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mother, and another the high priest's daughter, by whom he had a son of his own name. He had also one who was his brother's daughter, and another his sister's daughter, which two had no children. One of his wives also was of the Sama ritan nation, whose sons were Antipas and Archelaus, and whose daughter was Olympias ; which daughter was afterward married to Joseph, the king's brother's son ; but Archelaus and Antipas were brought up with a certain private man at Rome. Herod had also to wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, and by her he had his sons Herod and Philip; which last was also brought up at Rome : Pallas also was one of his wives, which bare him his son Phasaelus. And besides these, he had for his wives Phædra and Elpis, by whom he had his daughter Roxana and Sa. lome. As for his elder daughters by the same mother with Alexander and Aris. tobulus, and whom Pheroras neglected to marry, he gave the one in marriage to Antipater, the king's sister's son, and the other to Phasaelus, his brother's son And this was the posterity of Herod.
CHAP. II. Concerning Zamaris, the Babylonian Jew. Concerning the Plots laid by Antipater
against his Father; and somewhat about the Pharisees. § 1. And now it was that Herod, being desirous of securing himself on the side of the Trachonites, resolved to build a village, as large as a city, for the Jews, in the middle of that country, which might make his own country difficult to be as. saulted, and whence he might be at hand to make sallies upon them, and to do them a mischief. Accordingly, when he understood that there was a man that was a Jew come out of Babylon, with five hundred horsemen, all of whom could shoot their arrows as they rode on horseback, and with a hundred of his relations had passed over Euphrates, and now abode at Antioch by Daphne of Syria, where Saturninus, who was then president, had given them a place for habitation, called Valatha ; he sent for this man, with the multitude that followed him, and promised to give him land in the toparchy called Batanea, which country is bounded with Trachonites, as desirous to make that his habitation a guard to himself. He also engaged to let him hold the country free from tribute, and that they should dwell entirely without paying such customs as used to be paid, and gave it him tax free.
2. The Babylonian was induced by these offers to come, hither; so he took possession of the land, and built in it fortresses and a village, and named it Ba. thyra. Whereby this man became the safeguard to the inhabitants against the Trachonites, and preserved those Jews who came out of Babylon to offer their sacrifices at Jerusalem, from being hurt by the Trachonite robberies; so that a great number came to him from all those parts where the ancient Jewish laws were observed, and the country became full of people, by reason of their univer. sal freedom from taxes. This continued during the life of Herod; but when Philip, who was (tetrarch] after him, took the government, he made them pay some small taxes, and that for a little while only; and Agrippa the Great, and his son of the same name, although they harassed them greatly, yet would not take their liberty away. From whom, when the Romans have now taken the govern. ment into their own hands, they still give them the privilege of their freedom, but oppress them entirely with the imposition of taxes. Of which matter I shall treat more accurately in the progress of this history.*
3. At length Zamaris, the Babylonian, to whoni Herod had given that country for a possession, died; having lived virtuously, and left children of a good cha. racter behind him: one of whom was Jacim, who was famous for his valour, and Antiq. B. xviii. ch. 5. sect. 4. and of the War, B. i. ch. xxvii. sect. 4, and Noldius in Havercamp's adt tion, p. 336, and Spanheim, ib. p. 402-405, and Reland, Palestin, part i. p. 175, 176.
* This is now wantine
taught his Babylonians how to ride their horses; and a troop of them were guards to the forementioned kings. And when Jacim was dead in his old age, he left a son whose name was Philip, one of great strength in his hands, and in other re. spects also more eminent for his valour than any of his contemporaries, on which account there was a confidence and firm friendship between him and king Agrip. pa. He had also an army, which he maintained as great as that of a king; which he exercised and led wheresoever he had occasion to march.
