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2. Now there was already gathered together about Gratus, a great number of the guards; and when they saw Claudius carried off, they looked with a sad countenance, as supposing that he was carried to execution for the mischiefs that had been lately done; while yet they thought him a man who never meddled with public affairs all his life long, and one that had met with no contemptible dangers under the reign of Caius; and some of them thought it reasonable that the consuls should take cognizance of these matters; and, as still more and more of the soldiery got together, the crowd about him ran away, and Claudius could hardly go on, his body was then so weak; and those who carried his sedan, upon an inquiry that was made about his being carried off, ran away and saved themselves, as despairing of their lord's preservation. But when they were come into the large court of the palace (which, as the report goes about it, was inhabited irst of all the parts of the city of Rome,) and had just reached the public treasu 1y, many more soldiers came about him as glad to see Claudius's face, and thought it exceeding right to make him emperor, on acconnt of their kindness for Ger. manicus, who was his brother, and had left behind him a vast reputation among all that were acquainted with him. They reflected also on the covetous temper of the leading men of the senate, and what great errors they had been guilty of when the senate had the government formerly; they also considered the impossibi). ity of such an undertaking, as also what dangers they should be in if the government should come to a single person, and that such a should possess it as they had uo hand in advancing ; and not to Claudius, who would take it as their grant, and as gained by their good will to him, and would remember the favours they had done him, and would make them a sufficient recompense for the same.
3. These were the discourses the soldiers had one with another by themselves, und they communicated them to all such as came in to them. Now those that inquired about this matter willingly embraced the invitation that was made them to join with the rest ; so they carried Claudius into the camp, crowding about him as his guard, and encompassing him about ; one chairman still succeeding another hat their vehement endeavours might not be hindered. But as to the populace And the senators, they disagreed in their opinions. The latter were very desirous to recover their former dignity, and were zealous to get clear of the slavery that had been brought on them by the injurious treatment of the tyrants, which the present opportunity afforded them; but for the people, who were envious against them, and knew that the emperors were capable of curbing their covetous temper, and were a refuge from them, they were very glad that Claudius had been seized upon, and brought to them; and thought, that if Claudius were made emperor, he would prevent a civil war, such as there was in the days of Pompey. But when the sena:e kuew that Claudius was brought into the camp by the soldiers, they sent to him those of their body which had the best character for their vir. tues, that they might inform him, “ that he ought to do nothing by violence, in order to gain the government; that he who was a single person, one either al. ready or hereafter to be a member of their body, ought to yield to the senate, which consisted of so great a number; that he ought to let the law take place in the disposa' of all that related to the public order, and to remember how greatly the former tyrants had afflicted their city; and what dangers both he and they had escaped under Caius; and that he ought not to hate the heavy burden of tyranny, when the injury is done by others, while he did himself wilfully treat his country after a mad and insolent manner; that if he would comply with them, and demonstrate that his firm resolution was to live quietly and virtuously, he would have the greatest honours decreed to him that a free people could bestow; and by subjecting himself to the law, would obtain this branch of commendation, that he acted like a man of virtue, both as a ruler and a subject; but that if he would act fuolishly, and learn no wisdon by Caius's death, they would not per. mit him to go on; that a great part oi the army was got together for them, with alenty of weapons, and a great number of slaves, which they could make use of
that good hope was a great matter in such cases, as was also good fortune ; and that the gods would never assist any others but those that undertook to act with virtue and goodness, who can be no other than such as fight for the liberty of their country."
4. Now these ambassadors, Veranius and Brocchus, who were both of them tribunes of the people, made this speech to Claudius, and falling down upon their knees, they begged of him, that he would by no means throw the city into wars and misfortunes; but when they saw what a multitude of soldiers encompassed and guarded Claudius, and that the forces that were with the consuls were, in comparison of them, perfectly inconsiderable, they added, that " if he did desire the government, he should accept of it as given by the senate; that he would prosper better, and be happier, if he came to it not by injustice, but by the good will of those that would bestow it upon him."
