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which the consuls listed four thousand men out of them, and sent them to the island Sardinia ; but punished a greater number of them, who were unwilling to become soldiers on account of keeping the laws of their forefathers. * Thus were these Jews banished out of the city by the wickedness of four nien.

CHAP. IV.

How the Samaritans made a Tumult, and Pilate destroyed many of them ; how Pilate was accused, and what Things were done by Vitellius relating

to the Jews and ine Parthians. § 1. But the nation of the Samaritans did not escafe without tumults. The man who excited them to it was one who thought lying a thing of little conse. quence, and who contrived every thing so that the multitude might be pleased ; so he bid them get together upon Mount Gerizzim, which is by them looked upon as the most holy of all mountains, and assured them, that when they were come thither, he would show them those sacred vessels which were laid under that place, because Mosest put them there. So they came thither armed, and thought the discourse of the man probable; and as they abode at a certain village, which was called Tirathaba, they got the rest together to them, and desired to go up the mountain in a great multitude together : bnt Pilate prevented their going up by seizing upon the roads with a great band of horsemen and footmen, who fell upon those that were gotten together in the village, and when it came to an action, some of them they slew, and others of them they put to flight, and took a great inany alive, the principal of which, and also the most potent of those that fled away, Pilate ordered to be slain.

But when this tumult was appeased, the Samaritan senate sent an embassy to Vitellius, a man that had been consul, and who was now president of Syria, and accused Pilate of the murder of those that were killed; for that they did not go to Tirathaba in order to revolt from the Romans, but to escape the violence of Pilate. So Vitellius sent Marcellus, a friend of his, to take care of the affairs of Judea, and ordered Pilate to go to Rome, to answer before the emperor to the accusation of the Jews. So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome, and this in obedience to the orders of Vitellius, which he durst not contradict; but before he could get to Rome Tiberius was dead.

3. But Vitellius came into Judea, and went up to Jerusalem; it was at the time of that festival which is called the Passover. Vitellius was there magnifi. cently received, and released the inhabitants of Jerusalem from all the taxes upon the fruits that were bought and sold, and gave them leave to have the care of the high priest's vestments, with all their ornaments, and to have them under the cus tody of the priests in the temple, which power they used to have formerly, al. though at this time they were laid up in the tower of Antonia, the citadel so called,

* Of thc banishment of these 4000 Jews into Sardinia by Tiberius, see Suetonius in Tiber. sect. 36. But as for Mr. Reland's note bere, which supposes that Jews could not, consistently with their laws, be soldiers, it is contradicted by one branch of the history before us, and contrary to innumerable instances of their fighting, and proving excellent soldiers in war; and indeed many of the best of them, and even under heathen kings themselves, did so, those I mean who allowed them their rest on the Sabbath day, and other solemn festivals, and let them live according to their own laws, as Alexander the Great and the Ptolomies of Egypt did. It is true, they could not always obtain those privileges, and then they got excused as well as they could, or sometimes absolutely refused to hght, which seems to have been the case here, as to the major part of the Jews now banished, but nothing niore. See several of the Roman decrees in their favour as to such matters, B. xiv. ch. x.

+ Since Moses never came himself beyond Jordan, nor particularly to Mount Gerizziin, and since these Samaritans have a tradition among them related here by Dr. Hudson, from Reland, who was very skilful in Jewish and Samaritan learning, that in the days of Uzzi or Ozzi the high priest, 1 Chron. vi. 6 the ark and other sacred vessels were, by God's command, laid up or hidden in Mount Gerizzim, it is pighly probable that this was the foolish foundation the present Samaritans went upon in the sedition here described, and that we should read here nous, instead of Maorks in the text of Josephus.

