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would be for their pare sweet, and very agreeble for drinking, for they are finer than the joick waters of other fens : the lake is also pure, and on every side ends directly at the shores and at the sand: it is also of a temperate nature when you draw it up, and of a more gentle nature than river or fountain water, and yet always cooler than one would expect in so diffuse a place as this is : now when this water is kept in the open air, it is as cold as that snow which the country people are accustomed to make by night in summer. There are several kinds of fish in it, different both to the taste and the sight froin those elsewhere. It is divided into two parts by the river Jordan. Now Panium is thought to be the foun tain of Jordan, but in reality it is carried thither after an occult mạnner from the place called Phiala : this place lies as you go up to Trachonitis, and is a hundred and twenty furlongs from Cæsarea, and is not far out of the road on the right hand; and, indeed, it hath its name of Phiala (vial or bowl] very justly, from the roundness of its circumference, as being round like a wheel; its water continues always up to its edges, without either sinking or running over. And as this origin of Jordan was formerly not known, it was discovered so to be when Philip was tetrarch of Trachonitis; for he had chaff thrown into Phiala, and it was found at Panium, where the ancients thought the fountain head of the river was, whither it had been, therefore, carried (by the waters.] As for Panium itself, its natural beauty had been improved by the royal liberality
of Agrippa, and adorned at his expenses. Now Jordan's visible stream arises from this cavern and divides the marshes and fens of the lake Semechonitis; and when it hath run another hundred and twenty furlongs, it first passes by the city Julias, and then passes through the middle of the lake Gennesareth ; after which it runs a iong way over a desert, and then makes its exit into the lake Asphaltitis.
8. The country also that lies over against this lake hath the same name of Gennesareth ; its nature is wonderful as well as its beauty ; its soil is so fruitful that all sorts of trees can grow upon it, and the inhabitants, accordingly, plant all sorts of trees there ; for the temper of the air is so well mixed that it agrees very well with those several sorts ; particularly walnuts, which require the coldest air, flourish there in vast plenty ; there are palm trees also, which grow best in hot air ; fig.trees also and olives grow near them, which yet require an air that is more temperate. One may call this place the ambition of nature, where it forces those plants that are naturally enemies to one another to agree together : it is a happy contention of the seasons, as if every one of them laid claim to this country; for it not only nourishes different sorts of autumnal fruits beyond men's expectation, but preserves them also a great while ; it supplies men with the principal fruits, with grapes* and figs, continually, during ten nionths of the year, and the rest of the fruits as they become ripe together through the whole year: for, besides the good temperature of the air, it is also watered from a most fertile fountain. The people of the country called it Capharnaum : some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish, as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria. The length of this country extends itself along the banks of this lake that bears the same name for thirty furlongs, and is in breadth twenty. And this is the nature of the place.
9. But now, when the vessels were gotten ready, Vespasian put on ship-board as many of his forces as he thought sufficient to be too hard for those that were upon the lake, and set sail after them. Now these which were driven into the lake could neither fly to the land, where all was in their enemies' hand and in
* It may be worth our while to observe here, that near this lake of Gennesareth, grapes and figs hang on the trees ten months of the year. We may observe also, that in Cyril of Jerusalem, Cateches. xvii. 3, which was delivered not long before Easter, there were no fresh leaves of fig-trees nor bunches of fresh grapes in Judea ; so that when St. Mark says, ch. xi. 13, that our Saviour, soon after the same time of the year, caine and found leaves on a fig-tree near Jerusalem, but no figs, because the time of new figo ripening was not yet, he says very true ; nor were they, therefore, other than old leaves which our Sa víour saw, and old figs which he expected, and which even with us commonly hung on the trees all
war against them; nor could they fight upon the level by sea, for their ships were small and fitted only for piracy; they were too weak to fight with Vespa. sian's vessels, and the mariners that were in them were so few, that they were afraid to come near the Romans, who attacked them in great numbers. However as they sailed round about the vessels, and sometimes as they came near them, they threw stones at the Romans, when they were a good way off, or came closer and fought them; yet did they receive the greatest harm themselves in bott.
