jews said,
-“We offer sacrifices twice every day for Cæsar, and for the Roman people; but that if he would place the images among them, he must first sacrifice the whole Jewish nation; and that they were ready to expose themselves, together with their children, and wives, to be slain.” At this Petronius was astonished; and pitied them on account of the inexpressible sense of religion the men were under, and that courage of theirs which made them ready to die for it; so they were dismissed without success.
5. But on the following days he got together the men of power privately and the multitude publicly, and sometimes he used persuasions to them, and sometimes he gave them his advice, but he chiefly made use of threatenings to them, and insisted upon the power of the Romans and the anger of Caius ; and besides, upon the necessity he was himself under [to do as he was enjoined.] But as they could be no way prevailed upon, and he saw that the country was in danger of lying without tillage, for it was about seed-time that the multitude continued for fifty days together idle; so he at last got them together, and told them, that "it was best for him to run some hazard himself; for either by the divine assistance, I shall prevail with Cæsar, and shall myself escape the danger as well as you,
which will be matter of joy to us both: or, in case Cæsar continued in his rage, I will be ready to expose my own life for such a great number as you are.” Whereupon he dismissed the multitude, who prayed greatly for his prosperity; and he took the army out of Ptolemais, and returned to Antioch ; from whence he presently sent an epistle to Cæsar, and informed him of the irruption he had made into Judea, and of the supplications of the nation ; and that unless he had a mind to lose both the country and the men in it, he must permit them to keep their law, and must countermand his former injunction. Caius answered that epistle in a violent way, and threatened to have Petronius put to death for his being so tardy in the execution of what he had commanded. But it happened that those who brought Caius's epistle were tossed by a storm, and were detained on the sea for three months, while others that brought the news of Caius's death had a good voyage. Accordingly, Petronius received the epistle concerning Caius seven and twenty days before he received that which was against himself.
Concerning the Government of Claudius and the Reign of Agrippa. Concerning the Death of Agrippa, and of Herod, and what Children they
both left behind them. $ 1; Now when Caius had reigned three years and eight months, and had been slain by treachery, Claudius was hurried away by the armies that were at Rome to take the government upon him: but the senate, upon the reference of the con. suls Sentius Saturninus and Pomponius Secundus, gave orders to the three regi. ments of soldiers that stayed with them, to keep the city quiet, and went up into the capitol, in great numbers, and resolved to oppose Claudius by force, on ac. count of the barbarous treatment they had met with from Caius: and they determined either to settle the nation under an aristocracy, as they had of old been governed, or, at least, to choose by vote such a one for emperor as might be worthy of it.
2. Now it happened that at this time Agrippa sojourned at Rome, and that both the senate called him to consult with them, and at the same time Claudius sent for him out of the camp, that he might be serviceable to him as he should have occasion for his service. So he perceiving that Claudius was in effect made Cæsar already, went to him, who sent him as an ambassador to the senate, to let hem know what his intentions were ; that " in the first place, it was without his seeking that he was hurried away by the soldiers; moreover, that he thought it was not just to desert those soldiers in such their zeal for him; and that, if he should do so, his own fortune would be in uncertainty: for that it was a dangerous case to have been once called to the empire. He added farther, that he would administer the government as a good prince, and not like a tyrant; for that he would be satisfied with the honour of being called emperor, but would, in every one of his actions, permit them all to give him their advice; for that although he had not been by nature for moderation, yet would the death of Caius afford him a sufficient demonstration how soberly he ought to act in that station."
3. This message was delivered by Agrippa : to which the senate replied, that " since they had an army, and the wisest consuls on their side, they would not endure a voluntary slavery.” And when Claudius heard what answer the senate had made, he sent Agrippa to them again, with the following message, that “he could not hear the thoughts of betraying them that had given their oaths to be true to him; and that he saw he must fight, though unwillingly, against such as he had no mind to fight, that, however (if it must come to that,] it was proper to choose a place without the city for the war; because it was not agreeable to piety to pollute the temples of their own city with the blood of their own country. men, and this only on occasion of their imprudent conduct." And when Agrippa had heard this message, he delivered it to the senators.