and that on the occasion following: There was one of the (high) priests, named Hyrcanus, and as there were many of that name, he was the tirst of them ; this man built a tower near the temple, and when he had done so, he generally dwelt in it, and had these vestments with him ; because it was lawful for him alone to put them on, and he had them there reposited when he went down into the city, and took his ordinary garments. The same things were continued to be done by his sons, and by their sons after them. But when Herod came to be king he rebuilt this tower, which was very conveniently situated, in a magnificent manner; and because he was a friend to Antonius, he called it by the name of Antonia And as he found these vestments lying there, he retained them in the same place, as believing, that while he had them in his custody, the people would make no innovations against him. The like to what Herod did was done by his son Ar. chelaus, who was made king after him ; after whom the Romans, when they entered on the government, took possession of these vestments of the high priest, and had them reposited in a stone chamber under the seal of the priests, and of the keepers of the temple, the captain of the guard lighting a lamp there every day; and seven days* before a festival they were delivered to them by the captain of the guard, when the high priest, having purified them, and made use of them, laid them up again in the same chamber where they had been laid up be. fore, and this the very next day after the feast was over. This was the practice at the three yearly festivals, and on the fast day; but Vitellius put these garments into our own power, as in the days of our forefathers, and ordered the captain of iche guard not to trouble himself to inquire where they were laid, or when they were to be used; and this he did as an act of kindness to oblige the nation to him. Besides which, he also deprived Joseph, who was also called Caiaphas, of the high priesthood, and appointed Jonathan, the son of Ananus, the former high priest, to succeed him. After which he took his journey back to Antioch.

4. Moreover, Tiberius sent a letter to Vitellius, and commanded him to make a league of friendship with Artabanus, the king of Parthia; for while he was his enemy he terrified him, because he had taken

Armenia away from him, lest he should proceed farther, and told him he should no otherwise trust him than upon bis giving him hostages, and especially his son Artabanus. Upon Tiberius's writing thus to Vitellius, by the offer of great presents of money, he persuaded both the king of Iberia, and the king of Albania, to make no delay, but to fight against Artabanus; and although they would not do it themselves, yet did they give the Scythians a passage through their country, and opened the Caspian gates to them, and brought them upon Artabanus. So Armenia was again taken from the Parthians, and the country of Parthia was filled with war, and the principal of their men were slain, and all things were in disorder among them : the king's son also himself fell in these wars, together with many ten thousands of his army. Vitellius had also sent such great sums of money to Artabanus's father's kins. men and friends, that he had almost procured him to be slain by the means of those bribes which they had taken. And when Artabanus perceived that the plot laid against him was not to be avoided, because it was laid by the principal men, and those a great many in number, and that it would certainly take effect : when he also estimated the number of those that were truly faithful to him, as also of those who were already corrupted, but were deceitful in the kindness they professed to him, and were likely, upon trial, to go over to his enemics, he made his escape to the upper provinces, where he afterward raised a great army out of the Dabæ and Sacæ, and fought with his enemies, and retained his principality.

5. When Tiberius had heard of these things, he desired to have a league of friendship made between him and Artabanus, and when, upon this invitation, he

• This mention of the high priest's sacred garments received seven days before a festival, and puri bed in those days against a festival, as having lopen polluted, by being in the custody of heathens, in je sephus, agrees well with the traditions of the Talmudisis, as Reland here observes. Nor is there any question but the three feasts here mentioned, were she Passover, Pentecost, and feast of Tabernacles; and the fast, so called by way of distinction, as Acts, xxvii. 9, was the great day of expiation

received the proposal kindly, Artabanus and Vitellius went to Euphrates, and as a bridge was laid over the river, they each of them came with their guards about tem, and met one another on the midst of the bridge. And when they had agreed upon the terms or peace, Herod the tetrarch erected a rich tent on the midst of the passage, and made them a feast there. Artabanus also, not long afterward, seut his son Darius, as an hostage, with many presents, among which there was a man seven cubits ll, a Jew he was by birth, and his name was Eleazar, who for his tallness was called a giant. After which Vitellius went to Antioch, and Artabanus to Babylon; but Aerod [the tetrarch, being desirous to give Cæsar the first information that they had obtained hostages, sent posts with letters, whereis he had accurately described all the particulars, and had left nothing for the con. sul Vitellius to inform him of. But when Vitellius's letters were sent, and Cæsar had let him know that he was acquainted with the affairs already, because Herod had given him an account of them before, Vitellius was very much troubled at it; and supposing that he had been thereby a greater sufferer than he really was, he kept up a secret anger upon this occasion, till he could be revenged on him, which he was after Caius had taken the government.