As for the stones they threw at the Romans, they only made a sound one after another; for they threw them against such as were in their armour, while the Roman darts could reach the Jews themselves; and when they ventured to come near the Romans they became sufferers themselves, before they could do any harm to the other, and were drowned, they and their ships together. As for those that endeavoured to come to an actual fight, the Romans ran many of them through with their long poles. Sometimes the Ronians leaped into their ships with swords in their hands, and slew thein; but when some of them met the vessels, the Romans caught them by the middle, and destroyed at once their ships, and themselves who were taken in them. And for such as were drowning in the sea, if they lifted their heads up above the water, they were either killed by darts or caught by the vessels ; but if, in the desperate case they were in, they attempted to swim to their enemies, the Romans cut off either their heads or their hands : and, indeed, they were destroyed afier various manners everywhere, till the rest, being put to flight, were forced to get upon the land, while the vessels encom passed them about (on the sea :) but as many of these were repulsed when they were getting ashore, they were killed by the darts upon the lake; and the Romans leaped out of their vessels, and destroyed a great many more upon the land: one might then see the lake all bloody and full of dead bodies, for not one of them escaped. And a terrible stink and a very sad sight there was on the following days over that country; for as for the shores they were full of shipwrecks, and of dead bodies all swelled ; and as the dead bodies were inflamed by the sun, and putrified, they corrupted the air, insomuch that the misery was not only the object of commiseration to the Jews, but to those that hated them, and had been the authors of that misery. This was the upshot of the sea-fight. The number of the slain, including those that were killed in the city before, was six thousand five hundred.
10. After this fight was over, Vespasian sal upon his tribunal at Taricheæ, in order to distinguish the foreigners from the old inhabitants ; for those foreigners appeared to have begun the war. So he deliberated with the other commanders whether he ought to save those old inhabitants or not. And when those com. manders alleged, that the dismission of them would be to his own disadvantage, because when they were once set at liberty they would not be at rest, since they would be people destitute of proper habitations, and would be able to compel such as fled to fight against us, Vespasian acknowledged, that they did not deserve to be saved, and that if they had leave given them to fly away, they would make use of it against those that gave them that leave. But still he considered with himself after what manner they should be slain ;* for if he had them slain there, he sus. pected that the people of the country would thereby become his enemies; for that io be sure they would never bear it, that so many that had been supplicants to
• This is the most cruel and barbarous action that Vespasian ever did in this whole war, as he did it with great reluctance also. It was done both after public assurance given of sparing the prisoners' lives, and when all knew and confessed that these prisoners were no way guilty of any sedition against the Romans. Nor, indeed, did Titus now give his consent, so far as appears, nor ever acted of himself to barbarously; nay, soon after this Titus grew quite weary of shedding blood, and of punishing the inno cent with the guilty, and gave the people of Gischala leave to keep the Jewish Sabbath, B. iv. ch. il. sect. 3,5, in the midst of their siege. Nor was Vespasian disposed to do what he did, till his officers persuaded him, and that froin two principal topics, viz. that nothing could be unjust that was done against Jews, and that when both cannoi be consistent, advantage must prevail over justice. Admirable court doctrinen sbose!
him should be killed; and to offer violence to them after he had given them assu. ances of their lives, he could not himself bear to do it. However, his friends were too hard for him, and pretended that nothing against Jews could be any im. piety; and that he ought to prefer what was profitable before what was fit to be done, where both could not be made consistent. So he gave them an ambiguous liberty to do as they advised, and permitted the prisoners to go along no other road than that which led to Tiberias only. So they readily believed what they desired to be true, and went along securely, with their effects, the way which was allowed them, while the Romans seized upon all the road that led to Tiberias, that none of them might go out of it, and shut them up in the city. Then came Vespasian, and ordered them all to stand in the stadium, and commanded them to kill the old men, together with the others that were useless, which were in number a thousand and two hundred. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the isthmus, and sold the remainder for slaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa ; for as to those that belonged to his kingdom, he gave him leave to do what he pleased with them: however, the king sold these also for slaves; but for the rest of the multitude who were Trachonites, and Gaulanites, and of Hippos, and some of Gadara, the greatest part of them were seditious persons and fugitives, who were of such shameful characters that they preferred war before peace. These prisoners were taken on the eighth day of the month Gorpieus (Elal.]
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF ABOUT ONE YEAR.
