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of Joseph, the son of Joseph who was brother to Herod the king, and had by her a son, Aristobulus : but Aristobulus, the third brother of Agrippa, mar. ried Jotape, the daughter of Sampsigeramus, king of Emesa ;* they had a daughter who was deaf, whose name also was Jotape ; and these hitherto were the children of the male line. But Herodias, their sister, was married to Herod (Philip,] the son of Herod the Great, who was born of Mariamne, the daughter of Simon the high priest, who had a daughter Salome; after whose birth Hero. dias took upon her to confound the laws of our country; and divorced herself from her husband while he was alive, and was married to Herod [Antipas,] her husband's brother by the father's side ; he was tetrarch of Galilee: but her daughter Salome was married to Philip, the Son of Herod, and tetrarch of 'Tra. chonitis ; and as he died childless, Aristobulus, the son of Herod, the brother of Agrippa, married her; they had three sons, Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulus : and this was the posterity of Phasaelus and Salampsio. But the daughter of Antipater by Cypros, was Cypros, whom Alexis Selcias, the son of Alexas, mar. ried; they had a daughter, Cypros ; but Herod and Alexander, who, as we told you, were the brothers of Antipater, died childless. As to Alexander, the son of Herod the king, who was slain by his father; he had two sons, Alexander and Tigranes, by the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia : Tigranes, who was king of Armenia, was accused at Rome, and died childless ; Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possessiu! of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero: he had a son Alexander, who married Jotape,t the daughter of Antiochus, king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. But these descendants of Alexander, soon after their birth, deserted the Jewish religion, and went over to that of the Greeks ; but for the rest of the daughters of Blerod the king, it happened that they died childless. And as these descendants of Herod, whom we have enumerated, were in being at the same time that Agrippa the Great took the kingdom, and I have now given an account of them, it now remains that I relate the several hard fortunes which befell Agrippa, and how he got clear of them, and was advanced to the greatest height of dignity and power.
CHAP. VI. Of the Navigation of King Agrippa to Rome, to Tiberius Cæsar: and how, upon his
being accused by his own Freedman, he was bound : how also he was set at Liberty by Caius, after Tiberius's Death, and was made King of the
Tetrarchy of Philip. § 1. A LITTLE before the death of Herod the king, Agrippa lived at Rome, and was generally brought up and conversed with Drusus, the emperor Tiberius's son; and contracted a friendship with Antonia, the wife of Drusus the Great, who had his rnott er Bernice in great esteem, and was very desirous of advancing her son.
Now, as Agrippa was by nature magnanimous and generous in tho presents he made, while his mother was alive, this inclination of his mind did not appear, that he might be able to avoid her anger for such his extravagance; but when Bernice was dead, and he was left to his own conduct, he spent a gitat deal extravagantly in his daily way of living, and a great deal in the immoderate pre. sents he made, and those chiefly among Cæsar's freedmen, in order to gain their assistance, insomuch that he was in a little time reduced to poverty, and could not live at Rome any longer. Tiberius also forbade the friends of his deceased son to come into his sight, because on seeing them he should be put in mind of his son, and his grief would thereby be revived.
* 'There are coins still extant of this Emesa, as Spanheim informs us. + Spanheimu alsu informis us of a coin still extant of this Jotape, daughter of the king of ('amiagena
2. For these reasons he went away from Rome, and sailed to Judea, but in evil circumstances, being dejected with the loss of that money which he once had, and because he had not wherewithal to pay his creditors, who were many in qumber, and such as gave him no room for escaping them. Whereupon he knew not what to do; so, for shame of his present condition, he retired to a certais tower, at Malatha, in Idumea, and had thoughts of killing himself ; but his wife Cypros perceived his intentions, and tried all sorts of methods to divert him from taking such a course: so she sent a letter to his sister Herodias, who was now the wife of Herod the tetrarch, and let her know Agrippa's present design, and what necessity it was which drove him thereto, and desired her as a kinswoman of his, to give him her help, and to engage her husband to do the same, since she saw how she alleviated these her husband's troubles all she could, although she had not the like wealth to do it withal. So they sent for him, and allotted him Tiberias for his habitation, and appointed him some income of money for his maintenance, and made him a magistrate of that city, by way of honour to him. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria.
