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throwing their darts at each other, Longinus, one of the equestrian order, leaped out of the army of the Romans, and leaped into the very midst of the army of the Jews; and as they dispersed themselves upon this attack, he slew two of their men of the greatest courage; one of them he struck in his mouth, as he was coming to meet him; the other was slain by him by that very dart which he drev out of the body of the other, with which he ran this man through his side, as he was running away from him, and when he had done this, he first of all ran out of the midst of his enemies to his own side. So this man signalized himself for his valour, and many there were who were ambitious of gaining the like repu tation. And now the Jews were unconcerned at what they suffered themselves from the Romans, and were only solicitous about what mischief they could do them; and death itself seemed a small matter to them, if at the same time they could but kill any one of their enemies. But Titus took care to secure his own soldiers from harm, as well as to have them overcome their enemies. He also said, thai inconsiderate violence was madness, and that this alone was the true courage that was joined with good conduct. He, therefore, commanded his men to take care, when they fought their enemies, that they received no harm from them at the same time, and thereby show themselves to be truly valiant men.

4. And now Titus brought one of his engines to the middle tower of the north part of the wall, in which a certain crafty Jew, whose name was Castor, lay in ambush, with ten others like himself, the rest being fled away by reason of the archers. These men lay still for a while, as in great fear, under their breast plates ; but when the tower was shaken, they arose, and Castor did then stretch out his hand, as a petitioner, and called for Cæsar, and by his voice moved his compassion, and begged of him to have mercy upon them; and Titus, in the innocency of his heart, believing him to be in earnest, and hoping that the Jews did dow repent, stopped the working of the battering-ram, and forbade them to shoot at the petitioners, and bid Castor say what he had a mind to say to him. He said, that he would come down, if he would give him his right hand for bis security. To which Titus replied, that he was well pleased with such his agreeable conduct, and would be well pleased if all the Jews would be of his mind, and that he was ready to give the like security to the city. Now five of the ten dis sembled with him, and pretended to beg for mercy, while the rest cried out aloud, that they would never be slaves to the Romans, while it was in their power to die m a state of freedom. Now, while these men were quarrelling for a long while, the attack was delayed ; Castor also sent to Simon, and told him that they might take some time for consultation about what was to be done, because he would delude the power of the Romans for a considerable time. And at the same time that he sent thus to him, he appeared openly to exhort those that were obstinate to accept of Titus's hand for their security ; but they seemed very angry at it, and brandished their naked swords upon the breast-works, and struck themselves upon their breasts, and fell down as if they had been slain. Hereupon Titus and those with him were amazed at the courage of the men; and as they were not able to see exactly what was done, they admired at their great fortitude, and pitied their calamity. During this interval a certain person shot a dart at Castor, and wounded him in his nose, whereupon he presently pulled out the dart, and shuwed it to Titus, and complained that this was unfair treatment: so Cæsar re. proved hi:n that shot the dart, and sent Josephus, who then stood by him, to give his right hand to Castor. But Josephus said that he would not go to him, because these pretended petitioners meant nothing that was good; he also restrained hose friends of his who were zealous to go to him. But still there was one Æneas, a deserter, who said he would go to him. Castor also called to them. that somebody should come and receive the money which he had with him ; this made Æneas the more earnestly to run to him, with his bosom open. Then did Castor take up a great stone, and threw it at him, which missed him, because he guarded himself

against it, but still it wounded another soldier that was coming

to him. When Cæsar understood that this was a delusion, he perceived that mercy in war is a pernicious thing, because such cunning tricks have less place under the exercise of greater severity. So he caused the engine to work more strongly than before, on account of his anger at the deceit put upon him. But Castor and his companions set the tower on fire when it began to give way, and leaped through the flame into a hidden vault that was under it, which made the Romans farther suppose that they were men of great courage, as having cast themselves into the fire


