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thought, and this speech of his made in council, he persuaded them to act ac cordingly; so Mithridates was let go. But when he was gone away, his wito reproached him, that although he was son-in-law 10 the king, he neglected to avenge himself on those that had injured him, while he took no care about it, but was contented to have been made a captive by the Jews, and to have escaped them : and she bid him “either to go back like a man of courage, or else, she sware by the gods of their royal family, that she would certainly dissolve her marriage with him." Upon which, partly because he could not bear the daily trouble of her taunts, and partly because he was afraid of her insolence, lest sho should in earnest dissolve their marriage, he unwillingly, and against his inclinations, got together again as large an army as he could, and marched along with them, as himself thinking it a thing not to be borne any longer, that he, a Par thian, should owe his preservation to the Jews, when they had been too hard for him in the war.

7. But as soon as Anileus understood that Mithridates was marching with a great army against him, he thought it too ignominious a thing to carry about the lakes, and not to take the first opportunity of meeting his enemies; and he hoped to have the same success, and to beat their enemies as they did before ; as also he ventured boldly upon the like attempts. Accordingly he led out his army, and a great many more joined themselves to that arm , in order to betake them selves to plunder other people, and in order to terrify the enemy again by their numbers. But when they had marched ninety furlongs, while the road had been through dry and sandy) places, and about the midst of the day, they were be. come very thirsty ; and Mithridates appeared, and fell upon them, as they were in distress for want of water, on which account, and on account of the time of the day, they were not able to bear their weapons. So Anileus and his men were put to an ignominious route, while men in despair were to attack those that were fresh, and in good plight; so a great slaughter was made, and many ten thou. sands fell. Now Anileus, and all that stood firm about him, ran away, as fast as they were able, into a wood, and afforded Mithridates the pleasure of having gained a great victory over them. But there now came in to Anileus a conflux of bad men, who regarded their own lives very little, if they might but gain some present ease ; insomnch that they, by thus coming to him, compensated the mul. titude of those that perished in the fight. Yet were not these men like to those that fell, because they were rash, and unexercised in war; however, with these he came upon the villages of the Babylonians, and a mighty devastation of all things was made there by the injuries that Anileus did them. So the Baby. lonians, and those that had already been in the war, sent to Neerda, to the Jews there, and demanded Anileus. But although they did not agree to their demands (for if they had been willing to deliver him up, it was not in their power so to do,) yet did they desire to make peace with them. To which the others replied, thal they also wanted to settle conditions of peace with them, and sent men together with the Babylonians, who discoursed with Anileus about them. But the Baby. lonians, upon taking a view of his situaticn, and having learned where Anileus and his men lay, fell secretly upon them as they were drunk, and fallen asleep, and slew all that they caught of them, without any fear, and killed Anileus him self also.

8. The Babylonians were now freed from Anileus's heavy incursions, which had been a great restraint to the effects of that natred they bore to the Jews; for they were almost always at varianct, by reason of the contrariety of their laws , and which party soever grew boldest before the other, they assaulted the other; and at this time in particular it was, that upon the ruin of Anileus's party, the Ba. bylonians attacked the Jews, which made those Jews so vehemently to resent the injuries they received from the Babylonians, that being neither able to fight them, nor bearing to live with them, they went to Seleucia, the principal city of

those parts, which was built by Seleucus Nicator. It was inhabited by many of the Macedonians, but by more of the Grecians; not a few of the Syrians also dwelt there; and thither did the Jews fly, and live there five years without any misfortunes. But on the sixth year a pestilence came upon these at Babyloa, which occasioned new removals of men's habitations out of that city; and because they came to Seleucia, it happened that a still heavier calamity came upon theun on that account, which I am going to relate immediately.

9. Now the way of living of the people of Seleucia, which were Greeks and Syrians, was commonly quarrelsome, and full of discord, though the Greeks were joo hard for the Syrians. When therefore th: Jews were come thither, and dwelt among them, there arose a sedition, and the Syrians were too hard for the other, by the assistance of the Jews, who are men that despise dangers, and very ready te fight upon any occasion. Now when the Greeks had the worst in this sodi. tion, and saw that they had but one way of recovering their former authority, and that was, if they could prevent the agreement between the Jews and the Syrians, they every one discoursed with such of the Syrians as were formerly their acquaintance, and promised they would be at peace and friendship with them. Ac. cordingly they gladly agreed so to do; and when this was done by the principal ten of both nations, they soon agreed to a reconciliation, and when they were to agreed, they both knew that the great design of such their union would be their common hatred to the Jews. Accordingly they fell upon them, and slew about fifty thousand of them, nay, the Jews were all destroyed, excepting a few who escaped, either by the compassion which their friends or neighbours afforded them in order to let them fly away. These retired to Ctesiphon a Grecian city, and situated near to Seleucia, where the king (of Parthia] lives in winter every year, and where the greatest part of his riches are deposited; but the Jews had here no certain settlement, those of Seleucia having little concern for the king's honour. Now the whole nation of the Jews were in fear both of the Babylonians and of the Seleucians, because all the Syrians that live in those places agreed with the Seleucians in the war against the Jews; so the most of them gathered themselves together, and went to Neerda and Nisibis, and obtained security there by the strength of these cities; besides which their inhabitants, who were a great many, were all warlike men. And this was the state of the Jews at this time in Babylonia.

