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people of Joppa were floating about in this sea, in the morning there foll a vio. lent wind upon them; it is called by those that sail there the black north wind. and there dashed their ships one against another, and dashed some of them against the rocks, and carried many of them by force, while they strove against the opposite waves, into the main sea ; for the shore was so rocky, and bad so many of the enemy upon it, that they were afraid to come to land; nay, the waves rose so very high that they drowned them : nor was there any place whi. ther they could fly, nor any way to save themselves, while they were thrust out of the sea by the violence of the wind, if they staid where they were, and out of the city, by the violence of the Romans. And much lamentation there was when the ships were dashed against one another, and a terrible noise when they were broken to pieces; and some of the multitude that were in them were covered with waves, and so perished, and a great many were embarrassed with shipwrecks. But some of them thought, that to die by their own swords was lighter than by the sea, and so they killed themselves before they were drowned ; although the greatest part of them were carried by the waves, and dashed to pieces against the abrupt parts of the rock, insomuch that the sea was bloody a long way, and the maritime parts were full of dead bodies ; for the Romans came upon those that were carried to the shore, and destroyed them; and the number of the bo. dies that were thus thrown out of the sea was four thousand and two hundred. The Romans also took the city without opposition, and utterly demolished it.

4. And thus was Joppa taken twice by the Romans in a little time; but Vespasian, in order to prevent these pirates from coming thither any more, erected a camp there, where the citadel of Joppa had been, and left a body of horse in it, with a few footmen, that these last might stay there and guard the camp, and the horsemen might spoil the country that lay round it, and might destroy the neighbouring villages and smaller cities. So these troops overran the country, as they were ordered to do, and every day cut to pie. ces, and laid desolate the whole region.

5. But now, when the fate of Jotapata was related at Jerusalem, a great many at the first disbelieved it, on account of the vastness of the calamity, and because they had no eyewitness to attest the truth of what was related about it; for not one person was saved to be a messenger of that news, but a fame was spread abroad at random, that the city was taken, as such fame usually spreads bad news about. However, the truth was known by degrees from the places near Jotapata, and appeared to all to be too true.

Yet were there fictitious stories added to what was really done ; for it was reported that Josephus was slain at the taking of the city, which piece of news filled Jerusalem full of sorrow. In every house also, and among all to whom any of the slaid were allied, there was a lamentation for them; but the mourning for the com mander was a public one, and some mourned for those that had lived with them, others for their kindred, others for their friends, and others for their brethren, but all mourned for Josephus; insomuch that the lamentation did not cease in the city before the thirtieth day, and a great many hired mourners,* with their pipes, who should begin their melancholy ditties for them.

6. But as the truth came out in time, it appeared how the affairs of Jotapata really stood; yet was it found that the death of Josephus was a fiction; and when they understood that he was alive, and was among the Romans, and that the commanders treated him at another rate than they treated captives, they were as vehemently angry at him now as they had showed their good will before, when he appeared to have been dead. He was also abused by some as having been i coward, and by others as a deserter: and the city was full of indignation at him. ind of reproaches cast upon him ; their rage was also aggravated by their afflic. tions, and more inflamed by their ill success; and what usually becomes an occa sion of caution to wise men, I mean affliction, became a spur to them to venture farther on calamities, and the end of one misery became still the beginning of another; they, therefore, resolved to fall on the Romans the more vehemently, as resolving to be revenged on him in revenging themselves on the Romans. And this was the state of Jerusalem as to the troubles which now came upon it.

* These public mourners, hired upon the supposed death of Josephus, and the real death of inany ore, illustrate some passages in the Bible, which suppose the same custams, as Mall. XI. 17, where I reader may consult the note of Grotius.