3. Hereupon Flaccus received him kindly, and he lived with him. Flaccus had also with him there Aristobulus, who was indeed Agrippa's brother, but was at variance with him; yet did not their enmity to one another hinder the friend. ship of Flaccus to them both, but still they were honourably treated by him. However, Aristobulus did not abate of his ill will to Agrippa, till at length he brought him into ill terms with Flaccus: the occasion of bringing on which estrangement was this: the Damascens were at difference with the Sidonians about their limits, and when Flaccus was about to hear the cause between them, they understood that Agrippa had a mighty influence upon him ; so they desired that he would be of their
side, and for that favour promised him a great deal of money; to he was zealous in assisting the Damascens as far as he was able. Now Aristobulus had gotten intelligence of this promise of money to him, and accused him to Flaccus of the same ; and when, upon a thorough examination of the matter, it appeared plainly so to be, he rejected Agrippa out of the number of his friends. So he was reduced to the utmost necessity, and came to Ptolemais; and be. cause he knew not where else to get a livelihood, he thought to sail to Italy; but as he was restrained from so doing by want of money, he desired Marsyas, who was his freedman, to find some method of procuring him so much as he vanted for that purpose, by borrowing such a sum of some person or other. So Marsyas desired of Peter, who was the freedman of Bernice, Agrippa's mother, and by the right of her testament was bequeathed to Antonia, to lend him so much upon Agrippa's own bond and security; but he accused Agrippa of having de frauded him of certain sums of money, and so obliged Marsyas, when he made the bond of 20,000 Attic drachmæ, to accept of 2,500 drachmæ* less than what he desired, which the other allowed of, because he could not help it. Upon the receipt of this money, Agrippa came to Anthedon, and took shipping, and was going to set sail; hut Herennius Capito, who was the procurator of Jamnia, sent a band of soldiers to demand of him 300,000 draclimäe of silver, which were by him owing to Cæsar's treasury while he was at Rome, and so forced him to stay. He then pretended that he would do as he bid him: but when night came on, he cut his cables, and went off, and sailed to Alexandria, where he desired Alexana
Spanheim observes, that we have here an instance of the Attie quantity of use money, which was the eighth part of the original sum, or twelve and a half per cenl, for such is the proportiou of 2,500 10 20,000
der the alabarch* to lend him 200,000 drachme: but he said he would not lend it to him, but would not refuse it Cypros, as greatly astonished at her affection to her husband, and at the other instances of her virtue ; so she undertook to repay it. Accordingly, Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay him the rest of that sum at Dicearchi [Puteoli;) and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea.
4. And now Agrippa was come to Puteoli, whence he wrote a letter to Tibe. rius Cæsar, who then lived at Capreæ, and told him that he was come so far is order to wait on him and to pay him a visit; and desired that he would give him Leave to come over to Capreæ ; so Tiberius made no difficulty, but wrote to him in an obliging way in other respects, and withal told him he was glad of his safe return, and desired him to come to Capreæ; and when he was come, he did not fail to treat him as kindly as he had promised him in his letter to do. But the next day came a letter to Cmsar from Herennius Capito, to inform bim that Agrippa had borrowed 300,000 drachmæ and not paid it at the time appointed; but, when it was demanded of him, he ran away like a fugitive, out of the places under his government, and put it out of his power to get the money of him. When Cæsar had read the letter, he was much troubled at it, and gave order that Agrippa should be excluded from his presence, until he paid that debt : upon which he was no way daunted at Cæsar's anger, but entreated Antonia, the mother of Ger. manicus, and of Claudius, who was afterward Cæsar himself, to lend him those 300,000 drachmæ, that he might not be deprived of Tiberius's friendship ; so, out of' regard to the memory of Bernice, his mother (for those two women were very familiar with one another,) and out of regard to his and Claudius's education to. gether, she lent him the money; and upon the payment of this debt, there was nothing to hinder Tiberius's friendship to him. After this Tiberius Cæsar re. commended to him his grandson, and ordered that he should always accompany him when he went abroad. But upon Agrippa's kind reception by Antonia, he betook himself to pay his respects to Caius, who was her grandson, and in very high reputation by reason of the good will they bare his father. $ Now there was one Thallus, a freedman of Cæsar, of whom he borrowed a million of drachmæ, and thence repaid Antonia the debt he owed her, and by spending the overplus la paying his court to Caius, became a person of great authority with him.
