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Concerning the Tyrants Simon and John. How also, as Titus rus going round the Wall of the City, Nicanor was wounded by a dart; which Accident
provoked Titus lo press on the Siege. $1. Now, the warlike men that were in the city, and the multitude of the sedi. tious that were with Simon, were ten thousand, besides the Idumeans. Those ven thousand had fifty commanders, over whom this Simon was supreme. The Idumeans that paid him homage were five thousand, and had eight commanders, among whom those of greatest fame were Jacob, the son of Sosas, and Si. mon, the son of Cathlas. John, who had seized upon the temple, had six thou. sand armed men under twenty commanders : the zealots also that had come over to him, and left off their opposition, were two thousand four hundred, and had the same commander that they had formerly, Eleazar, together with Simon, the son of Arinus. Now, while these factions fought one against another, the people were their prey on both sides, as we have said already; and that part of the people which would not join with them in their wicked practices were plundered by both factions, Simon held the upper city, and the great wall as far as Cedron, and as much of the old wall as bent from Siloam to the east, and which went down to the palace of Monobazus, who was king of the Adiabene beyond Eu. phrates: he also held that fountain and the Acra, which was no other than the lower city: he also held all that reached to the palace of Queen Helena, the mo. ther of Monobazus. But John held the temple, and the parts thereto adjoining for a great way, as also Ophla, and the valley called the Valley of Cedron : and when the parts that were interposed between their possessions were burnt by them, they left a space wherein they might fight with each other; for this inter. nal sedition did not cease even when the Romans were encamped near their very walls. But although they had grown wiser at the first onset the Romans made upon them, this lasted but awhile ; for they returned to their former madness, and separated one from another, and fought it out, and did every thing that the besiegers could desire them to do; for they never suffered any thing that was worse from the Romans than they made each other suffer; nor was there any misery endured by the city, after these men's actions, that could be esteemed new. But it was most of all unhappy before it was overthrown, while those that look it did it a greater kindness; for I venture to affirm, that the sedition de. stroyed the city, and the ins destroyed the sedition, which it was a much harder thing to do than to destroy the walls ; so that we may justly ascribe our misfortunes to our own people, and the just vengeance taken on them to the Ro. mans; as to which matter let every one determine by the actions on both sides.
2. Now, when affairs within the city were in this posture, Titus went round the city on the outside with some chosen horsemen, and looked about for a pro. per place where he might make an impression upon the walls; but as he was in doubt where he could possibly make an attack on any side (for the place was no way accessible where the valleys were, and on the other side, the first wall ap. peared too strong to be shaken by the engines,) he thereupon thought it best to make his assault upon the monument of John the high priest; for there it was that the first fortification was lower, and the second was not joined to it, the builders neglecting to build the wall strong where the new city was not much inhabited : here also was an easy passage to the third wall, through which he thought to take the upper city, and, through the tower of Antonia, the temple itself. But, at this time, as he was going round about the city, one of his friends, whose name was Nicanor, was wounded with a dart on his left shoulder, as he aprroached, toge. ther with Josephus, too near the wall, and attempted to discourse to those inat were upon the wall about terms of peace; for he was a person known by them On this account it was that Cæsar, as soon as he knew their vehemence that they would not bear even such as reproached them to persuade them to what tended to their own preservation, was provoked to press on the siege. He also, at the same time, gave his soldiers leave to set the suburbs on fire, and ordered that they should bring timber together, and raise banks against the city; and when he had parted his army into three parts, in order to set about those works, he placed those that shot darts and the archers in the midst of the banks that were then raising; before whom he placed those engines that threw javelins, and darts, and stones, that he might prevent the enemy from sallying out upon their works, and might hinder those that were upon the wall from being able to obstruct them. So the trees were now cut down immediately, and the suburbs left naked. But now while the timber was carrying to raise the banks, and the whole army was ear. nestly engaged in their works, the Jews were not, however, quiet; and it happened that the people of Jerusalem, who had been hitherto plundered and murdered, were now of good courage, and supposed they should have a breathing time, while the others were very busy in opposing their enemies without the city; and that they should now be avenged on those that had been the authors of their miseries, in case the Romans did but get the victory.