FROM THE SIEGE OF GAMALA TO THE COMING OF TITUS TO
The Siege and Taking of Gamala. 1. Now all those Galileans who, after the taking of Jotapata, had revolted from the Romans, did, upon the conquest of Taricheæ, deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortresses and the cities, excepting Gischala and those that had seized upon Mount Tabor; Gamala also, which is a city over against Taricheæ, but on the other side of the lake, conspired with them. This city lay upon the borders of Agrippa's kingdom, as also did Sogana and Se. leucia. And these were both parts of Gaulanitis; for Sogana was a part of that called the Upper Gaulanitis ; as was Gamala of the Lower; while Seleucia was situated at the lake Semechonitis, which lake is thirty furlongs in breadth and sixty in length; its marshes reach as far as the place Daphne, which, in other respecto is a delicious place, and hath such fountains as supply water to what is called Little Jordan, under the temple of the golden calf,* where it is sent into Great Jordan. Now Agrippa had united Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself at the very beginning of the revolt from the Romans ; yet did not Ğamala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than that of Jotapata; for it was situated upon a rough ridge of a high mountain, with a kind of neck in the middle; where it begins to ascend it lengthens itself, and declines as much downward before as behind, insomuch that it is like a camel in figure, from whence it is so named, although the people of the country do not pronounce it accurately: both on the side and the face there are abrupt parts divided from the rest, and ending in vast deep valleys; yet are the parts behind, where they are joined to the mountain, somewhat easier of ascent than the other; but then the people belonging to the place have cut an oblique ditch there, and made that hard to be ascended also. On its acclivity, which is strait, houses arc built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs so strangely, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itself, so sharp is it at the top. It is exposed to the south, and its southern mount, which reaches to an iminense height, was in the nature of a citadel to the city; and above that was a precipice, not walled about, but extending itself to an immense depth. There was also a spring of water within the wall, at the utmost limits of the city.
2. As this city was naturally hard to be taken, so had Josephus, by building a wall about it, made it still stronger, as also by ditches and mines underground. The people that were in it were made more bold by the nature of the place than the people of Jotapata had been, but it had much fewer fighting men in it; and they had such a confidence in the situation of the place, that they thought the
• Here we have the exact situation of one of Jeroboam's golden cnlves, at the exit of Little Jordan nto Great Jordan, near a place called Daphne, but of old Dan. See the note on Antiq. B. viii. ch. viii. ect. 4. But Reland suspects that even here we should read Dar instead of Daphne, there being mo rbere else any nepijon of a place called Daphne hereabouts.
enemy could not be too many for them; for the city had been filled with those that had fled to it for safety on account of its strength; on which account they had been able to resist those whom Agrippa sent to besiege it for seven months together.
3. But Vespasian removed from Emmaus, where he had last pitched his camp be. fore the city Tiberias (now Emmaus, if it be interpreted, may be rendered A warm bath, for therein is a spring of warm water, usetul for healing,) and came to Ga mala; yet was his situation such that he was not able to encompass it all around with soldiers to watch it; but where the places were practicable, he sent men to watch it, and seized upon that mountain which was over it. And as the legions according to their usual custom, were fortifying their canıp upon that mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part toward the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their camp: while the fifth legion did duty over against the midst of the city, and whilst the fenth legion filled up the ditches and valleys. Now at this time it was that as King Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was endeavouring to speak to those that were on the walls about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right el. bow by one of the slingers; he was then immediately surrounded with his own
But the Romans were excited to set about the siege by their indignation on the king's account, and by their fears on their own account, as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of their own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage.
4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines; but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other necessaries. However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while, indeed, they drove away those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city; then did the Romans bring battering.rams to three several places, and made the walls shake (and tall.) They then poured in over the parts of the wall that were thrown down, with the mighty sound of trumpets and noise of armour, and with a shout of the soldiers, and brake in by force upon those that were in the city ; but these men fell upon the Romans for some time at their first entrance, and prevented their going any farther, and with great courage beat them back; and the Romans were so over. powered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about and fell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrusi them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and dif. ficulty of the place, slew them; and as these Romans could neither bear those back that were above them, nor escape the force of their own men that were for. çing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies' nouses, which were low; but these houses, being thus full of soldiers, whose weigiit they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one house fell it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them. By this means a vast number of the Romans perished, for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were com pelled to leap upon the tops of them; so that a great many were ground to powder dy these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, luut still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins. The people of Gumala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suflered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses ; and wlien