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circumstances, will venture to oppose the entire empire of the Romans ; while those Athenians, who, in order to preserve the liberty of Greece, did once set fire to their own city ; who pursued Xerxes, that proud prince, when he sailed upon the sea and walked upon the land, and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such an army as was too broad for Europe, and made him run away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a part of Asia as the Lesser Salamis, are yet at this time servants to the Romans; and those injunc. tions which are sent from Italy become laws to the principal governing city of Greece. Those Lacedemonians also, who got the great victories of Thermo Dylæ and Platea, and had Agesilaus (for their king, and searched every corner of Asia, are contented to admit the same lords. Those Macedonians also, who still fancy what great men their Philip and Alexander were, and see that the latter had promised them the empire over the world, these bear so great a change, and pay their obedience to those whom fortune hath advanced in their stead. More. over, ten thousand other nations there are, who had greater reason than we to claim their entire liberty, and yet do submit. You are the only people who think it a disgrace to be servants to those to whom all the world hath submitted. What sort of army do you rely upon ? What are the arms you depend on? Where is your fleet, that may seize upon the Roman seas? And where are those treasures which may be sufficient for your undertakings? Do you suppose, I pray you, that you are to make war with the Egyptians and with the Arabians ? 'Will not you carefully reflect upon the Roman empire? Will not you estimate your own weakness ? Hath not your army been often beaten even by your neighbouring nations; while the power of the Romans is invincible in all parts of the habitable earth; nay, rather they seek for somewhat still beyond that; for all Euphrates is not a sufficient boundary for them on the east side, nor the Danube on the north; and for their southern limit Libya hath been searched over by them, as far as countries uninhabited, as is Cadiz their limit on the west ; nay, indeed, they have sought for another habitable earth beyond the ocean, and have carried their arms as far as such British islands as were never known before. What, therefore, do you pretend to? Are you richer than the Gauls, stronger than the Germans, wiser than the Greeks, more numerous than all men upon the habitable earth? What confidence is it, that elevates you to oppose the Romans? Perhaps it will be said, it is hard to en dure slavery. Yes, but how much harder is this to the Greeks, who are esteemed the noblest of all people under the sun. These, though they inhabit in a large country, are in subjection to six bundles of Roman rods. It is the same case with the Macedonians, who have juster reasons to clain their liberty than you have. What is the case of five hundred cities of Asia ? do not they submit to a single governor and to the consular bundle of rods. What need I speak of the Henio. chi, and Cholchi, and the nation of Tauri, those that inhabit the Bosphorus, and the nations about Pontus and Meotis, who formerly knew not so much as a lord of their own, but are now subject to three thousand armed men, and where forty long ships kept the sea in peace, which before was not navigable, and very tem pestuous ? How strong a plea may Bythinia, and Cappadocia, and the people of Pamphilia, the Lycians, and Cilicians, put in for liberty? But they are made tributary without an army.

What are the circumstances of the Thracians? whose country extends in breadth five days journey and in length seven, and is a much more harsh constitution, and much more defensible than yours, and by the rigour of its cold sufficient to keep off armies from attacking them; do not they submit to two thousand men of the Roman garrisons? Are not the Illyrians, who inhabit the country adjoining, as far as Dalmatia and the Danube, governed by barely two legions ? By which also they put a stop to the incursions of the Dacians. And for the Dalmatians, who have made such frequent insurrections in order to regain their liberty, and who could never before be so thoroughly subdued but that they always gathered their forces together again, and revolted, yet are they how very quiet under one Roman legion. Moreover, if great advantages might provoke any people to revolt, the Gauls inight do it best of all, as being so i 10roughly walled round by nature; on the east by the Alps, on the north by the river Rhine, on the south by the Pyrenean mountains, and on the west by the


