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many of them. And, indeed, there was a miserable destruction made of the women and children ; while some of them took the courage to call their husbands and kinsmen back, and to beseech them, with the bitterest lamentations, to stay for them ; but John's exhortation, who cried out to them to save the mselves and fly away, prevailed. He said also, that if the Romans should seize upon those whom they left behind, they would be revenged on them for it. So this multitude that ran thus away was dispersed abroad, according as each of them was able to run one faster or slower than another.

5. Now on the next day Titus came to the wall to make the agreement, where. upon the people opened their gates to him, and came out to him, with their chil. dren and wives, and made acclamations of joy to him, as to one that had been their benefactor, and had delivered the city out of custody; they also informed him of John's fight, and besought him to spare them, and to come in, and bring the rest of those that were for innovations to punishment. But Titus, not so much regarding the supplications of the people, sent part of his horsemen to pur. sue after John, but they could not overtake him, for he was gotten to Jerusalem before ; they also slew six thousand of the women and children who went out with him, but returned back and brought with them almost three thousand. How. ever, Titus was greatly displeased that he had not been able to bring this John who had deluded him, to punishment; yet he had captives enough, as well as the corrupted part of the city, to satisfy his anger, when it missed of John. So he entered the city in the midst of acclamations of joy; and when he had given or. ders to the soldiers to pull down a small part of the wall, as of a city taken in war, he repressed those that had disturbed the city rather by threatenings than by executions ; for he thought that many would accuse innocent persons, out of their own private animosities and quarrels, if he should attempt to distinguish those that were worthy of punishment from the rest ; and that it was better to let a guilty person alone in his fears, than to destroy with him any one that did not deserve it; for that probably such a one might be taught prudence by the fear of the punishment he had deserved, and have a shame upon him for his former of fences, when he had been forgiven ; but that the punishment of such as have been once put to death could never be retrieved. However, he placed a garrison in the city for its security, by which means he should restrain those that were for innovations, and should leave those that were peaceably disposed in greater secu rity. And thus was all Galilee taken, but this not till after it had cost the Ro mans much pains before it could be taken by them.

CHAP. III.

Concerning John of Gischala. Concerning the Zealots, and the High Priest Am.

nus : as also how the Jews raised Seditions one against another in Jerusalem.] § 1. Now, upon John's entry into Jerusalem, the whole body of the people were in an uproar, and ten thousand of them crowded about every one of the fugitives hat were come to them, and inquired of them what miseries had happened abroad, when their breath was 80 short, and hot, and quick, that of itself it de. clared the great distress they were in ; yet did they talk big under their misfor. tunes, and pretended to say, that they had not fled away from the Romans, but tüme thither in order to fight them with less hazard, for that it would be an un. reasonable and a fruitless thing for them to expose themselves to desperate ha. zards about Gischala and such weak cities, whereas they ought to lay up their weapons and their zeal, and reserve it for their metropolis. But when they rela. ed io them the taking of Gischala, and their decent departure, as they pretended, from that place, many of the people understood it to be no better than a flight; and especially when the people were told of those that were made captives, they

were in great confusion, and guessed those things to be plain indications that they should be taken also. But for John, he was very little concerned for those whoin he had left behind him, but went about among all the people, and persuaded them to go to war, by the hopes he gave them. He affirmed that the affairs of the Romans were in a weak condition, and extolled his own power. He also jested upon the ignorance of the unskilful, as if those Romans, although they should take to themselves wings, could never fly over the wall of Jerusalem, who found such great difficulties in taking the villages of Galilee, and had broken their engines of war against their walls.

2. These harangues of John's corrupted a great part of the young men, and puffed them up for the war; but as to the more prudent part, and those in years, there was not a man of them but foresaw what was coming, and made lamentation on that account, as if the city was already undone : and in this confusion were the people. But then it must be observed, that the multitude that came out of the country were at discord before the Jerusalem sedition began ; for Titus went from Gischala to Cæsarea, and Vespasian from Cæsarea to Jamnia and Azotus, and took them both; and when he had put garrisons into them he came back with a great number of the people, who were come over to him, upon

his giving them his right hand for their preservation. There were besides disorders and civil wars in every city, and all those that were at quiet from the Romans turned their hands one against another. There was also a bitter contest between those that were fond of war and those that were desirous of peace. At the first, this quarrelsome temper caught hold of private families, who could not agree among themselves; after which those people that were the dearest to one another brake through all restraints with regard to each other, and every one associated with those of his own opinion, and began already to stand in opposition one to another; so that seditions arose every where, while those that were for inno. vations, and were desirous of war, by their youth and boldness, were too hard for the aged and prudent men. And, in the first place, all the people of every place betook themselves to rapine ; after which they got together in bodies, in order to rob the people of the country, insomuch that for barbarity and iniquity those of the same nation did no way differ from the Romans; nay, it seemed to be a much lighter thing to be ruined by the Romans than by themselves.