What Things King Agrippa did for Claudius ; and how Claudius, when he has
taken the Government, commanded the Murderers of Caius to be slain. § 1. Now Claudius, though he was sensible after what an insolent manner the senate had sent to him, yet did he, according to their advice, behave himself for the present with moderation; but not so far that he could not recover himself out of his fright; so he was encouraged [to claim the government) partly by the bold. ness of the soldiers, and partly by the persuasion of king Agrippa, who exhorted him not to let such a dominion slip out of his hands, when it came thus to himn of its own accord. Now this Agrippa, with relation to Caius, did what became one that had been so much honoured by him; for he embraced Caius's body after he was dead, and laid it upon a bed, and covered it as well as he could, and went out to the guards, and told them that Caius was still alive; but he said that they should call for physicians, since he was very ill of his wounds. But when he had learned that Claudius was carried away violently by the soldiers, he rushed hrough the crowd to him, and when he found that he was in disorder, and ready to resign up the government to the senate, he encouraged him, and desired him to keep the government; but when he had said this to Claudius, he retirem home. And upon the senate's sending for him, he anointed his head with ointment, as if he had lately accompanied with his wife, and had dismissed her, and then came to them: he also asked of the senators what Claudius did ; who told him the present state of affairs, and then asked his opinion about the settlement of the publia He told them in words, that he was ready to lose his life for the honour of the senate, but desired them to consider what was for their advantage, without any regard to what was most agreeable to them; for that those who grasp at govern. ment will stand in need of weapons, and soldiers to guard them, unless they will set up without any preparation for it; and so fall into danger. And when the se. date replied, that, “they would bring in weapons in abundance, and money, and that, as to an army, a part of it was already collected together for them, and they would raise a larger one by giving the slaves their liberty.” Agrippa made answer :-“O senators ! may you be able to compass what you have a mind to; yet will I immediately tell you my thoughts, because they tend to your preservation; take notice then, that the army which will fight for Claudius has been long ex. arcised in warlike affairs; but our army will be no better than a rude multitude of raw men, and those such as have been unexpectedly made free from slavery. and ungovernable; we must then fight against those that are skilful in war, with men who know not so much as how to draw their swords. So that my opinion is, that we should send some persons to Claudius, to persuade him to lay down the government, and I am ready to be one of your ambassadors."
2. Upon this speech of Agrippa the senate complied with him, and he was sent among others, and privately informed Claudius of the disorder the senate was in, and gave him instructions to answer them in a somewhat commanding strain, and as one invested with dignity and authority. Accordingly Cladius said to the ambassadors, that “ he did not wonder the senate had no mind to have an eniperor over them, because they had been harassed by the barbarity of those that had formerly been at the head of their affairs; but that they shouid taste of an equi. table government under him, and moderate times, while he should only be their ruler in name, but the authority should be equally common to them all; and since he had passed through many and various scenes of life before their eyes, it would be good for them not to distrust him.” So the ambassadors, upon their hearing this his answer, were dismissed. But Claudius discoursed with t'ne army which was there gathered together, who took oaths that they would persist in their fide. lity to him ; upon which he gave the guards every man five thousand* drachmæ apiece, and a proportionable quantity to their captains, and promised to give the same to the rest of the armies wheresoever they were.
3. And now the consuls called the senate together into the temple of Jupiter the Conqueror, while was still night; but some of those senators concealed theniselves in the city, being uncertain what to do upon the hearing of this sum. mons; and some of them went out of the city to their own farms, as foreseeing whither the public affairs were going, and despairing of liberty: nay, these supposed it much better for them to be slaves without danger to themselves, and to live a lazy and inactive life, than, by claiming the dignity of their forefathers, to run the hazard of their own safety. However, a hundred and no more were gotten together; and as they were in consultation about the present posture of affairs, a sudden clamour was made by the soldiers that were on their side, “de. siring that the senate would choose them an emperor, and not bring the govern ment into ruin by setting up a multitude of rulers.” So they fully declared them. selves to be for the giving the government not to all, but to one ; but they gave the senate leave to look out for a person worthy to be set over them; insomuch that now the affairs of the senate were much worse than before ; because they had not only failed in the recovery of their liberty, which they boasted themselves or, but were in dread of Claudius also. Yet were there those that hankered after the government, both on account of the dignity of their families, and that accruing to them by their marriages; for Marcus Minucianus was illustrious, both by his own nobility, and by his having married Julia, the sister of Caius, who accordingly was very ready to claim the government, although the consuls discouraged him, and made one delay after another in proposing it; that Minucianus also, who was one of Caius's murderers, restrained Valerius of Asia from thinking of such things; and a prodigious slaughter there had been, if leave had been given to these men to set up for themselves, and oppose Claudius. There were also a considerable number of gladiators besides, and of those soldiers who kept watch by night in the city, and rowers of ships, who all ran unto the camp; insoinuch that of those who put in for the government, some left off their pretensions in order to spare the city, and others out of fear for their own persons.