4. When the affairs of Herod were in the condition I have described, all the public affairs depended upon Antipater; and his power was such that he could do good turns to as many as he pleased, and this by his father's concession, in hopes of his good will and fidelity to him; and this till he ventured to use his power still farther, because his wicked designs were concealed from his father, and he made him believe every thing he said. He was also formidable to all, not so much on account of the power and authority he had, as for the shrewdness of his vile attempts beforehand: but he who principally cultivated a friendship with him was Pheroras, who received the like marks of his friendship; while An. tipater had cunningly encompassed him about by a company of women whom he placed as guards about him: for Pheroras was greatly enslaved to his wife, and to her mother, and to her sister; and this notwithstanding the hatred he bare them, for the indignities they had offered to his virgin daughters. Yet did he bear them, and nothing was to be done without the women, who had got this man into their circle, and continued still to assist each other in all things, insomuch that Antipater was entirely addicted to them, both by himself and by his mother; for these four women* said all one and the same thing ; but the opinions of Phe. roras and Antipater were different, in some points of no consequence. But the king's sister (Salome) was their antagonist, who for a good while had looked about all their affairs, and was apprized that this their friendship was made in order to do to Herod soine mischief, and was disposed to inform the king of it. And since these people knew that their friendship was very disagreeable to He. rod, as tending to do him a mischief, they contrived that their meetings should not be discovered; so they pretended to hate one another, and to abuse one ano. ther when time served, and especially when Herod was present, or when any one was there that would tell him; but still their intimacy was firmer than ever when they were private. And this was the course they took ; but they could not conceal from Salome neither their first contrivance, when they set about these their intentions, nor when they had made some progress in them: but she searched out every thing; and, aggravating the relations to her brother, declared to him, “ As well their secret assemblies and compotations, as their counsels taken in a clandestine manner, which, if they were not in order to destroy him, they might well enough have been open and public. But, to appearance, they are at variance, and speak about one another as if they intended one another a mischief, but agree so well together when they are out of the sight of the multitude ; for when they are alone by themselves they act in concert, and profess that they will never leave off their friendship, but will fight against those from whom they con. ceal their designs. And thus did she search out these things, and get a perfect knowledge of them, and then told her brother of them; who understood also of himself a great deal of what she said, but still durst not depend upon it, because of the suspicions he had of his sister's calumnies. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were highly favoured by God, by whom this set of women was inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning sect they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting, and doing mischief. Accordingly, when all the people of the Jews gave assurance of their
• Pherora's wife and her mother and sister and Doris, Antipater's mother
good will to Casar, aad to the king's government, these very men did not swear, being above six thousand; and when the king imposed a fine upon them, Phe. rora's wife paid their fine for them. In order to requite which kindness of hers, since they were believed to have the foreknowledge of things to come by divino inspiration, they foretoiu how God had decreed, that Herod's government should cease, and his posterity should be deprived of it; but that the kingdom should come to her and Pheroras, and to their children. These predictions were nou concealed from Salome, but were told the king; as also how they had perverted some persons about the palace itself: so the king slew such of the Pharisees as were principally accused, and Bagoas the eunuch, and one Carus, who exceeded all men of that time in comeliness, and one that was his calamite. He slew also all those of his own family who had consented to what the Pharisees foretold : and for Bagoas, he had been puffed up by them, as though he should be named the father and the benefactor of him who, by the prediction, was foretold to be their appointed king; for that this king would have all things in his power, and would enable Bagoas to marry, and to have children of his own body begotten.
Concerning the Enmity between Herod and Pheroras : how Herod sent Antipaler
to Cæsar; and of the Death of Pheroras. 81. WHEN Herod had punished those Pharisees who had been convicted of the foregoing crimes, he gathered an assembly together of his friends, and accused Pheroras's wife; and, ascribing the abuses of the virgins to the imprudence of that roman, brought an accusation against her for the dishonour she had brought upon them: That “ she had studiously introduced a quarrel between him and his bro. ther, and, by her ill temper, had brought them into a state of war, both by her words and actions; that the fines which he had laid had not been paid, and the offenders had escaped punishment by her means; and that nothing which had of late been done had been done without her; for which reason Pheroras would do well, if he would, of his own accord, and by his own command, and not at my entreaty, or as following my opinion, put this his wife away, as one that will still be the occasion of war between thee and me. And now Pheroras, if thou valuest thy relation to me, put this wife of thine away : for by this means thou wilt con. tinue to be a brother to me, and wilt abide in thy love to me." Then said Phe. roras (although he were pressed hard by the former words,) that “ As he would not do so unjust a thing as to renounce his brotherly relation to him, so would he not leave off his affection for his wife : that he would rather choose to die than to live and be deprived of a. ife that was so dear unto him.” Hereupon Herod put off his anger against Pheroras on these accounts, although he himself there. by underwent a very uneasy punishment. However, he forbade Antipater and bis mother to have any conversation with Pheroras, and bid them to take care to avoid the assemblies of the women : which they promised to do; but still gou together when occasion served, and both Pheroras and Antipater had their own merry meetings. The report went also, that Antipater had criminal conversation with Pheroras's wife ; and that they were brought together by Antipater's mother.