Hor the Romans took the second Wall twice, and got all ready for taking the

third Wall. § 1. Now Cæsar took this wall there on the fifth day after he had taken the first ; and when the Jews had fled from him, he entered into it, with a thousand armed men, and those of his choice troops, and this at a place where were the merchants of wool, the braziers, and the market for cloth, and where the narrow streets led obliquely to the wall. Wherefore, if Titus had either demolished a larger part of the wall immediately, or had come in, and, according to the law of war, had laid waste what was left, this victory would not, I suppose, have been mixed with any loss to himself. But now, out of the hope he had that he should make the Jews ashamed of their obstinacy, by not being willing, when he was able, to afflict them more than he needed to do, he did not widen the breach of the wall, in order to make a safer retreat upon occasion : for he did not think they would lay snares for him that did them such a kindness. When, therefore, he came in, he did not permit his soldiers to kill any of those they caught, nor to set fire to their houses neither ; nay, he gave leave to the seditious, if they had a mind, to fight without any harm to the people, and promised to restore the peo. ple's effects to them; for he was very desirous to preserve the city for his own sake, and the temple for the sake of the city. As to the people he had them of a long time ready to comply with his proposals ; but as to the fighting men, this humanity of his seemed a mark of his weakness, and they imagined that he made these proposals because he was not able to take the rest of the city. They also threatened death to the people, if they should any one of them say a word about a surrender. They, moreover, cut the throats of such as talked of a peace, and then attacked those Romans that were come within the wall. Some of them they met in the narrow streets, and some they fought against from their houses, wnus they made a sudden sally out at the upper gates, and assaulted such Romans as were beyond the wall, till those that guarded the wall were so affrighted that they leaped down from their towers, and retired to their several camps : upon which a great noise was made by the Romans that were within, because they were encompassed round on every side by their enemies; as also by them that were without, because they were in fear for those that were left in the city, Thus did the Jews grow more numerous perpetually, and had great advantages over the Romans by their full knowledge of those narrow lanes; and they wounded a great many of them, and fell upon them, and drove them out of the city. Now these Romans were at present forced to make the best resistance they could , for they were not able, in great numbers, to get out at the breach in the wall, it was so narrow, It is also probable, that all those that were gotten within had been cut to pieces, if Titus had not sent them succours ; for he ordered the archers to stand at the upper ends of these narrower lanes, and he stood himself where was the greatest multitude of his enemies, and with his darts he put a stop to them; as with him did Domitius Sabinus also, a valiant man, and one that in this battle appeared so to be. Thus did Cæsar continue to shoot darts at the



Jews continually, and to hinder them from coming upon his men, and this until all his soldiers had retreated out of the city.

2. And thus were the Romans driven out, after they had possessed themselves of the second wall : Whereupon the fighting men that were in the city were lifted up in their minds, and were elevated upon this their good success, and began to think that the Romans would never venture to come into the city any more ; and that, if they kept within it themselves they should not be any more con. quered. For God had blinded their minds for the transgressions they had been guilty of, nor could they see how much greater forces the Romans had than those that were now expelled, no more than they could discern how a famine was creeping upon them; for hitherto they had fed theinselves out of the public miseries, and drank the blood of the city. But now poverty had for a long time seized upon the better part, and a great many had already died for want of necessaries; although the seditious, indeed, supposed the destruction of the people to be an casement to themselves; for they desired that none others might be preserved but such as were against a peace with the Romans, and were resolved to live in opposition to them; and they were pleased when the multitude of those of a contrary opinion were consumed, as being then freed from a heavy burden. And this was their disposition of mind with regard to those that were within the city, while they covered themselves with their armour, and prevented the Romans when they were trying to get into the city again, and made a wall of their own bodies over against that part of the wall that was cast down. Thus did they vali antly defend themselves for three days; but on the fourth day they could not sup. port themselves against the vehement assaults of Titus, but were compelled by force to fly whither they had fled before ; so he quietly possessed himself again of that wall, and demolished it entirely. And when he had put a garrison into the towers that were on the south parts of the city, he contrived how he might assault the third wall.