6. About this time it was that Philip, Herod's brother, departed this life, in the twentieth year* of the reign of Tiberius, after he had been tetrarch of Trachonitis and Gaulanitis, and of the nation of the Bataneans also, thirty-seven years. He had showed himself a person of moderation and quietness in the conduct of his life and government; he constantly lived in that country which was subject to himn ;t he used to make his progress with a few chosen friends; his tribunal also, on which he sat in judgment, followed him in his progress; and when any one met him who wanted his assistance, he made no delay, but had his tribunal get down immediately, wheresoever he happened to be, and sat down upon it, and heard his complaint ; he there ordered the guilty that were convicted to be pun. ished, and absolved those that had been accused unjustly. He died at Julius; and when he was carried to that monument which he had already erected for himsel beforehand, he was buried with great pomp. His principality Tiberius took, for he lefi no sons behind him, and added it to the province of Syria; but gave order that the tributes which arose from it should be collected, and laid up in that his tetrarchy.

CHAP. V.

Herod the Tetrarch makes War with Aretas, the King of Arabia, and is beaten bang him; as also concerning the Death of John the Baptist; how Vitellius went up to Jerusalem : together with some Account of Agrippa, and of the Posterity

of Herod the Great. § 1. ABOUT this time Aretas, the king of Arabia Petrea, and Herod, had a quarrel on the account following : Herod the tetrarch had married the daughter of Aretas, and had lived with her a great while ; but when he was once at Rome, he lodged with Herod, I who was his brother indeed, but not by the same mother; for this

• This calculation froin all Josephus's Greek copies is exactly right; for since Herod died about Sop leinher, in the fourth year before the Christian ara, and Tiberius began, as is well known, Aug. 19, À. D. 14, it is evident that the 37th year of Philip, reckoned from bir fauvier's death, was the 20th of T'iherius, or near the end of A. D. 33, (the very year of our Saviour's death also, or however in the beginning of the next year, A. D. 34.) This Philip the tetrarch seems to have been the best of all the posterity a Herod, for his love of peace, and his love of justice. + An excellent example this.

This Herod seems to have had the additional name of Philip, as Antipag was named Herod-Aradio sas, and as Antipas and Antipater seem to be in a manner the very same name, yet were the names of Iwo sons of Herod the Great ; so unight Philip the letrarch and this Herod. Philip bie iwo different sous of the same father, all which Grotius observes on Malt. xiv. 3. Nor was it, as I agree with Grotius and others of the learned, Philip the tetrarch, but this Herod-Pnilip, whose wife Herod the tetrarch had mar. Fied, and that in her first husband's lifetime, and wher, her first husband had issue hy her; for which VOL 1

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Herod was the son of the high priest Simon's daughter. However, he fell in love with Herodias, this last Herod's wife who was the daughter of Aristobulus there brother, and the sister of Agrippa the Great. This man ventured to talk to her about a marriage between them, which address, when she admitted, an agreement was made for her to change her habitation, and come to him as soon as he should return froin Rome : one article of this marriage also was this, that he should di. vorce Aretas's daughter. So Antipas, when he had made this agreement, sailed to Rome: but when he had done there the business he went about, and was re. arned again, his wife having discovered the agreement he had made with Hero dias, and having learned it before he had notice of her knowledge of the wholo design, she desired him to send her to Macherus, which is a place in the borders of the dominions of Aretas and Herod, without informing him of any of her in. centions. Accordingly Herod sent her thither, as thinking his wife had not per. ceived any thing: now she had sent a good while before to Macherus, which was subject to her father, and so all things necessary for her journey were made ready for her by the general of Aretas's army; and by that means she soon came into Arabia, under the conduct of several generals, who carried her from one to ano ther successively; and she soon came to her father, and told him of Herod's in. tentions. So Aretas made this the first occasion of his enmity between him and Herod, who had also some quarrel with him about their limits at the country of Gemalitis. So they raised armies on both sides, and prepared for war, and sent their generals to fight instead of themselves; and when they had joined battle, all Herod's army was destroyed by the treachery of some fugitives, who, though they were of the tetrarchy of Philip, joined with Herod's army. So Herod wrote about these affairs to Tiberius, who, being very angry at the attempt made by Aretas, wrote to Vitellius, to make war upon him, and either to take him alive, and bring him to him in bonds, or to kill him, and send him bis head. This was the charge that Tiberius gave to the president of Syria.

2. Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, who was called the Baptist ; for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and com. manded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism: for that the washing (with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away (or the remission) of some sins (only,] but for the purification of the body: supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when (many) others came in crowds about him, for they were greatly moved (or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people, might put it into his power and indination to raise a rebellion (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise, thought it best by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it should be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God's displeasure to him.