7. But Vespasian, in order to see the kingdom of Agrippa, while the king per. suaded him himself so to do (partly in order to his treating the general and his army in the best and most splendid manner his private affairs would enable him to do, and partly that he might, by their means, correct such things as were amiss in his government,) he removed from that Cæsarea which was by the seaside, and went to that which is called Cæsarea Philippi ;* and there he refreshed his army for twenty days, and was himself feasted by King Agrippa, where he also returned public thanks to God for the good success he had in his undertakings. But as soon as he was informed that Tiberias was fond of innovations, and that Tari cheæ had revolted, both which cities were parts of the kingdom of Agrippa, and was satisfied within himself that the Jews were every where perverted (from their obedience to their governors,] he thought it seasonable to make an expeditioi. against these cities, and that for the sake of Agrippa, and in order to bring his cities to reason. So he sent away his son Titus to the other] Cæsarea, that he might bring the army that lay there to Scythopolis, which is the largest city of Decapolis, and in the neighbourhood of Tiberias, whither he came, and where he waited for his son. He then came with three legions, and pitched his camp thirty furlongs off Tiberias, at a certain station easily seen by the innovators; it is named Sennabris. He also sent Valerian, a decurion, with fifty horsemen, tuo speak peaceably to those that were in the city, and to exhort them to give him assurances of their fidelity ; for he had heard that the people were desirous of peace, but were obliged by some of the seditious part to join with them, and so were forced to fight for them. When Valerian had marched up to the place, and was near the wall, he alighted off his horse, and made those that were with him do the same, that they might not be thought to come to skirmish with them; but before they could come to discourse one with another, the most potent men among the seditious made a sally upon them armed; their leader was one whose name was Jesus, the son of Saphat, the principal head of a band of robbers. Now Va. lerian, neither thinking it safe to fight contrary to the commands of the general

, though he were secure of a victory, and knowing that it was a very hazardous undertaking for a few to fight with many, for those that were unprovided to fight those that were ready, and being on other accounts surprised at this unexpected onset of the Jews, he ran away on foot, as did five of the rest in like manner, and left their horses behind them; which horses Jesus led away into the city, and re. joiced as if they had taken them in battle, and not by treachery.

8. Now the seniors of the people, and such as were of principal authority among them, fearing what would be the issue of this matter, fled to the camp of the Romans: they then took their king along with them, and fell down before Vespasian, to supplicaté his favour, and besought him not to overlook them, nor to impute the madness of a few to the whole city; to spare a people that have been ever civil and obliging to the Romans, but to bring the authors of this revolt to due punishment, who had hitherto so watched them, that though they were zea. lous to give them security of their right hands for a long time, yet could they not accomplish the same. With these supplications the general complied, although he were very angry at the whole city about the carrying off his horses, and this be cause he saw that Agrippa was under a great concern for them. So when Vespa. sian and Agrippa had accepted of their right hands by way of security, Jesus and his party thought it not safe for them to continue at Tiberias, so they ran away

or this Cæsa rea Philippi (twice mentioned in our New Testament, Matthew, xiv. 13, Mark, rizi 37, there are coins still extant, as Spanheiın here informa ua

to Taricheæ. The next day Vespasian sent Trajan before with some horsemen to the citadel, to make trial of the multitude, whether they were all disposed for peace; iind as soon as he knew that the people were of the same mind with the pe. titioner, he took his army, and went to the city; upon which the citizens opened to him their gates, and met him with acclamations of joy, and called him their saviour and benefactor. But as the army was a great while in getting in at the gates, they were so narrow, Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken down, and so made a broad passage for their entrance. However, he charged them to abstain from rapinc and injustice, in order to gratify the king, and on his account spared the rest of the wall, while the king undertook for them that they should continue (faithful to the Romans] for the time to come. And thus did he restore this city to a quiet state, after it had been grievously afflicted by the sedition.