2. But Antipater had now a suspicion of his father, and was afraid that the effects of his hatred to him might increase ; so he wrote to his friends at Rome, and bid them send to Herod, that he would immediately send Antipater to Cæsar; which when it was done, Herod sent Antipater thither, and sent most noble pre. sents along with him; ay also his testament, wherein Antipater was appointed to be his successor; and that if Antipater should die first, his [Herod Philip) son by the high priest's daughter should succeed. And, together with Antipater, there went to Rome, Sylleus the Arabian, although he had done nothing of all that Cæsar had enjoined him. Antipater also accused him of the same crimes of which he had been formerly accused by Herod. Sylleus was also accused by Aretas, that without his consent he had slain many of the chief of the Arabians at Petra ; and particularly Soamus, a man that deserved to be honoured by all men: and that he had slain Fabatus, a servant of Cæsar's. These were the things of which Sylleus was accused, and that on the occasion following: There was one Corinthus belonging to Herod, of the guards of the king's body, and one who was greatly trusted by him. Sylleus had persuaded this man, with the offer of a great sum of moncy, to kill Herod : and he had promised to do it. When Fabatus had been made acquainted with this, for Sylleus had himself told him of it, he informed the king of it; who caught Corinthus, and put him to the torture, and thereby got out of him the whole conspiracy. He also caught two other Arabians, who were discovered by Corinthus; the one the head of a tribe, and the other a friend to Sylleus, who were both by the king brought to the tor. tire, and confessed that they were coming to encourage Corinthus not to fail of doing what he had undertaken to do; and to assist him with their own hands in the murder, if need should require their assistance. So Salurninus, upon Herod's discovering the whole to him, sent them to Rome.
3. At this tine Herod commanded Pheroras, that since he was so obstinate in his affection for his wife, he should retire into his own tetrarchy; which he did very willingly, and sware many oaths that he would not come again, till he heard that Herod was dead. And indeed, when, upon a sickness of the king's, he was desired to come to him before he died, that he might intrust him with some of his injunctions, he had such a regard to his oath, that he would not come to him : yet did not Herod so retain his hatred to Pheroras, but remitted of his purpose (not to see him,) which he before had, and that for such great causes as have been already mentioned: but as soon as he began to be ill, he came to him, and this without being sent for; and when he was dead, he took care of his funeral, and had his body brought to Jerusalem and buried there, and appointed a solemn mourning for him. This [death of Pheroras) became the origin of Antipater's misfortunes, although he were already sailed for Rome, God now being about to punish him for the murder of his brethren. I will explain the history of this matter very distinctly, that it may be for a warning to mankind, that they take care of conducting their whole lives by the rules of virtue.