Now although these Gauls have such obstacles before them to prevent any attacks upon them, and have no fewer than three hundred and five nations among them, nay, have, as one may say, the fountains of doniestic happiness within themselves, and send out plentiful streams of happiness over alınost the whole world, these bear to be tributary to the Romans, and derive their prosperous condition from them: and they undergo this, not because they are of effeininate minds, or because they are of an ignoble stock, as having borne a war of eighty years, in order to preserve their liberty, but by reason of the great regard they have to the power of the Romans, and their good fortune, which is of greater efficacy than their arms. These Gauls, therefore, are kept in servitude by twelve hundred soldiers, which are hardly so many as are their cities; nor hath the gold dug out of the mines of Spain been sufficient for the support of a war to preserve their liberty; nor could their vast distance from the Romans by land and by sea do it; nor could the martial tribes of the Lusitanians and Spaniards escape ; vo more could the ocean, with its tide, which yet was terrible to the ancient inhabj. tants. Nay, the Romans have extended their arms beyond the pillars of Hercules, and have walked among the clouds upon the Pyrenean mountains, and have subdued these nations. And one legion is a sufficient guard for these people, al. though they were so hard to be conquered, and at a distance so remote from Rome. Who is there among you that hath not heard of the great number of the Germans? You have, to be sure, yourselves seen them to be strong and tall, and that frequently, since the Romans have them among their captives every where; yet these Germans, who dwell in an immense country, who have minds greater than their bodies, and a soul that despises death, and who are in rage more fierce than wild beasts, have the Rhine for the boundary of their enterprises, and are tamed by eight Roman legions. Such of them as were taken captives became their servants; and the rest of the entire nation was obliged to save themselves by flight. Do you also, who depend on the walls of Jerusalem, consider what a wall the Britons had; for the Romans sailed away to them, and subdued them, while they were encompassed by the ocean, and inhabited an island that is not less than the continent of] this habitable earth; and four legions are a sufficient guard to so large an island. And why should I speak much more about this matter while the Parthians, that most warlike body of men, and lords of so many nations, and encompassed with such mighty forces, send hostages to the Romans; whereby you may see, if you please, even in Italy, the noblest nation of the east, under the notion of peace, submitting to serve them. Now, when almost all people under the sun submit to the Roman arms, will you be the only people that make war against them? and this without regarding the fate of the Carthaginians, who, in the midst of the brags of the great Hannibal, and the nobility of their Phænician original, fell by the hand of Scipio. Nor, indeed, have the Cyreneans, derived from the Lacedemonians, nor the Marmaridæ, a nation extended as far as the regions uninhabitable for want of water, nor have the Syrtes, a place ter. rible to such as barely hear it described, the Nasamons and Moors, and the immense multitude of the Numidians, been able to put a stop to the Roman valour. And as for the third part of the habitable earth (Africa,} whose nations are so many that it is not easy to number them, and which is bounded by the Atlantic sea and the pillars of Hercules, and feeds an innumerable multitude of Ethiopians, as far as the Red Sea, these have the Romans subdued entirely. And besides the an. nual fruits of the earth, which maintain the multitude of the Romans for eight months in the year, this, over and above, pays all sorts of tribute, and affords revenue suitable to the necessities of the government: nor do they, like you, es teem such injunctions a disgrace to them, although they have but one Roman legion that abides among them. And, indeed, what occasion is there for showing

you the power of the Romans over remote countries, when it is so easy to learn it from Egypt, in your neighbourhood? This country is extended as far as the Ethiopians and Arabia the Happy, and borders upon India : it hath seven millions five hundred thousand men, besides the inhabitants of Alexandria, as may bo learned from the revenue of the poll-tax; yet is it not ashamed to submit to the Roman government, although it hath Alexandria as a grand temptation to a revolt, by reason it is so full of people and of riches, and is, besides, exceeding large, its length being thirty furlongs and its breadth not less than ten; and it pays moro tribute to the Romans in one month than you do in a year; nay, besides what it pays in money, it sends corn to Rome that supports it for four months in the year:) it is also wailed round on all sides, either by almost impassable deserts, or seas that have no havens, or by rivers, or by lakes; yet have none of these zhings been found too strong for the Roman good fortune; however, two legions that lie in that city are a bridle both for the remoter parts of Egypt, and for the parts inhabited by the more noble Macedonians. Where, then, are those people whom you are to have for your auxiliaries ? Must they come from the parts of the world that are uninhabited ? for all that are in the habitable earth are (under the Romans; unless any of you extend his hopes as far as beyond Euphrates, and suppose that those of your own nation that dwell in Adiabene will come to your assistance; but certainly these will not embarrass themselves with an unjustifiable war, nor, if they should follow such ill advice, will the Parthians permit them so to do; for it is their concern to maintain the truce that is between them and the Romans, and they will be supposed to break the covenants between them, ita l'any under their government march against the Romans. What remains, there. fore, is this, that you have recourse to divine assistance : but this is already on the side of the Romans; for it is impossible that so vast an empire should be settled without God's providence. Refect upon it how impossible it is for your zealous observation of your religious customs to be here preserved, which are hard to be observed even when you fight with those whom you are able to con quer; and how can you then most of all hope for God's assistance, when, by being forced to transgress his law, you will make him turn his face from you?' and if you do observe the custom of the Sabbath days, and will not be prevailed on to do any thing thereon, you will easily be taken, as were your forefathers by Pompey, who was the busiest in his siege on those days on which the besieged rested. But is in time of war you transgress the law of your country, I cannot tell on whose account you will afterward go to war; for your concern is but