3. Now the Roman garrisons which guarded the cities, partly out of their uneasiness to take such trouble upon them, and partly out of the hatred they bare to the Jewish nation, did little or nothing towards relieving the miserable till the captains of these troops of robbers, being satiated with rapines in the coun try, got all together from all parts, and became a band of wickedness, and all together crept into Jerusalem, which was now become a city without a governor, and, as the ancient custom was, received without distinction all that belonged to their nation ; and these they then received, because all men supposed that those who came so fast into the city, came out of kindness, and for their assistance, although these very men, besides the seditions they raised, were otherwise the direct cause of the city's destruction also ; for as they were an unprofitable and

useless multitude, they spent those provisions beforehand which might otherwise have been sufficient for the fighting men.

Moreover, besides the bringing on of the war, they were the occasions of sedition and famine therein.

4. There were besides these other robbers that came out of the country, and came into the city, and joining to them those that were worse than them. Belves, omitted no kind of barbarity; for they did not measure their courage by their rapines and plunderings only, but proceeded as far as murdering men; and this not in the night-time or privately, or with regard to ordinary men, but did it openly in the daytime, and began with the most eminent persons in the city ; for the first man they meddled with was Antipas, one of the royal lineage, and the most potent man in the whole city, insomuch that the public treasures were committed to his care : him they took and confined, as they did in the next place

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to Levias a person of great note, with Sophas the son of Raguel; both which were of royal lineage also. And besides these they did the same to the principa men of the country. This caused a terrible consternation among the people, and every one contented himself with taking care of his own safety, as they would do if the city had been taken in war.

5. But these were not satisfied with the bonds into which they had put the men forementioned ; nor did they think it sate for them to keep them thus in custody long, since they were men very powerful and had numerous families of their own that were able to avenge them. Nay, they thought the very people would, per. haps, be so moved at these unjust proceedings, as to rise in a body against them: $ it was, therefore, resolved to have them slain. Accordingly, they sent one John, who was the most bloody-minded of them all, to do that execution : this man was also called the son of Dorcas,* in the language of our country. Ten more mea went along with him into the prison, with their swords drawn, and so they cut the throats of those that were in custody there. The grand lying pretence these men made for so flagrant an enormity was this, that these men bad had conferences with the Romans for a surrender of Jerusalem to them; and so they said they had slain only such as were traitors to their common liberty. Upon the whole

, they grew the more insolent upon this bold prank of theirs, as though the; had neen the benefactors and saviours of the city.

6. Now the people were come to that degree of meanness and fear, and these obbers to that degree of madness, that these last took upon them to appoint

sgh-priests.† So when they had disannulled the succession, according to those amilies out of which the high priests used to be made, they ordained certain un. known and ignoble persons for that office, that they might have their assistance in their wicked undertakings; for such as obtained this highest of all honour, without any desert, were forced to comply with those that bestowed it on them. They also set the principal men at variance one with another, by several sorts of contrivances and tricks, and gained the opportunity of doing what they pleased

, by the mutual quarrels of those who might have obstructed their measures ; at length, when they were satiated with the unjust actions they had done toward men, they transferred their contumelious behaviour to God himself, and cane into the sanctuary with polluted feet.