How Tarichee was taken. A Description of the River Jordan and of the

Country of Gennesareth. 1. And now Vespasian pitched his camp between this city and Taricheæ, but fortified his camp more strongly, as suspecting that he should be forced to stay there, and have a long war; for all the innovators had gotten together at Tari. cheæ, as relying upon the strength of the city, and on the lake that lay by it. This Lake is called by the people of the country the lake of Gennesareth. The city it. self is situated, like Tiberias, at the bottom of a mountain; and on those sides which are not washed by the sea had been strongly fortified by Josephus, thcugh Rot so strongly as Tiberias ; for the wall of Tiberias had been built at the begin. ning of the Jews' revolt, when he had great plenty of money, and great power, out Tariche partook only the remains of that liberality. Yet had they a great number of ships gotten ready upon the lake, that, in case they were beater, at land, they might retire to them; and they were so fitted up, that they might un. dertake a seafight also. But as the Romans were building a wall about their camp, Jesus and his party were neither affrighted at their number, nor at the good order they were in, but made a sally upon them; and at the very first onset the builders of the wall were dispersed, and these pulled what little they had be. fore built to pieces; but as soon as they saw the armed men getting together, and before they had suffered any thing themselves, they retired to their own mon, But then the Romans pursued them, and drove them into their ships, where they launched out as far as might give them the opportunity of reaching the Romans with what they threw at them, and then cast anchor, and brought their ships close, as in a line of battle, and thence fought the enemy from the sea, who were them. selves at land. But Vespasian hearing that a great multitude of them were gotten together in the plain that was before the city, he thereupon sent his son, with six hundred chosen horsemen, to disperse them.

2. But when 'Prtus perceived that the enemy was very numerous, he sent to his father, and informed him that he should want more forces. But as he saw a great many of the horsemen eager to fight, and that before any succours could came to them, and that yet some of them were privately under a sort of constergation at the multitude of the Jews, he stood in a place whence he might be heard, and said to them,"My brave Romans ! for it is right for me to put you in mind of what nation you are, in the beginning of my speech, that so you may not be ignorant who you are, and who they are against whom we are going to fight. For as to us Romans, no part of the habitable earth hath been able to escape our nands hitherto; but as for the Jews, that I may speak of them too, though they have been already beaten, yet do they not give up the cause; and a sad thing it


would be for us to grow weary under our good success, when they bear up under their misfortunes. As to the alacrity which you show publicly, I see it, and re. joice at it; yet am I afraid lest the multitude of the enemy should bring a con cealed fright upon some of you: let such a one consider again who we are that are to fight, and who those are against whom we are to fight. Now these Jews, though they be very bold, and great despisers of death, are but a disorderly body, and unskilful in war, and may rather be called a rout than an army ; while I need say nothing of our skill and our good order; for this is the reason why we Ro. mans alone are exercised for war in time of peace, that we may not think of number for number when we come to fight with our enemies : for what advantage should we reap for our continual sort of warfare, if we must still be equal in number to such as have not been used to war? Consider farther, that you are to have a conflict with men in effect unarmed, while you are well armed; with footmen, while you are horsemen, with those that have no good general, while you have one; and as these advantages make you in effect manifold more than you are, so do their disadvantages mightily diminish their number. Now it is not the multitude of men, though they be soldiers, that manages wars with success, but it is their bravery that does it, though they be but a few; for a few are easily set in battle array, and can easily assist one another, while overnumerous armies are more hurt by themselves than by their enemies. It is boldness and rashness, the effects of madness, that conduct the Jews. Those passions, indeed, make a great figure when they succeed, but are quite extinguished upon the least ill success : but we are led on by courage, and obedience, and fortitude which shows itself, indeed, ir our good fortune, but still does not for ever desert us in our ill fortune. Nay, in. deed, your fighting is to be on greater motives than those of the Jews; for al. though they run the hazard of war for liberty and for their country, yet what can be a greater motive to us than glory ? and that it may never be said, that after we have got dominion of the habitable earth, the Jews are able to confront us. We must also reflect upon this, that there is no fear of our suffering any incurable disaster in the present case ; for those that are ready to assist us are many, and at hand also : yet is it in our power to seize upon this victory ourselves, and I think we ought to prevent the coming of those my father is sending to us for our as. sistance, that our success may be peculiar to ourselves, and of greater reputation to

And I cannot but think this an opportunity wherein my father, and I, and you shall be all put to the trial, whether he be worthy of his former glorious per. formances, whether I be his son in reality, and whether you be really my soldiers; for it is usual for my father to conquer; and for myself, I should not bear the thoughts of returning to him if I were once taken by the enemy. And how will you be able to avoid being ashamed, if you do not show equal courage with your commander, when he goes before you into danger? for you know very well that I shall go into the danger first, and make the first attack upon the enemy. Do not you, therefore, desert me, but persuade yourselves that God will be assisting to my onset. Know this also before we begin, that we shall now have better suc. cess than we should have, if we were to fight at a distance.”