Pherora's Wife is accused by his Freedmen as guilty of poisoning him; and horo Herod, upon Examination of the Matter by Torture, found the Poison ; but so that it had been prepared for himself by his Son Antipater ; and upon an
Inquiry by Torture, he discovered the dangerous Designs of Antipater. * 1. As soon as Pheroras was dead, and his funeral was over, two of Pherora's freedmen, who were much esteemed by him, came to Herod, and entreatıd him not to leave the murder of his brother without avenging it, but to examine into such an unreasonable and unhappy death. When he was moved with these words, for they seemed to him to be true, they said, that “ Pheroras supped with his wife the day before he fell sick, and that a certain potion was brought him in such a sort of food as he was not used to eat; but that when he had eaten he died of it: that this potion was brought out of Arabia by a woman, under pretence in. deed as a love potion, for that was its name, but in reality to kill Pheroras; for that the Arabian women are skilful in making such poisons : and the woman to whuin they ascribe this was confessedly a most intimate friend of one of Sylleus's misilesses ; and that both the mother and the sister of Pherora's wife had bern
at the places where she lived, and had persuaded her to sell them this potion ; and had come back and brought it with them the day before that of his supper." Hereupon the king was provoked, and put the women slaves to the torture, and some that were free with them; and as the fact did not yet appear, because gone of them would confess it: at length one of them, under her utmost agonies, said no more than this, that “she prayed that God would send the like agonies upon Antipater's mother, who had been the occasion of these miseries to all of them." This prayer induced Herod to increase the women's tortures, till thereby all was discovered : “ Their merry meetings, their secret assemblies, and the disclosing of what he had said to his son alone, unto Pheroras's women."* (Now what Herod had charged Antipater to conceal was the gift of a hundred talents to him not to have any conversation with Pheroras.) “And what hatred he bore to his father; and that he complained to his mother how very long his father lived ; and that he was himself almost an old man, insomuch that if the kingdonu should come to him, it would not afford him any great pleasure : and that there were a great many of his brothers, or brother's children, bringing up, that might hare hopes of the kingdom as well as himself, all which nade his own hopes of it uncertain; for that even now, if he should himself not live, Herod had ordained that the government should be conferred, not on his son, but rather on a brother. He also had accused the king of great barbarity, and of the slaughter of his sons ; and that it was out of the fear he was under, lest he should do the like to him, that made him contrive this his journey to Roine, and Pheroras contrive to go to his own tetrarchy.”
2. These confessions agreed with what his sister had told him, and tended greatly to corroborate her testimony, and to free her from the suspicion of her unfaithfulness to him So the king having satisfied himself of the spite which Doris, Antipater's mother, as well as himself, bore to him, took away from her all her fine ornaments, which were worth many talents, and then sent her away, and entered into friendship with Pheroras's women. But he who most of all ir. ritated the king against his son, was one Antipater, the procurator of Antipater the king's son, who, when he was tortured, among other things, said that Antipa. ter had prepared a deadly potion, and given it to Pheroras, with his desire that he would give it to his father during his absence, and when he was too remote to have the least suspicion cast upon him thereto relating; that Antiphilus, one of Antipater's friends, brought that potion out of Egypt; and that it was sent to Pheroras by Theudion, the brother of the mother of Antipater, the king's son, and by that means came to Pheroras's wife, her husband having given it her to keep. And when the king asked her about it, she consessed it; and as she was running to fetch it, she threw herself down from the housetop ; yet aid she not kill herself, because she fell upon her feet: by which means when tne king had comforted her, and had promised her and her domestics pardon, upon condition of their concealing nothing of the truth from him ; but had threatened her with the utmost miseries if she proved ungrateful (and concealed any thing :) so sho promised and swore that she would speak out every thing, and tell after what manner every thing was done ; and said what many took to be entirely true, that " the potion was brought out of Egypt by Antiphilus : and that his brother who was a physician, had procured it; and that when Theudion brought it us, she kept it, upon Pheroras's committing it to her: and that it was prepared by Antipater for thee. When, therefore, Pheroras was fallen sick, and thou camedst to him, and tookedst care of him, and when he saw the kindness thou hadst for him, his
• His wife, her mother, and sister. It seems to me, by this whole story put together, that Pheroras was not himself poisoned, as is commonly snpposed; for å ntipater had persuader him tu poison Herod, eh. v. sect. 1, which would fall to the ground, if he were himself poisoned : nor could the poisoning of Pheroras serve any design that appears now going forward. It was only the supposal of two of his freece men, that this love potion, or poison, which they knew was brought to Pheroras's wife, was made use of for poisoning him ; whereas it appears to have been brought for her husband to poison Herod withal, at the future exaininations demonstrate.