7. And now the multitude were going to rise against them already; for Ananus, the ancientest of the high priests, persuaded them to it. Fle was a very pry dent man, and had, perhaps, saved the city, if he could but have escaped the hands of those that plotted against him. Those men made the temple of God a strong hold for them, and a place whither they might resort, in order to avoid the trou bles they feared from the people : the sanctuary was now become a reluge and a shop of tyranny. They also mixed jesting among the miseries they introduced which was more intolerable than what they did; for, in order to try what surprise the people would be under, and how far their own power extended, they undertook lo dispose of the priesthood by casting lots for it, whereas, as we have said already, it was to descend by succession in a family. The pretence they made for this strange attempt was an ancient practice, while they said that of old it was determined by lot; but, in truth, it was no better than the dissolution of an undeniable

This name Dorcas in Greek was Tabitha in Hebrew or Syriac, as Acts, ix. 36. Accordingly, coro of the manuscripts set it down here Tabetha, or Tabela. Nor can the context in Josephus be rare cu by supposing the reading to have been this, the son of Tabitha, which in the language of our cuntry * motes Dorcas (or a doe.)

+ Here we inay discover the utter disgrace and ruin of the high priesthood among the Jews, when undeserving, ignoble, and vile persons were advanced to that noble office by the seditious; which sert of high priests, as Josephus well reinarks here, were thereupon obliged to comply with and assist these that advanced them in their impious practices. The names of these high priests, or rather ridiculous an! profane persons, were Jesus the son of Damneus, Jesus the son of Gamaliel, Matthias the son of The ophilus, and that prodigious ignoramus Phannias, the son of Sanel; all

which we shall meet with in Josephus's future history of this war; nor do we meet with any other so much as pretended high priest Afler Mhannias, lill Jerusalem was taken and destroyed.

law, and a cunning contrivance to seize upon the government, derived from those that presumed to appoint governors as they themselves pleased.

8. Hereupon they sent for one of the pontifical tribes, which is called Eniachim,* and cast lots which of it should be the high priest. By fortune the lot so fell as to demonstrate their iniquity after the plainest manner; for it fell upon one whose name was Phannias, the son of Samuel, of the village Aphtha. He was a man not only unworthy of the high priesthood, but that did not well know what the high priesthood was, such a mere rustic was he; yet did they hale this man, without his own consent, out of the country, as if they were acting a play upon the stage, and adorned him with a counterfeit face: they also put upon him the sacred garments, and upon every occasion instructed him what he was to do. This horrid piece of wickedness was sport and pastime with them, but occasioned the other priests, who, at a distance, saw their law made a jest of, to shed tears, and sorely to lament the dissolution of such a sacred dignity.

9. And now the people could no longer bear the insolence of this procedure, but did altogether run zealously in order to overthrow that tyranny: and, indeed, [; they were Gorion the son of Josephus, and Symeonf the son of Gamaliel, who

encouraged them, by going up and down when they were assembled together in crowds, and as they saw them alone, to bear no longer, but to inflict punishment upon these pests and plagues of their freedoin, and to purge the temple of these bloody polluters of it. The best esteemed also of the high priests, Jesus the son of Gamala and Ananus the son of Ananus, when they were at their assemblies, bitterly reproached the people for their sloth, and excited them against the zea. lots; for that was the name they went by, as if they were zealous in good under. takings, and were not rather zealous in the worst actions, and extravagant in them beyond the example of others.

10. And now, when the multitude were gotten together to an assembly, and every one was in indignation at these men's seizing upon the sanctuary, at their rapine and murders, but had not yet begun their attacks upon them (the reason of which was this, that they imagined it to be a difficult thing to suppress these zealots, as, indeed, the case was,) Anánus stood in the midst of them, and cast. ing his eyes frequently at the temple, and having a flood of tears in his eyes, said, ““Certainly it had been good for me to die before I had seen the house of

God full of so many abominations, or these sacred places, that ought not to be Histrodden upon at random, filled with the feet of these blood-shedding villains: yet

do I, who am clothed with the vestments of high priesthoon, and am called by that most venerable name [of high priest, ] still live, and am but too fond of living, and cannot endure to undergo a death which would be the glory of my

old

age; and if I were the only person concerned, and as it were in a desert, I would give up my life, and that alone for God's sake; for to what purpose is it to live among a people insensible of their calamities, and where there is no notion remaining of any remedy for the miseries that are upon them? For when you are seized upon,

you bear it, and when you are beaten, you are silent, and when people are mur. El dered, nobody dares so much as send out a groan openly. O bitter tyranny that we are under! But why do I complain of the tyrants? Was it not you, and

your Bufferance of them, that have nourished them? Was it not you that overlooked

those that first of all got together, for they were then but a few, and by your si. i bence made them grow to be many, and by conniving at them when they took Arms, in effect armed them against yourselves? You ought to have then prevented