that nothing against any of your forefathers, and how will you call upon God to assist you when you are voluntarily transgressing against his religion ? Now all men that go to war do it either as depending on divine or on human assistance; but since your going to war will cut off both those assistances, those that are for going to war choose evident destruction. What hinders you from slaying your children and wives with your own hands, and burning this most excellent native city of yours ? for by this mad prank you will, however, escape the reproach of being beaten. But it were best, O my friends, it were best, while the vessel is still in the haven, to foresee the impending storm, and not to set sail out of the port into the middle of the hurricanes; for we justly pity those who fall into great misfor tunes without foreseeing them; but for him

who rushes into manifest ruin, he gains reproaches (instead of commiseration.) But certainly no one can imagine that you can enter into a war as by agreement, or that when the Romans have got you under their power, they will use you with moderation, or will not rather, for an example to other nations, burn your holy city, and utterly destroy your whole na tion ; for those of you who shall survive the war will not be able to find a place whither to flee, since all men have the Romans for their lords already, or are afraid they shall have hereafter. Nay, indeed, the danger concerns not those Jews that dwell here only, but those of them which dwell in other cities also ; for there is no people upon the habitable earth which have not some portion of you among them

you do

whom your enemies will slay, in case you go to war, and on that account also and so every city which hath Jews in it will be filled with slaughter, for the sake of a few men, and they who slay them will be pardoned: but if that slaughter be not made by them, consider how wicked a thing it is to take arms against those that are so kind to you. Have pity, therefore, if not of your children and wires, yet upon this your metropolis, and its sacred walls; spare the temple, and pre. serve the holy house, with its holy furniture, for yourselves ; for if the Romans get you under their power, they will no longer abstain from them, when their former abstinence shall have been so ungratefully requited. I call to witness your sanctuary, and the holy angels of God, and this country common to us all

, that I have not kept back any thing that is for your preservation : and if you will follow that advice which you ought to do, you will have that peace which will be common to you and to me; but if you indulge your passions, you will run those hazards which I shall be free from."

5. When Agrippa had spoken thus, both he and his sister wept, and by their tears repressed a great deal of the violence of the people : but still they cried out,_"That they would not fight against the Romans, but against Florus, on account of what they had suffered by his means." To which Agrippa replied, that “ what they had already done was like such as make war against the Ro. maus ;


you have not paid the tribute* which is due to Cæsar; and have cut off the cloisters (of ihe temple) from joining to the tower Antonia. Yo's will, therefore, prevent any occasion of revolt if you will but join these together again, and if you will but pay your tribute ; for the citadel does not now belong to Florus, nor are you to pay the tribute money to Florus.”



How the War of the Jews with the Romans began ; and concerning Manahem. $ 1. This advice the people hearkened to, and went up into the temple, with the king and Bernice, and began to rebuild the cloisters : the rulers also and senators divided themselves into the villages, and collected the tributes, and soon got to. gether forty talents, which was the sum that was deficient. And thus did Agrip. pa then put a stop to that war which was threatened ; moreover, he attempted to persuade the multitude to obey Florus, until Cæsar should send one to succeed him ; but they were hereby more provoked, and cast reproaches upon the king, and got him excluded out of the city ; nay, some of the seditious had the impu. dence to throw stones at him. So when the king saw that the violence of those that were for innovations was not to be restrained, and being very angry at the contumelies he had received, he sent their rulers, together with their men of power, to Florus to Cæsarea, that he might appoint whom he thought fit to col. lect the tribute in the country, while he retired into his own kingdom.