5. Now, as the friendship which Agrippa had for Caius was come to a great height, there happened some words to pass between them, as they once were in a chariot together, concerning Tiberius ; Agrippa praying (to God] (for they two sat by themselves,) that “ Tiberius might soon go off the stage, and leave the government to Caius, who was in every respect more worthy of it.” Now Eu. tychus, who was Agrippa's freedman, and drove his chariot, heard these words, and at that time said nothing of them ; but when Agrippa accused him of steal. ing some garments of his (which was certainly true,) he ran away from him: but when he was caught, and brought before Piso, who was governor of the city, and the man was asked, why he ran away? he replied that he had somewhat to say to Cæsar, that tended to his security, and preservation : So Piso bound him, and sent bim to Capreæ. But Tiberius, according to his usual custom, kept him still in bonds, being a delayer of affairs, if there ever was any other king or tyrant that was so; for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were dispatched away to governors or procurators of the provincos, that had been fora merly sent, unless they were dead: whence it was, that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners ; insomuch, that when he was asked by his friends, wliat was the reason of his delay, in such cases ? he said, that “he delayed lo hear ambassadors, lest upon their quick dismission, other ambassadors should be • The governor of the Jews there.
* Tiberius junior
appointed, and return upon him ; and so he should bring trouble upon himself in their public reception and dismission : that he permitted those governors, who had been sent once to their governments [to stay there a great while,] out of regard to the subjects that were under them; for that all governors are naturally disposed to get as much as they can, and that those who are not to fix there, but to stay a short time, and that at an uncertainty when they shall be turned out, do the more severely hurry themselves on to fleece the people : but that, if their go vernment be long continued to them, they are at last satiated with the spoils, as having gotten a vast deal, and so become at length less sharp in their pillaging ; but that, if successors are sent quickly, the poor subjects, who are exposed to them as a prey, will not be able to bear the new ones, while they shall not have the same time allowed them, wherein their predecessors had filled themselves, and so grow more unconcerned about getting more ; and this because they are removed before they have had time (for their oppressions.] He gave them an example to show his meaning: A great number of Aies came about the sore places of a man that had been wounded ; upon which one of the standers-by pitied the man's misfortunes, and thinking he was not able to drive those fies away himself, was going to drive them away for him ; but he prayed him to let them alone : the other, by way of reply, asked him the reason of such a preposterous proceeding, in preventing relief from his present misery: to which he answered, If thou drivest ihese flies away, thou wilt hurt me worse, for, as these are already full of my blood, they do not crowd about me, nor pain me so much as before, but are sometimes more remiss, while the fresh ones that come almost famished, and find me quite tired down already, will be my destruction.
For this cause, therefore, it is, that I am myself careful not to send such new governors perpetually to those my subjects, who are already sufficiently harassed by many oppressions, as may, like these flies, farther distress them; and so, besides their natural desire of gain, may have this additional incitement to it, that they expect to be suddenly deprived of that pleasure which they take in it." And, as a farther atlestation to what I say of the dilatory nature of Tiberius, I appeal to this his prac. tice itself; for although he were emperor twenty-two years, he sent in all but two procurators to govern the nation of the Jews, Gratus, and his successor in the go. vernment, Pilate. Nor was he in one way of acting with respect to the Jews, and in another with respect to the rest of his subjects. He farther informed them, that even in the hearing of the causes of prisoners, he made such delays, “be. cause immediate death to those that must be condemued to die would be an al leviation of their present miseries, while those wicked wretches have not deserved any such favour; but I do it that, by being harassed with the present calamity, they may undergo greater misery,
6. On this account it was that Eutychus could not obtain a hearing, but was kept still in prison. However, some time afterward, Tyberius came from Capreæ to Tusculanum, which is about a hundred furlongs from Rome. Aggrippa then desired of Antonia, that she would procure a hearing for Eutychus, let the matter whereof he accused him prove what it would. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus's wife, and from her eminent chastity ; * for though she were still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and re. fused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to sumebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. She had also been the greatest benefactress to Tiberius, when there was a very