zarus, unen the Jews were not at all mollified by his leaving off the Siege for awhile

, set himself again to prosecute the same; but soon sent Josephus to discourse with

his own Countrymen about Peace. § 1. A RESOLUTION was now taken by Titus to relax the siege for a little while, aud to afford the seditious an interval for consideration, and to see whether the demolishing of their second wall would not make them a little more compliant, or whether they were not somewhat afraid of a famine, because the spoils they had gotten by rapine would not be sufficient for them long; so he made use of this relaxation in order to compass his own designs. Accordingly, as the usual appointed time, when he must distribute subsistence money to the soldiers, was now come, he gave orders that the commanders should put the army into battle array, in the face of the enemy, and then gave every one of the soldiers their pay. So the soldiers, according to custom, opened the cases wherein their arms before lay covered, and marched with their breastplates on, as did the horsemen lead their horses in their fine trappings. Then did the places that were before the city shine very splendidly for a great way; nor was there any thing ever so grateful to Titus's own men or so terrible to the enemy, as that sight. For the whole old wall and the north side of the temple were full of spectators; and one might see the houses full of such as looked at them: nor was there any part of the city which was not covered over with their multitudes ; nay, a very great consternation seized upon the hardiest of the Jews themselves, when they saw all the army in the same place, together with the fineness of their arms and the good order of their mon. And I cannot but think that the seditious would have

changed their minds at that sight, unless the crimes they had committed against the people had been so horrid that they despaired of forgiveness from the Romans; but as they believed death with torments must be their punishment, if they did not go on in the defence of the city, they thought it much better to die in war. Fate also prevailed so far over them, that the innocent were to perish with the guilty, and the city was to be destroyed with the seditious that were in it.

2. Thus did the Romans spend four days in bringing this subsistence money to the several legions. But on the fifth day, when no signs of peace appeared to come from the Jews, Titus divided his legions, and began to raise banks both at the tower of Antonia and at John's monument. Now, his designs were to take the upper city at that monument, and the temple at the tower of Antonia; for if the temple were not taken, it would be dangerous to keep the city itself; so ar each of these parts he raised him banks, each legion raising one. As for those that wrought at John's monument, the Idumeans, and those that were in arms with Simon, made sallies upon them, and put some stop to them; while John's party, and the multitude of zealots with them, did the like to those that were be. fore the tower of Antonia. These Jews were now too hard for the Romans, not only in direct fighting, because they stood upon the higher ground, but because they had now learned to use their own engines ; for their continual use of them one day after another, did by degrees improve their skill about them; for of one sort of engines for darts they had three hundred, and forty for stones, by the means of which they made it more tedious for the Romans to raise their banks, But then Titus, knowing that the city would be either saved or destroyed for himself, did not only proceed earnestly in the siege, but did not omit to have the Jews exhorted to repentance: so he mixed good counsel with his works for the siege. And being sensible that exhortations are frequently more effectual than arms. he persuaded them to surrender the city, now in a manner already taken, and thereby to save themselves, and sent Josephus to speak to them in their own language ; for he imagined they might yield to the persuasion of a countryman

3. So Josephus went round about the wall, and tried to find a place that was out of the reach of their darts, and yet within their hearing, and besought them, in many words,—" To spare themselves, to spare their country and their temple, and not to be more obdurate in these cases than foreigners themselves : for that the Romans, who had no relation to those things, had a reverence for their sacrea rites and places, although they belonged to their enemies, and had till now kept their hands off from meddling with then, while such as were brought up under them, and, if they be preserved, will be the only people that will reap the benefit of them, hurry on to have them destroyed. That ce tainly they have seen their strongest walls demolished, and that the wall still remaining was weaker than those that were already taken. That they must know the Roman power was invincible, and that they had been used to serve them; fer that in case it be allowed a right thing to fight for liberty, that ought to have been done at first; but for them that have once fallen under the power of the Romans, and have now submitted to them for so many long years, to pretend to shake off that yoke after. ward, was the work of such as had a mind to die miserably, not of such as were overs of liberty. Besides, men may well enough grudge at the dishonour of owning ignoble masters over them, but ought not to do so to those who have all things under their command : for what part of the world is there that hath escaped the Romans, unless be such as are of no use for violent heat or for violent cold? And evident it is that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That