BOOK XIX.

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF THREE YEARS AND A HALF.

FROM THE DEPARTURE OF THE JEWS OUT OF BABYLON TO

FADUS THE ROMAN PROCURATOR.

CHAP. I.

How Caius* was slain by Cherea. 9 1. Now this Caiust did not demonstrate his madness in offering injuries only to the Jews at Jerusalem, or to those that dwelt in the neighbourhood, but suffered it to extend itself through all the earth and sea, so far as was in subjection to the Romans, and filled it with ten thousand mischiess; so many indeed in number as ao foriner history relates. But Rome itself felt the most dismal effects of what he did, while he deemed that not to be any way more honourable than the rest of the cities; hut he pulled and halled its other citizens, but especially the senate, and particularly the nobility, and such as had been dignified by illustrious an. cestors; he also had ten thousand devices against such of the equestrian order, as it was styled, who were esteemed by the citizens equal in dignity and wealth with the senators, because out of them the senators were themselves chosen; these he treated after an ignominious manner, and removed them out of his way, while they were at once slain and their wealth plundered ; because he slew men gene. rally in order to seize on their riches. He also asserted his own divinity, and in. sisted on greater honours to be paid him by his subjects than are due to mankind. He also frequented that temple of Jupiter which they style the Capitol, which is with them the most holy of all their temples, and had boldness enough to call him. self the brother of Jupiter. And other pranks he did like a madman; as when he laid a bridge from the city Dicearchia, which belongs to Campania, to Mise. num, another city upon the seaside, from one promontory to another, of the length of thirty furlongs as measured over the sea. And this was done, because he esteemed it to be a most tedious thing to row over it in a small ship, and thought withal, that it became him to make that bridge, since he was lord of the sea, and Inight oblige it to give marks of obedience as well as the earth ; so he enclosed the whole bay within his bridge, and drove his chariot over it, and thought thai, as he was a god, it was fit for him to travel over such roads as this was. Nor did he abstain from the plunder of any of the Grecian temples, and gave order that all the engravings and sculptures, and the rest of the ornaments of the statues and donations therein dedicated, should be brought to him, saying, that “the best things ought to be set no where but in the best place, and that the city of Rome was that best place.” He also adorned his own house and his gardens with the curiosities brought from those temples, together with the houses he lay at when

. In this and the three next chapters, we have, I think, a larger and more distinct account of the daughter of Caius, and the succession of Claudius, than we have of any such ancient facta whatsoeve edewhere. Soine of the occasions of which probably were, Josephus's bitter hatred against tyranny, and the pleasure he took in giving the history of the slaughter of such a barbarous tyrant as was this Caius Caligula, as also the deliverance his own nation had by that slaughter, of which he speaks, sect. 2, ta gether with the great intimacy he had with Agrippa junior, whose father was deeply concerned in the advanceinent of Claudius, upon the death of Caius; from which Agrippa junior, Josephus might be filij mformed of this history.

* Called Caligula by the Romans

he travelled all over Italy: whence he did not scruple to give a command, that the statue of Jupiter Olympius, so called because he was honoured at the Olym. qan games by the Greeks, which was the work of Phidias the Athenian, should be brought to Rome. Yet did not he compass his end, because the architects toid Memmius Regulus, who was commanded to remove that statue of Jupiter, that the workinanship was such as would be spoiled, and would not bear the removal. It was also reported that Memmius, both on that account, and on account of some such mighty prodigies as are of an incredible nature, put off the taking it down, and wrote to Caius those accounts, as his apology for not having done what his epistle required of him; and that when he was thence in danger of perishing, he was saved by Caius's being dead himself, before he had pui him to death.

2. Nay, Caius's madness came to this height, that when he had a daughter born he carried her into the Capitol, and put her upon the knees of the statue, and said, that the child was common to him and to Jupiter, and determined that she had two fathers, but which of those fathers were the greatest, he left undeter. mined; and yet mankind bore him in such his pranks. He also gave leave to slaves to accuse their masters of any crimes whatsover they pleased : for all such accusations were terrible, because they were in great part made to please him, and at his suggestion; insomuch that Pollux, Claudius's slave, had the boldness to lay an accusation against Claudius himself, and Caius was not ashamed to be present at his trial of life and death, to hear that trial of his own uncle, in hopes of being able to take him off, although he did not succeed to his mind. But when he had filled the whole habitable world, which he governed, with false ao. cusations and miseries, and had occasioned the greatest insult of slaves againse their masters, who indeed in great measure ruled them, there were many secret plots now laid against him; some in anger, and in order for men to revenge them selves, on account of the miseries they had already undergone from him; and others made attempts upon him, in order to take him off before they should fall into such great miseries, while his death came very fortunately for the preserva tion of the laws of all men, and had a great influence upon the public welfare; and this happened most happily for our nation in particular, which had almost utterly perished if he had not been suddenly slain. And I confess I have a mind to give a full account of this matter, particularly because it will afford great assurance of the power of God, and great comfort to those that are under afflictions, and wise caution to those who think their happiness will never end, nor bring them at length to the most lasting miseries, if they do not conduct their lives by the prin ciples of virtue.