• This high commendation of Antonia for marrying but ence, given here, and supposed elsewhere, Antiq. B. xvii. ch. xiii. sect. 4, and this notwithstanding the strongest temptations, show how honourabk single marriages were both among the Jews and Romans, in the days of Josepbus and of the apostles, and takes away much of that surprise which the modern Protestants have at those laws of the apostles, where no widows, but those who have been the wives of one husband only, are taken into the church list; and no bishops, priests, or deacons, are allowed to marry more than once, without leaving off to officiate as cler, Omen any longer. See Luke, ii. 36 ; 1 Tim. v. 11, 12; üi. 2, 12; Tit. i. €; Constitut. Apost. B. ii. sect
dangerous plot laid against him by Sejanus, a man who had been her husband's friend, and who had the greatest authority, because he was general of the army, and when many members of the senate and many of the freedmen joined with him, and the soldiery was corrupted, and the plot was come to a great height. Now Sejanus had certainly gained his point, had not Antonia's boldness been more wisely conducted than Sejanus's malice ; for when she had discovered his designs against Tiberius, she wrote him an exact account of the whole, and gave the letter to Pallus, the most faithful of her servants, and sent him to Capreæ to Tiberius, who, when he understood it, slew Sejanus and his confederates ; so that Tiberius, who had her in great esteem before, now looked upon her with stilt greater respect, and depended upon her in all things. So, when Tiberius was desired by this Antonia to examine Eutychus, he answered, “If indeed Eutychus had falsely accused Agrippa in what he hath said of him, he hath had sufficient punishment by what I have done to him already; but if, upon examination the accu. sation appears to be true, let Agrippa have a care, lest, out of desire of punishing his freedman, he do not rather bring a punishment upon himself.” Now when Antonia told Agrippa of this, he was still much more pressing that the matter might be examined into; so Antonia, upon Agrippa's lying hard at her continually to beg this favour, took the following opportunity; as Tiberius once lay at his ease, upon his sedan, and was carried about, and Caius her grandson, and Agrippa were before him after dinner, she walked by the sedan, and desired him to call Eutychus, and have him examined: to which he replied : “ Antonia, the gods are my witnesses, that I am induced to do what I am going to do, not by my own inclination, but because I am forced to it by thy prayers. When he had said this, he ordered Macro, who succeeded Sejanus, to bring Eutychus to him; ac. cordingly, without any delay, he was brought. Then Tiberius asked him, what he had to say against a man who had given him his liberty ? Upon which he said, * O my lord, this Caius, and Agrippa with him, were once riding in a chariot, when I sat at their feet, and among many other discourses that passsd, Agrippa said to Caius, O that the day would once come, when this old fellow will die, and name thee for the governor of the habitable earth! For then this Tiberius, his grandson, would be no hinderance, but would be taken off by thee, and that earth would be happy and I happy also.” Now Tiberius took these to be truly Agrippa's words, and bearing a grudge withal at Agrippa, because when he had commanded him to pay his respects to Tiberius, his grandson, and the son of Drusus, Agrippa had not paid him that respect, but disobeyed his com
mmands, and transferred all his regard to Caius ; he said to Macro.“ Bind this man.” But Macro not distinctly knowing which of them it was whom he bid him bind, and not expecting that he would have any such thing done to Agrippa, he forbore, and came to ask more distinctly what it was that he said ? But when Cæsar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing : “For certain” said he,
Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound :” and when he still asked, • Which of these is to be bound ?” he said “ Agrippa.” Upon which Agrippa betook himself to make supplication for himself, putting him in mind of his son, with whom he was brought up, and of Tiberius [his grandson,] whom he had educated ; but all to no purpose : for they led him about bound even in his pur. ple garments. It was also very hot weather, and they had but little wine to their meal, so that he was very thirsty; he was also in a sort of agony, and took this treatment of him heinously ; as he therefore saw one of Caius's slaves, whose 1, 2; B. vi. sect. 17; Can. B. xvii. ; Grot. in Loc. ii. 36 ; and Respons. ad Consult. Cassand. p 44, and Cotelot. in Constitut. B. vi. sect. 17. And note, that 'Tertullian owns this law, against second marriages of the clergy, had been once at least executed in his time; and heavily complains elsewhere, that the breach thereof had not been always punished by the Catholics, as it ought to have been. Jerom, speaking of the ill reputation of marrying twice, says, that no such person could be chosen into the clergy in his days; which Augustine testifies also: and for Epiphanius, rather earlier, he is clear and full to the mame purpose, and says, that law obtained over the whole Catholic churcb in his days; as the places in ther forecited authors inforın us