, moreover, it is a strong and fixed law, even among brute beasts as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them, and to suffer those to have the dominion who are too hard for the rest in war. For which reason & was that their forefathers, who were far superior to them both in their souls and

of their own.

bodies and other advantages, did yet submit to the Romans, which they would not have suffered, had they not known that God was with them. As for themselves, what can they depend on in this their opposition, when the greatest part of their city is already taken ? and when those that are within it are under greater mise. ries than if they were taken, although their walls be still standing ? For that the Romans are not unacquainted with that famine which is in the city, whereby the people are already consumed, and the fighting men will in a little time be so too, for although the Romans should leave off the siege, and not fall upon the city with their swords in their hands, yet was there an insuperable war that beset then within, and was augmented every hour; unless they were able to wage war with famine, and fight against it, or could alone conquer their natural appetites.” He added this farther,—" How right a thing it was to change their conduct, before their calamities were become incurable, and to have recourse to such advice as might preserve them, while opportunity was offering them for so doing : for that the Romans would not be mindful of their past actions to their disadvantage, unless they persevered in their insolent behaviour to the end ; because they were naturally mild in their conquests, and preferred what was profitable before what their passions dictated to them; which profit of theirs lay not in leaving the city empty of inhabitants nor the country a desert: on which account Cæsar did now offer them his right hand for their security : whereas, if he took the city by force, he would not save any of them, and this especially if they rejected his offers in these their utmost distresses; for the walls that were already taken could not but as sure them that the third wall would quickly be taken also. And although their fortifications should prove too strong for the Romans to break through them, yet would the famine fight for the Romans against them.”

4. While Josephus was making this exhortation to the Jews, many of them jested upon him from the wall, and many reproached him; nay, some threw their darts at him; but when he could not himself persuade them by such open good advice, he betook himself to the histories belonging to their own nation, and cried out aloud,—“O miserable creatures! are you so unmindful of those that used to assist you, that you will fight by your weapons and by your hands against the Romans? when did we ever conquer any other nation by such means ? and when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not avenge them when they had been injured ? Will not you turn again and look back, and consider whence it is that you fight with such violence, and how great a supporter you have profanely abused? Will not you recall to mind the prodigious things done for your forefathers and this holy place, and how great enemies of yours were by him subdued under you? I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. In old time there was one Necao, king of Egypt, who was also called Pharaoh ; he came with a prodigious army of soldiers, and seized Queen Sarah, the mother of our nation. What did Abraham our progenitor then do? Did he defend himself from this injurious person by war, although he had three hundred and eighteen captains under him, and an immense army under each of them ? Indeed, he deemed them to be no number at all without God's assistance, and only spread out his hands towards this holy place,* which you have now polluted, and reckoned upon him as upon his invincible supporter, in. stead of his own army. Was not our queen sent back, without any defilement, to her husband the very next evening ? while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place, which you have defiled by shedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen ; and he also trembled at those visions which he saw in the night

Josephus supposes, in this his admirable speech to the Jews, that not Abraham only, but Pharaoh king of Egypt, prayed towards a temple at Jerusalein, or towards Jerusalem itself, in which were Moun Zion and Mount Moriah, on which the tabernacle and temple did afterwards stand; and this long before either the Jewish tabernacle or temple was built for is the famous command given by God 10 Abraham to go two orthree days journey on purpose to ofier up his son Isaac there, unfavourable to such a notion

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