This tribe or course of the high priests here called Eniakim, scena in the learned Mr. Lowth, one well versed in Josephus, to be that i Chron xxiv. 12, the course of Jakim, where some copies have the course of Eliakim; and I thjok this to be by no means an improbable conjecture. + This Symeon, the son of Gamaliel, is mentioned as the president of the Jewish sanhedrim, and one that perished in the destruction of Jerusalem, by the Jewish rabbins, as Reland observes on this place. He also tells us, that those rabbins mention one Jesus, the son of Camala, as once a high priest, but this long before the destruction of Jerusalem; so that if he were the same person with this Jesus, the son of Gamala, in Josephus, he must have lived to be very old, or they have been very bad chronologers. 43

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VOL II.

to Levias a person of great note, with Sophas the son of Raguel; both which were of royal lineage also. And besides these they did the same to the principa men of the country. This caused a terrible consternation among the people, and every one contented himself with taking care of his own safety, as they would do if the city had been taken in war.

5. But these were not satisfied with the bonds into which they had put the men forementioned ; nor did they think it safe for them to keep them thus in custody long, since they were men very powerful and had numerous families of their own that were able to avenge them. Nay, they thought the very people would, per. haps, be so moved at these unjust proceedings, as to rise in a body against them: it was, therefore, resolved to have them slain. Accordingly, they sent one John, who was the most bloody-minded of them all, to do that execution : this man was also called the son of Dorcas,* in the language of our country. Ten more men went along with him into the prison, with their swords drawn, and so they cut the throats of those that were in custody there. The grand lying pretence these men made for so flagrant an enormity was this, that these men had had conferences with the Romans for a surrender of Jerusalem to them; and so they said they had slain only such as were traitors to their common liberty. Upon the whole, they grew the more insolent upon this bold prank of theirs, as though they had neen the benefactors and saviours of the city.

6. Now the people were come to that degree of meanness and fear, and these obbers to that degree of madness, that these last took upon them to appoint ! igh-priests.t So when they had disannulled the succession, according to those amilies out of which the high priests used to be made, they ordained certain un. known and ignoble persons for that office, that they might have their assistance in their wicked undertakings; for such as obtained this highest of all honours, without any desert, were forced to comply with those that bestowed it on them. They also set the principal men at variance one with another, by several sorts of contrivances and tricks, and gained the opportunity of doing what they pleased, by the mutual quarrels of those who might have obstructed their measures; till at length, when they were satiated with the unjust actions they had done toward men, they transferred their contumelious behaviour to God himself, and came into the sanctuary with polluted feet.

7. And now the multitude were going to rise against them already; for Ananus, the ancientest of the high priests, persuaded them to it

. Fle was a very pru. dent man, and had, perhaps, saved the city, if he could but have escaped the hands of those that plotted against him. Those men made the temple of God a strong hold for them, and a place whither they might resort, in order to avoid the trou bles they feared from the people : the sanctuary was now become a refuge and a

bop of tyranny. They also mixed jesting among the miseries they introduced which was more intolerable than what they did; for, in order to try what surprise the people would be under, and how far their own power extended, they undertook to dispose of the priesthood by casting lots for it, whereas, as we have said already, it was to descend by succession in a family. The pretence they made for this strange attempt was an ancient practice, while they said that of old it was deter. mined by lot; but, in truth, it was no better than the dissolution of an undeniable

This name Dorcas in Greek was Tabitha in Hebrew or Syriac, as Acts, ix. 36. Accordingly, some of the manuscripts set it down here Tabetha, or Tabeta. Nor can the context in Josephus be 11:ade out by supposing the reading to have been this, the sou of Tabitha, which in the language of our country de notes Dorcas (or a doe.]

+ Here we inay discover the utter disgrace and ruin of the high priesthood among the Jews, when undeserving, ignoble, and vile persons were advanced to that noble office by the seditious; which sort of high priests, as Josephus well reinarks here, were thereupon obliged to comply with and assist those that advanced them in their impious practices. The names of these high priests, or rather ridiculous and profane persons, were Jesus the son of Damneus, Jesus the son of Gamaliel, Matthias the son of Theophilus, and that prodigious ignoramus Phannias, the son of Samuel; all which we shall meet with in Josephus's future history of this war; nor do we meet with any other so much as pretended high priest after l'hannias, till Jerusalem was taken and destroyed.

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