4. In :he meantime one of the soldiers belonging to the senate drew his sword, and cried out, “ () my fellow soldiers, what is the meaning of this choice of ours, to kill our brethren, and to use violence to our kindred that are with Claudius ? while we may have him for our emperor whom no one can blame, and who hath $p many just reasons (to lay claim to the
government ;) and this with regard to against whom we are going to fight. When he had said this, he marched through the whole senate, and carried all the soldiers along with him. Upon which all the patricians were immediately in a great fright at their being thus de. serted. But still, because there appeared no other way whither they could turn themselves for deliverance, they made haste the same way with the soldiers, and went to Claudius. But those that had the greatest luck in flattering the good fartunc of Claudius betimes, met them before the walls with their naked swords; and there was reason to fear that those that came first might have been in danger, before Claudius could know what violence the soldiers were going to offer them, had not Agrippa run before, and told him what a dangerous thing they were going about; and that unless he restrained the violence of these men, who were in a fit of madness against the patricians, he would lose those on whose account it was most desirable to rule, and would be emperor over a desert.
5. When Claudius heard this, he restrained the violence of the soldiery, and received the senate into the camp, and treated them after an obliging manner, and went out with them presently to offer their thank-offerings to God, which were proper upon his first coming to the empire. Moreover, he bestowed on Agrippa his whole paternal kingdom immediately ; and added to it, besides those countries that had been given by Augustus to Herod, Trachonitis and Auranitis, and still besides these that kingdom which was called the kingdom of Lysanias. This gift he declared to the people by a decree, but ordered the magistrates to have the donation engraved on tables of brass, and to be set up in the capitol. He bestowed on his brother Herod, who was also his son-in-law, by marrying [his daughter] Bernice, the kingdom of Chalcis.
6. So now riches flowed in to Agrippa by his enjoyment of so large a do minion, nor did he abuse the money he had on small matters, but he began to encompass Jerusalem with such a wall which, had it been brought to perfec. tion, had made it impracticable for the Romans to take it by siege ; but his death, which happened at Cæsarea, before he had raised the walls to their due height, prevented him. He had then reigned three years, as he had governed his tetrar. chies three other years. He left behind him three daughters, born to him by Cypros, Bernice, Mariamne, and Drusilla, and a son born of the same mother, whose name was Agrippa : he was left a very young child, so that Claudius made the country a Roman province, and sent Cuspius Fadus to be its procurator, and after him Tiberius Alexander, who, making no alteration of the ancient laws kept the nation in tranquillity. Now after this Herod the king of Chalcis died and left behind him two sons, born to him of his brother's daughter Bernice their names were Bernicianus and Hyrcanus. [He also left behind him] Aris tobulus, whom he had by his former wife Mariamne. There was besides another brother of his that died a private person ; his name was also Aristobulus, who left behind him a daughter whose name was Jotape : and these, as I have for. merly said, were the children of Aristobulus the son of Herod, which Aris. tobulus and Alexander were born to Herod by Mariamne, and were slain by him But as for Alexander's posterity, they reigned in Armenia.