3. As Titus was saying this, an extraordinary fury fell upon the men; and as Trajan was already come before the fight began, with four hundred horsemen, they were uneasy at it, because the reputation of the victory would be diminished by being common to so many. Vespasian had also sent both Antonius and Silo, with two thousand archers, and had given it them in charge to seize upon the mountain that was over against the city, and repel those that were upon the wall, which archers did as they were commanded, and prevented those that attempted to assist them that way. And now Titus made his own horse march first against the enemy, as did the others with a great noise after him, and extended them. selves upon the plain as wide as the enemy which confronted them, by which means they appeared much more numerous than they really were. Now the Jews, although they were surprised at their onset and at their good order, made


eir ships


resistance against their attacks for a little while ; but wh with their long poles, and overborne by the violent noise of

hospa. came to be trampled under their feet; many also of them were which made them disperse themselves and run to the city as fa them were able. So Titus pressed upon the hindmost, and sk the rest some he fell upon as they stood on heaps, and some he met them in the mouth, and run them through; many also he they fell one upon another, and trod them down, and cut off all ti. eat they had to the wall, and turned them back into the plain, till at last they forced a pas. sage by their multitude, and got away, and ran into the city.

4. But now there fell out a terrible sedition among them within the city ; for the inhabitants themselves, who had possessions there, and to whom the city be. longed, were not disposed to fight from the very beginning; and now the less so, because they had been beaten ; but the foreigners, which were very numerous, would force them to fight so much the more, insomuch that there was a clamour and a tumult among them, as all mutually angry one at another. And when Titus heard this tumult, for he was not far from the wall, he cried out,—"Fellow sol. diers, now is the time; and why do we make any delay, when God is giving up the Jews to us? Take the victory which is given you : do not you hear what a noise they make? Those that have escaped our hands are in an uproar against one another.

We have the city, if we make haste : but besides haste, we must undergo some labour, and use some courage ; for no great thing uses to be ac. complished without danger: accordingly, we must not only prevent their uniting again, which necessity will soon compel them to do, but we must also prevent the coming of our own men to our assistance, that as few as we are we may conquer so great a multitude, and may ourselves alone take the city."

5. As soon as ever Titus had said this, he leaped upon his horse, and rode apace down to the lake ; by which lake he marched, and entered into the city the first of them all, as did the others soon after him. Hereupon those that were upon the walls were seized with a terror at the boldness of the attempt, nor durst any one venture to fight with him or to hinder him; so they left guarding the city; and some of those that were about Jesus fled over the country, while others of them ran down to the lake, and met the enemy in the teeth; and somo were slain as they were getting up into ships, but others of them as they attempted to overtake those that were already gone aboard. There was also a great slaughter made in the city, while those foreigners that had not fled away already made opposition ; but the natural inhabitants were killed without fighting; for in hopes of Titus's giving them his right hand for security, and out of a consciousness that they had not given any consent to the war, they avoided fighting, till Titus had slain the authors of this revolt, and then put a stop to any farther slaughter, out of commiseration of these inhabitants of the place. But for those that had fled to the lake, upon seeing the city taken, they sailed as far as they possibly could

from the enemy.

And of

6. Hereupon Titus sent one of his horsemen to his father, and let him know the good news of what he had done ; at which, as was natural, he was very joy. ful, both on account of the courage and glorious actions of his son ; for he thought that now the greatest part of the war was over. He then came thither himse.. and set men to guard the city, and gave them command to take care that nobody gut privately out of it, but to kill such as atte

to do.

the next day he went down to the lake, and commanded that vessels should be fitted up in order to pursue those that had escaped in the ships. These vessels were quickly, gotten ready accordingly, because there was great plenty of materials, and great number of artificers also. 7. Now this lake of Gennesaretn is so called from the country adjoining to

Its breadth is forty furlongs; and its length one hundred and forty ; iu

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