3. However, John staid behind out of his fear of Simon, even while his own men were earnest in making a sally upon their enemies without. Yet did not Simon lie still, for he lay near the place of the siege ; he brought his engines of war, and disposed of them at due distances upon the wall; both those which they took from Cestius formerly, and those which they got when they seized the garrison that lay in the tower Antonia. But though they had these engines in their posses. sion, they had so little skill in using them, that they were in a great measure use. less to them; but a few there were who had been taught hy deserters how to use them, which they did use, though after an awkward manner. So they cast stones and arrows at those that were inaking the banks : they also ran out upon them by companies, and fought with thein. Now, those that were at work covered them. selves with hurdles spread over their banks, and their engines were opposed to them when they made their excursions. These engines, that all the legions had ready prepared for them, were admirably contrived; but still more extraordinary ones belonged to the tenth legion: those that threw darts and those that threw stones were more forcible and larger than the rest, by which they not only re. pelled the excursions of the Jews, but drove those away that were upon the walls also. Now the stones that were cast were of the weight of a talent, and were carried two furlongs and farther. The blow they gave was no way to be sus. tained, not only by those that stood first in the way, but by those that were be. yond them for a great space. As for the Jews, they at first watched the coming of the stone, for it was of a white colour, and could, therefore, not only be per. ceived by the great noise it made, but could be seen also before it came by its brightness: accordingly, the watchmen that sat upon the towers gave them no. tice when the engine was let go, and the stone came from it, and cried out aloud, in their own country language, THE SON COMETH :* so those that were in its way
* What should be the meaning of this signal or watchword, when the watchmen saw a stone coming from the engine, The sos COMETH, or what mistake there is in the reading, I cannot tell. The MSS. boch Greek and Latin, all agree in this reading; and I cannot approve of any groundless conjectural alteration of the text from TiO2 to 102, that not the son or a slone, but that the arrow or dart cometh ; as bath been made Dr. Hudson, and not corrected by Havercamp. Had Josephus written even his first edition of these books of the war in pure Hebrew, or bad the Jews then used the pure Hebrew at Jerusalem, the Hebrew word for a son is so like that for a stone, Ben and Eben, that such a correction might have been more easily acimitted. But Josephus wrote his former edition for the use of the Jews beyond Euphrates, and so in the Chaldee language, as he did ins second edition in the Greek language, and Bar was the Chaldee word for son, instead of the Hebrew Ben, and was used not only in Chaklea, &c but m Judea also, as the New Testament juforms us. Dio also lets us know that the very Romans al Roine pronounce the name of Simon, the son of Gjoras, Bar Poras for Bar Gioras, as we learu from Xi philine. p. 217. Reland takes notice. "That many will here look for a mystery, as though the meaning were thai the Son of Gori came now in take vengeance on the sins of the lewish nation." which is, je
stood off, and threw themselves down upon the ground; by which means, and by their thus guarding themselves, the stone fell down, and did them no narm. But the Romans contrived how to prevent that by blacking the stone, who then could aim at them with success, when the stone was not discerned beforehand, as it had been till then ; and so they destroyed many of them at one blow. Yet did not the Jews, under all this distress, permit the Romans to raise their banks in quiet ; but they shrewdly and boldly exerted themselves, and repelled them both by night and by day.