Meny Tumults under Cumanus, which were composed by Quadratus. Felix is Procurator of Judea. Agrippa is advanced from Chalcis to a greater
Kingdom. 8 1. Now after the death of Herod, king of Chalcis, Claudius set Agrippa, the son of Agrippa, over his uncle's kingdom, which Cumanus took upon him the office of procurator of the rest, which was a Roman province, and therein he suc. ceeded Alexander, under which Cumanus began the troubles, and the Jews' ruin came on; for when the multitude were come together to Jerusalem, to the feast of unleavened bread, and a Roman cohort stood over the cloisters of the temple (for they always were armed, and kept guard at the festivals, to prevent any innovation which the multitude thus gathered together might make,) one of the soldiers pulled back his garment, and, cowering down after an indecent manner, turned his breech to the Jews, and spake such words as you may expect upon auch a posture. At this the whole multitude had indignation, and made a cla
mcur to Cumagus, that he would punish the soldier; wnile the rasher part of the youth, and such as were naturally the most tumultuous, fell to fighting, and caught up stones, and threw them at the soldiers : upon which Cumanus was afraid lest all the people should make an assault upon him, and sent to call for more armed men, who when they came in great numbers into the cloisters, the Jews were in a very great consternation; and being beaten out of the temple, they ran into the city; and the violence with which they crowded to get out was so great that they trod upon each other, and squeezed one another, till ten thousand of them were killed, insomuch that this feast became the cause of mourning to the whole na tion, and every family lamented their own relations. ]
2. Now there followed after this another calamity, which arose from a tumult made by robbers; for at the public road of Bethhoron, one Stephen, a servant of Cæsar, carried some furniture, which the robbers fell upon and seized: upon this Cumanus sent men to go round about to the neighbouring villages, and to bring their inhabitants to him bound, as laying it to their charge that they had not pursued after the thieves and caught them. Now here it was that a certain soldier finding the sacred book of the law, tore it to pieces, and threw it into the fire. * Hereupon the Jews were in great disorder, as if their whole country were in a flame, and assembled themselves so many of them by their zeal for their religion as by an engine, and ran together with united clamour to Cæsarea to Cumanus, and made supplication to him, that he would not overlook this man, who had of fered such an affront to God, and to his law, but punish him for what he had done Accordingly, he perceiving that the multitude would not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer from him, gave order that the soldier should be brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished to execution, which oeing done, the Jews went their ways.
3. After this there happened a fight between the Galileans and the Samaritans • it happened at the village called Geman, which is situate in the great plain of Samaria, where, as a great number of Jews were going up to Jerusalem to the feast [of tabernacles,] a certain Galilean was slain : and besides a vast number of people ran together out of Galilee, in order to fight with the Samaritans; but the principal men among them came to Cumanus, and besought him, that, before the ovil became incurable, he would come into Galilee, and bring the authors of this murder to punishment; for that there was no other way to make the multitude separate without coming to blows. However, Cumanus postponed their suppli cations to the other affairs he was then about, and sent the petitioners away with out success.
4 But when the affair of this murder came to be told at Jerusalem, it put the multitude into disorder, and they left the feast, and without any generals to con. duct them they marched with great violence to Samaria ; nor would they be ruled by any of the magistrates that were set over them, but they were managed by one Eleazar, the son of Dineus, and by Alexander, in these their thievish and seditious attempts. These men fell upon those that were in the neighbourhood of the Acrabatene toparchy, and slew them, without sparing any age, and set the villages on fire.
5. But Cumanus took one troop of horsemen, called the troop of Sebasts, out of Cæsarea, and came to the assistance of those that were spoiled: he also seized upon a great number of those that followed Eleazar, and slew more of them. And as for the rest of the multitude of those that went so zealously to fight with the Samaritans, the rulers of Jerusalem ran out clothed with sackcloth and having ashes on their heads, and begged of them to go their ways, lest by their attempt to revenge themselves upon the Samaritans they should provoke the Romans to come against Jerusalem; to have compassion upon their country and temple, their children and their wives, and not bring the utmost dangers of destruction upon them, in order to avenge themselves upon one Galilean only. The Jews complied with these persuasions of theirs, and dispersed themselves; but still there were a great number who betook themselves to robbing, in hopes of impunity, and rapines and insurrections of the bolder sort happened over the whole country; and the men of power among the Samaritans came to Tyre, to Ummidius Quadratus,* the president of Syria, and desired that they that had laid waste the country might be punished: the great men also of the Jews, and Jona. than the son of Ananus, the high priest, came thither, and said, that the Sa. waritans were the beginners of the disturbances, on account of that murder they had committed ; and that Cumanus had given occasion to what had happened, by his unwillingness to punish the original authors of that murder.