3. S. Vitellius prepared to make war with Aretas, having with him two legions of armed men; he also took with him all those of light armature, and of the horse. men which belonged to them, and were drawn out of those kingdoms which were muder the Romans, and made haste for Petra, and came to Ptolemais. But as ho was marching very busily, and leading his army through Judea, the principal men met him, and desired that he would not thus march through their land; for that auwlterous and incestuous marriage, John the Baptist justly reproved Herod the tetrarch, and for whic) poroof Salome, the daughter of Herodias, by her first husband Herod-Philio, who was still alive, occa med him to be unjustly befreuded.

the laws of their country would not permit them to overlook those images which were brought into it, of which there were a great many in their ensigns; so he was persuaded by what they said, and changed that resolution of his, which he bad before taken in that matter. Whereupon he ordered the army to march along the great plain, while he himself, with Herod the tetrarch, and his friends, weni up to Jerusalem to offer sacrifice to God, an ancient festival of the Jews being then just approaching; and when he had been there, and been honourably enter. tained by the multitude of the Jews, he made a stay there for three days, withis which time he deprived Jonathan of the high priesthood, and gave it to his bro ther Theophilus. But when on the fourth day, letters came to him, which in formed him of the death of Tiberius, he obliged the multitude to take an oath of fidelity to Caius; he also recalled his army, and made them every one to go home, and take their winter quarters there, since upon the devolution of the empire upon Caius, he had not the like authority of making this war which he had before. It was also reported, that when Aretas heard of the coming of Vitellius to fight him, be said, upon his consulting the diviners, that it was impossible that this army of Vitellius's could enter Petra ; for that one of the rulers would die; either be that gave orders for the war, or he that was marching at the other's desire, in order to be subservient to his will, or else he against whom this army was prepared So Vitellius truly retired to Antioch; but Agrippa, the son of Aristobulus, wem up to Rome a year before the death of Tiberius, in order to treat of some affair with the emperor, if he might be permitted so to do. I have now a mind to de scribe Herod and his family, how it fared with them, partly because it is suitable to this history to speak of that matter, and partly because this thing is a demon stration of the interposition of Providence, how a multitude of children is of no advantage, no more than any other strength that mankind set their hearts upon, besides those acts of piety which are done towards God; for it happened, that within the revolution of a hundred years, the posterity of Herod, which were a great many in number, were, excepting a few, utterly destroyed.* One may well apply this for the instruction of mankind, and learn thence how unhappy they were ; it will also show us the history of Agrippa, who, as he was a person most worthy of admiration, so was he from a private man, beyond all the expectation of those that knew him, advanced to great power and authority. I have said some. thing of them formerly, but I shall now also speak accurately about them.

4. Herod the Great had two daughters by Mariamne, the (grand] daughter of Hyrcanus ; the one was Salampsio, who was married to Phasaelus her first cousin, who was himself the son of Phasaelus, Herod's brother; her father making tre match : the other was Cypros, who was herself married also to her first coil sin Antipater, the son of Salome, Herod's sister. Phasaelus had five children by Salampsio, Antipater, Herod, and Alexander; and two daughters, Alexandra and Cypros ; which last, Agrippa the son of Aristobulus married; and Timius of Cyprus married Alexandra : he was a man of note, but had by her no children Agrippa had by Cypros two sons and three daughters, which daughters were camed Bernice, Mariamne, and Drusilla ; but the names of the sons were Agrippa and Drusus, of which Drusus died before he cane to the years of puberty ; but their father Agrippa was brought up with bis other brethren, Herod and Aristo bulus; for these were also the sons of the son of Herod the Great, by Bernice, but Berpice was the daughter of Costoharus and of Salome, who was Herod's sister. Aristobulus left these infants, when he was slain by his father, together with his brother Alexander, as we have already related. But when they were arrived at the years of puberty, tois Herod, the brother of Agrippa, married Mariamne, the daughter of Olympias, who was daughter of Herod the king, and

Whether this sudden extinction of alınost the entire lineage of Herod the Great, which was very nu merous, as we are both here and in the next section informed, was not in part as a punishment for the gross incests they were frequently guilty of, in marrying their own nephews and nieces, well deserves to be considered. See Levit. xviii. 6, 7; xxi. 10, and Noldius, De Herod. No. 269, 270.

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