4. And now, upon the finishing the Roman works, the workmen measured the distance there was from the wall, and this by lead and line, which they threw to it from their banks; for they could not measure it any otherwise, because the Jews would shoot at them, if they came to measure it themselves; and when they found that the engines could reach the wall, they brought them thither. Then did Titus set his engines at proper distances, so much nearer to the wall, that the Jews might not be able to repel them, and gave orders they should go to work : and when thereupon a prodigious noise echoed round about from three places, and that, on the sudden, there was a great noise made by the citizens that were within the city, and no less a terror fell up the seditious themselves; whereupon both sorts, seeing the common danger they were in, contrived to make a like defence. So those of different factions cried out one to another, that they acted entirely as in concert with their ene nies; whereas they ought, however, notwithstanding God did not grant ther, a lasting concord, in their present circumstances to lay Aside their enmities one against another, and to unite together against the Ró. mans. Accordingly, Sinion gave those that came from the temple leave, by pro. clamation, to go upon the wall; John also himself, though he could not believe that Simon was in earnest, gave them the same leave. So, on both sides, they laid aside their hatred and their peculiar quarrels, and formed themselves into une body; they then ran round the walls, and having a vast number of torches with them, they threw them at the machines, and shot darts perpetually upon hose that impelled those engines which battered the wall; nay, the bolder sort leaped out by troops upon the hurdles that covered the machines, and pulled them to pieces, and fell upon those that belonged to them, and beat them, not so much by any skill they had, as principally by the boldness of their attacks. However, l'itus himself still sent assistance to those that were the hardest set, and placed both horsemen and archers on the several sides of the engines, and thereby beat off those that brought the fire to them; he also thereby repelled those that shot stones or darts from the towers, and then set the engines to work in good ear. nest : yet did not the wall yield to these blows, excepting where the batteringram of the fifteenth legion moved the corner of a tower, while the wall itself con. tinued unhurt; for the wall was not presently in the same danger with the tower, which was extant far above it: nor could the fall of that part of the tower easily break down any part of the wall itself together with it.
6. And now the Jews intermitted their sallies for a while ; but when they ob. served the Romans dispersed all abroad at their works, and in their several camps (for they thought the Jews had retired out of weariness and fear,) these all at once made a sally at the tower Hippicus, through an obscure gate, and at the same time brought fire to burn the works, and went boldly up to the Romans and to their very fortifications themselves, where, at the cry they made, those that were near came presently to their assistance, and those farther off came running deed, the truth of the fact, but hardly what the Jews could now mean; unless, possibly by way of derision of Christ's threatenings so often made, that he would come at the head of the Roman army for their destruction. But even this interpretation has but a very small degree of probability. If I were to make an emendation, by mere conjecture, I would read FETPOZ instead of rioz, though the likeness be not so great as in Joz; because that is the word used by Josephus just before, as I have already noted, on his very occasion, while 102, an arro:0 or dart, is only a poetical word, and never used by Josephus elsewhere, and is, indeed, no way suitable to the occasion, this engine not throwing arrowe or darto out great stones, at this time
after them; and here the boldness of the Jews was too hard for the good order of the Romans ; and as they beat those whom they first fell upon, so they pressed upon those that were now gotten together. So this fight about the machines was very hot, while the one side tried hard to set them on fire, and the other side to prevent it; on both sides there was a confused cry made, and many of those in the fore-front of the battle were slain. However the Jews were now too hard for the Romans, by the furious assaults they made like madmen; and the fire caught hold of the works, and both all those works and the engines themselves liad been in danger of being burnt, had not many of those select soldiers that came from Alexandria opposed themselves to prevent it, and had they not behaved themselves with greater courage than they themselves supposed they could have done : for they outdid those in this fight that had greater reputation than themselves before. This was the state of things till Cæsar took the stoutest of his horsemen, and attacked the enemy, when he himself slew twelve of those that were in the fore-front of the Jews; which death of these men, when the rest of the multitude saw, they gave way, and he pursued them, and drove them all into the city, and saved the works from the fire. Now it happened at this fight that a certain Jew was taken alive, who, by Titus's order, was crucified before the wall, to see whether the rest of them would be affrighted, and abate of their obstinacy. But after the Jews were retired, John, who was commander of the Idumeans, and was talking to a certain soldier of his acquaintance before the wall, was wounded by a dart shot at him by an Arabian, and died immediately, leaving the greatest lamentation to the Jews and sorrow to the seditious : for he was a man of great eminence both for his actions and his conduct also.
Horo one of the Towers erected by the Romans fell down of its own Accord; and how the Romans, after great Slaughter had been made, got possession of the first Wall. How also Titus made his Assaults upon the second Wall :
as also concerning Longinus the Roman and Castor the Jew. § 1. Now, on the next night a surprising disturbance fell upon the Romans; for whereas Titus had given orders for the erection of three towers of fifty cubits nigh, that by setting men upon them at every bank, he might from thence drive those away who were upon the wall, it so happened that one of these towers fell down about midnight; and as its fall made a very great noise, fear fell upon the army, and they supposing that the enemy was coming to attack them, ran all to their arms. Whereupon a disturbance and a tumult arose among the legions; and as nobody could tell what had happened, they went on after a disconsolate manner; and seeing no enemy appeared, they were afraid one of another, and every one demanded of his neighbour the watchword, with great earnestness, as though the Jews had invaded their camp. And now were they like people under a panic of fear, till Titus was informed of what had happened, and gave orders that all should be acquainted with it; and then, though with some difficulty, they got clear of the disturbance they had been under.