• Reland notes here, that the Talmud, in recounting ten sad accidents for which the Jews ought to rend their garments, reckons this for one. "When wey hear that the law of God is burnt" VOL. II
6. But Quadratus put both parties off for that time, and told them, that when he should come to those places, he would make a diligent inquiry after every circumstance. After which he went to Cæsarea, and crucified all those whom Cumanus had taken alive ; and when from thence he was come to the city Lydda, he heard the affair of the Samaritans, and sent for eighteen of the Jews whom he had learned to have been concerned in that fight, and beheaded them : but he sent two others of those that were of the greatest power amongst them, and both Jonathan and Ananias, the high priests, as also Ananus, the son of this Ananias, and certain others that were eminent among the Jews, to Cæsar; as he did in like manner by the most illustrious of the Samaritans. He also ordered that Cumanus [the procurator,) and Celer the tribune, should sail to Rome, in order to give an account of what had been done, to Cæsar. When he had finished these matters, he went up from Lydda to Jerusalem, and finding the multitude celebrating their feast of unleavened bread without any tumult, he returned to Antioch.
7. Now when Cæsar at Rome had heard what Cumanus and the Samaritans had to say (where it was done in the hearing of Agrippa, who zealously espouseu the cause of the Jews, as in like manner many of the great men stood by Cu manus,) he condemned the Samaritans, and commanded that three of the mosi powerful men among them should be put to death : he banished Cumanus, and sent Celer bound to Jerusalem, to be delivered over to the Jews to be torinented. that he should be drawn round the city, and then beheaded.
8. After this Cæsar sent Felix,t the brother of Pallas, to be procurator of Galilee, and Samaria, and Perea, and removed Agrippa from Chalcis unto a greater kingdom ; for he gave him the tetrarchy which had belonged to Philip. which contained Batanea, Trachonitis, and Gaulanitis : he added to it the kingdom of Lysanias, and that province (Abilene) which Varus had governed. But Claudius himself, when he had administered the government thirteen years
* This Ummidius, or Numidius, or, as Tacitus calls him, Vinidius Quadratus, is mentioned in an ancient inscription, still preserved, as Spanhelm here informs us, which calls him UUMIDIUS QUADRATUS
+ Take the character of this Felix, (who is well known from the Acts of the Apostles, particularly from his trembling, when St. Paul discoursed of righteousness, chastity, and judgment to come, Acts xxiv. 25, and no wonder, when we have elsewhere seen that he lived in adultery with Drusilia, another man's wife, Antiq. B. xx. ch. vii. sect. 1,) in the words of Tacitus, produced here by Dean Aldrich:* Felix exercised," says Tacitus," the authority of a king, with the disposition of a slave, and relying upon the great power of his brother Pallas at court, thought he might safely be guilty of all kinds of wicked practices." Observe also the time when he was made procurator, A. D. 52, that when St. Paul pleaded his cause before him, A D. 58, he might have been many years a judge unto that nation, as SL Paul says he had then been, Acts, xxiv. 10. But as to what Tacitus here says, that before the death oʻ Cumanus, Felix was procurator over Samaria only, does not well agree with St. Paul's words, who would hardly have called Samaria a Jewish nation. In short, since what Tacitus bere says, is about countries very remote from Rome, where he lived; since what he says of two Roman procurators, the one over Galilee, the other over Samaria, at the same time, is without all example elsewhere; and since Jo sephus, who lived at that very time in Judea, appears to have known nothing of this procuratorship of Felix, before the death of Cumanus, I much suspect the story itself is nothing better than a mistake of Tacitus, especially when it seems not only omitted, but contradicted by Josephus; as any one may and that compare their histories together. Possibly Felix might have been a subordinate judge among the Jews some time before under Cumanus; but that he was in earnest a procurator of Sarnaria before, I do not believe. Bishop Pearson, as well as Bishop Lloyd, quote this account, but with a doubtful clause : sv fides Tacito, If we may believe Tacitus. Pears. Annal. Paulin oage 8, Marshal's Tables, a . E. 49.