2. And at this time it was that some of those that principally excited the peo. ple to go to war, made an assault upon a certain fortress called Masada. They took it by treachery, and slew the Romans that were there, and put others of their party to keep it. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Ananias, the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, pero suaded those that officiated in the divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans ; for they rejected the sacrifice of Cæsar on this account : and when many of the high priests and principal men besought them not 10 omit the sacrifice which it was customary for them to offer for their princes, they would not be prevailed

* Julius Cæsar had decreed, that the Jews of Jerusalem should pay an annual tribute to the Romans, excepting the city Joppa, and for the Sabbatical year, as Spanheim observes from the Antig. B. xit Ch. X. sect. 6


These relied much upon their multitude, for the most flourishing part of the innovators assisted them ; but they had the chief regard to Eleazar, the governor of the temple.

3. Hereupon the men of power got together, and conferred with the high priests, as did also the principal of the Pharisees : and thinking all was at stake, and that their calamities were becoming incurable, took counsel what was to be done. Accordingly, they determined to try what they could do with the seditious by words, and assembled the people before the brazen gate, which was the gate of the inner temple [court of the priests) which looked towards the sunrising. And, in the first place, they showed the great indignation they had at this attempt for a revolt, and for their bringing so great a war upon their country : after which they confuted their pretence as unjustifiable, and told them, that “ their forefa. thers had adorned their temple in great part with donations bestowed on them by foreigners, and had always received what had been presented to them from fo reign nations; and that they had been so far from rejecting any person's sacrifice (which would be the highest instance of impiety,) that they had themselves placed those donations about the temple, which were still visible, and had re. mained there so long a time: that they did now irritate the Romans to take arms agaiost them, and invited them to make war upon them, and brought up novel rules of a strange divine worship, and determined to run the hazard of having their city condemned for impiety, while they would not allow any foreigner, but Jews only, either to sacrifice or to worship therein. And if such a law should be introduced in the case of a single private person only, he would have indignation at it, as an instance of inhumanity determined against him : while they have no regard to the Romans or to Cæsar, and forbid even their obla. tions to be received also : that, however, they cannot but fear, lest by thus rejecting their sacrifices they shall not be allowed to offer their own; and that this city will lose its principality, unless they grow wiser quickly, and restore the sacrifices as formerly, and, indeed, amend the injury (they have offered foreign. ers,] before the report of it comes to the ears of those that have been injured."

4. And as they said these things, they produced those priests that were skilful in the customs of their country, who made the report, that “all their forefathers had received the sacrifices from foreign nations." But still not one of the inno. vators would hearken to what was said ; nay, those that ministered about the temple would not attend their divine service, but were preparing matters for be. ginning the war. So the men of power, perceiving that the sedition was too hard for them to subdue, and that the danger which would arise from the Romans would come upon them first of all, endeavoured to save themselves, and sent am. bassadors, some to Florus, the chief of which was Simon, the son of Ananias, and others to Agrippa, among whom the most eminent were Saul, and Antipas, and Costobarus, who were of the king's kindred ; and they desired of them both that they would come with an army to the city, and cut off the sedition before it should be too hard to be subdued. Now this terrible message was good news to Florus ; and because his design was to have a war kindled, he gave the ambas. sadors no answer at all. But Agrippa was equally solicitous for those that were revolting and for those against whom the war was to be made, and was desirous to preserve the Jews for the Roinans, and the temple and metropolis for the Jews : he was also sensible that it was not for his own advantage that the disturbances should proceed; so he sent three thousand horsemen to the assistance of the peo. ple, out of Auranitis, and Batanea, and Trachonitis, and these under Darius the master of his horse, and Philip the son of Jacimus, the general of his army.

5. Upon this the men of power, with the high priests, as also all the part of the multitude that were desirous of peace, took courage, and seized upon the apper city (Mount Sion ;] for the seditious part had the lower city and the tem. ple in their power : so they made use of stones and slings perpetually against one another, and threw darts continually on both sides ; and sometimes it happened FOL. IL 35

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