2. Now these towers were very troublesome to the Jews, who otherwise opposed the Romans very courageously; for they shot at them out of their lighter engines from those towers, as they did also by those that threw darts, and the archers, and those that flung stones. For neither could the Jews reach those that were over them, by reason of their height, and it was not practicable to take them, nor to overturn them, they were so heavy, nor to set them on fire, because they were covered with plates of iron. So they retired out of the reach of the darts, and did no longer endeavour to hinder the impressions of their rame, which, by continually beating upon the wall, did gradually prevail against it; so
that the wall already gave way to the Nico; for by that name did the Jews them selves call the greatest of their engines, because it conquered all things. And now they were for a long while grown weary of fighting, and of keeping guards, and were retired to lodge on the night-times at a distance from the wall. It was on other accounts also thought by them to be superfluous to guard the wall, there being besides that two other fortifications still remaining, and they being slothful and their counsels having been ill concerted on all occasions ; so a great many grew lazy and retired. Then the Romans mounted the breach, where Nico had made one, and all the Jews left the guarding that wall, and retreated to the se. cond wall: so those that had gotten over that wall opened the gates, and received all the army within it. And thus did the Romans get possession of this first wall, on the fifteenth day of the siege, which was the seventh day of the month Arte. misius (Jyar,] when they demolished a great part of it, as well as they did of the northern parts of the city, which had been demolished also by Cestius formerly.
3. And now Titus pitched his camp within the city, at that place which was called the Camp of the Assyrians, having seized upon all that lay as far as Ce. dron, but took care to be out of the reach of the Jews' darts. He then presently began his attacks, upon which the Jews divided themselves into several bodies, and courageously defended that wall, while John and his faction did it from the lower of Antonia, and from the northern cloister of the temple, and fought the Romans before the monuments of King Alexander; and Simon's army also took for their share the spot of ground that was near John's monument, and fortified it as far as to that gate where water was brought into the tower Hippicus. How. ever, the Jews made violent sallies, and that frequently also, and in bodies toge. ther, out of the gates, and there fought the Romans ; and when they were pur. bued all together to the wall, they were beaten in those fights, as wanting the skill of the Romans. But when they fought them from the walls, they were too hard for them ; the Romans being encouraged by their power, joined to their skill, as were the Jews by their boldness, which was nourished by the fear they were in, and that hardiness which is natural to our nation under calamities ; they were also encouraged still by the hope of deliverance, as were the Romans by their hopes of subduing them in a little time. Nor did either side grow weary; but attacks and fightings upon the wall, and perpetual sallies out in bodies, were there all the day long; nor were there any sort of warlike engagements that were not then put in use. And the night itself had much ado to part them, when they began to fight in the morning; nay, the night itself was passed without sleep on both sides, and was more lineasy than the day to them, while the one was afraid lest the wall should be taken, and the other lest the Jews should make sal lies upon their camps: both sides also lay in their armour during the night-time, and thereby were ready at the first appearance of light to go to the battle. Now, among the Jews the ambition was, who should undergo the first dangers, and thereby gratify their commanders. Above all, they had a great veneration and dread of Simon; and to that degree was he regarded by every one of those that were under him, that at his comınand they were very ready to kill themselves with their own hands. What made the Romans so courageous was their usual custom of con fuering, and disuse of being defeated, their constant wars, and perpetual warlike exercises, and the grandeur of their dominion: and what was now their chief encouragement, Titus, who was present every where with them all; for it appeared a terrible thing to grow weary while Cæsar was there, and fought bravely, as well as they did, and was himself at once an eyewitness of such as behaved themselves valiantly, and he who was to reward them also. It was, be sides, esteemed an advantage at present to have any one's valour known by Cæsar, on which account many of them appeared to have more alacrity than strength to answer it. And now, as the Jews were about this time standing in array before the wall, and that in a strong body and while both parties were