3. Now there were three several conspiracies made in order to take off Caius, and each of these three were conducted by excellent persons. Emilius Regulus, born at Corduba in Spain, got some men together, and was desirous to take Caius off, either by them or by himself. Another conspiracy there was laid by them, under the conduct of Cherea Cassius, the tribune [of the Pretorian band ;] Minucianus Ånnius was also one of great consequence amongst those that were prepared to oppose his tyranny. Now the several occasions of these men's se. eral hatred and conspiracy against Caius were these : Regulus had indignation and hatred against all injustice, for he had a mind naturally angry, and bold, and free, which made him not conceal his counsels ; so he communicated them to many of his friends, and to others, who seemed to him persons of activity and rigor: Minucianus entered into this conspiracy, because of the injustice done the rest that were concerned, who saw the injuries that were offered them, and were desirous that Caius's slaughter might succeed by their mutual assistance of one another, and they might themselves escape being killed by the taking off Caius ; that perhaps they should gain their point, and that it would be a happy thing if they should gain it, to approve themselves to so many excellent persons as earnestly wished to be partakers with them in their design, for the delivery of the city and of the government, even at the hazard of their own lives. But still Cherea was the most zealous of them all, both out of a desire of getting himself the greatest name, and also by reason of his access to Caius's presence, with less danger because he was tribune, and could therefore the more easily kill him

Lepidus his particular friend, and one of the best character of all the citizens, whom Cairs had slain, as also because he was afraid of himself, since Caius's

the slaughter of all alike ; and for Cherea, he came in, because he thought ila deed worthy of a free ingenuous man to kill Caius, and was ashamed of the reproaches he lay under from Caius, as though he were a coward as also becine he was himself in danger every day from his friendship with

wrath tended to

4. Now at this time came on the horse races (Circensian games ;] the view of which games was eagerly desired by the people of Rome; for they come with great alacrity into the hyppodrome (circus) at such times, and petition their emperors, in great multitudes, for what they stand in need of; who usually did not think fit to deny them their requests, but readily and gratefully granted them. Accordingly they most importunately desired, that Caius would now ease them in their tributes, and abate somewhat of the rigour of the taxes imposed upon them; but he would not hear their petition ; and, when their clamours increased, he sent soldiers, some one way, and some another, and gave order that they should lay hold on those that made the clamours, and, without any more ado, bring them out, and put them to death. These were Caius's com. mands, and those who were commanded executed the same ; and the number of those who were slain on this occasion was very great. Now the people saw this, and bore it so far, that they left off clamouring, because they saw with their own eyes, that this petition to be relieved, as to the payment of their money, brought immediate death upon them. These things made Cherea more resolute to go on with his plot, in order to put an end to this barbarity of Caius against men. He then at several times thought to fall upon Caius even as he was feasting; yet did he restrain himself by some considerations; not that he had any doubt on him about killing him, but as watching for a proper season, that the attempt might not be frustrated, but that he might give the blow so as might certainly gain his purpose.

5. Cherea had been in the army a long time, yet was he not pleased with con. versing so much with Caius. But Caius had set him to require the tribute and other dues, which, when not paid in due time, were forfeited to Cæsar's treasury; and he had made some delays in requiring them, because those burdens had becn doubled, and had rather indulged his own mild disposition than performed Caius's command ; nay, indeed, he provoked Caius to anger by his sparing men, and pitying the hard fortunes of those from whom he demanded the taxes, and Caius upbraided him with his sloth and effeminacy in being so long about collecting the taxes. And indeed he did not only affront him in other respects, but when be gave him the watchword of the day, to whom it was to be given by his place, he

gave him feminine words ; and those of a nature very reproachful; and these watchwords he gave out, as having been initiated in the secrets of certain nils. teries, which he had been himself the author of. Now, although he had son.e. timos put on women's clothes, and had been wrapt in some embroidered garmeni: to them belonging, and done a great many other things, in order to make the company mistake him for a woman ; yet did he, by way of reproach, objeet the like womanish behaviour to Cherea. But when Cherea received the waichword from him, he had indignation at it, but had greater indignation at the delivery of it to others, as being laughed at by those that received it; insomuch that his fel. low-tribunes made him the subject of their drollery ; for they would foretell that he would bring them some of his usual watchwords, when he was about to take tho watchword from Cæsar, and would thereby make him ridiculous; on which accounts he took the courage of assuming certain partners to him, as having just reasuns für his indignation against ('aius. Now there was one Pompedius a senatoi

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