4. But as soon as ever it was day, Cherea, and those that were with him, came into the senate, and attempted to make speeches to the soldiers. However, the multitude of those soldiers, when they saw that they were making signals for si. lence with their hands, and were ready to begin to speak to them, grew tumul. tuous, and would not let them speak at all, because they were all zealous to be un. der a monarchy; and they deinanded of the senate one for their ruler, as not en.
* This number of drachmæ to be distributed to each private soldier, 5000 drachmæ, equal to 20,000 sesterces, or 1611. sterling, seems much too large, and direcily contradicts Suetonius, chap. &. who makes them in all but 15 sesterces, or 2s. 4d. Yet might Josephus have this number from Agrippa junior, though I doubt the thousands, or at least the hundreds, have been added by the transcribers, of which we have had several examples already in Josephus,
dunng any longer delays; but the senate hesitated about either their own govern. ing, or how they should themselves be governed, while the soldiers would not admit them to govern, and the murderers of Caius would not permit the soldiers to dictate to them. When they were in these circunstances, Cherea was not able to contain the anger he had, and promised, that if they desired an emperor, he would give them one, if any one would bring hin the watchword from Eutychus. Now this Eutychus was cliarioteer of the greenband faction, styled Prasine, and a great friend of Caius; who used to harass the soldiery with building stables for the horses, and spent his time in ignominious labours, which occasioned Cherea 10 reproach them with him, and to abuse them with much other scurrilous language and told them "he would bring them the head of Claudius; and that it was an amazing thing that after their former inadness, they should commit their govern. ment to a fool." Yet were not they moved with his words, but drew their swords, and took up their ensigns, and went to Claudius, to join in taking the oath of fide. lity to him. So the senate were left without any body to defend them, and the very consuls differed nothing from private persons. They were also under con. sternation and sorrow, men not knowing what would become of them, because Claudius was very angry at them; so they fell a reproaching one another, and repented of what they had done. At which juncture Sabinus, one of Caius's mur. derers, threatened that he would sooner come into the midst of them and kill him. self, than consent to make Claudius emperor, and see slavery returning upon them; he also abused Cherea for loving his life too well, while he who was the first in his contempt of Caius, could think it a good thing to live, when, even by all that they had done for the recovery of their liberty, they found it impossible to do it. But Cherea said, he had no manner of doubt upon him about killing himself; that yet he would first sound the intentions of Claudius before he did it.
5. These were the debates [about the senate ;] but in the camp every body was crowding on all sides to pay their court to Claudius ; and the other Consul, Quintus Pomponius, was reproached by the soldiery, as having rather exhorted the senate to recover their liberty; whereupon they drew their swords, and were going to assault him; and they had done it
, if Claudius had not hindered them, who snatched the consul out of the danger he was in, and set him by him. But he did not receive that part of the senate which was with Quintus in the like honourable manner; nay, some of them received blows, and were thrust away as they came to salute Claudius; nay, Aponius went away wounded, and they were all in danger. However, king Agrippa went up to Claudius, and desired he would treat the senators more gently; for if any mischief should come to the senate, he would have no others over whom to rule. Claudius complied with him, and called the senate together into the palace, and was carried thither himself through the city, while the soldiery conducted him, though this was to the great vexation of the multitude ; for Cherea and Sabinus, two of Caius's murderers, went in the fore-front of them, in an open manner, while Pollio, whom Claudius a little before had made captain of bis guards, had sent them an epistolary edict, to forbid them to appear in public. Then did Claudins, upon his coming to the palace, get his friends together, and desired their suffrages about Cherea. They said, that the work he had done was a glorious one, but they accused him that he did it of perfidiousness, and thought it just to inflict the punishment (of death] upon him, to discountenance such actions for the time to come. So Cherea was led to his execution, and Lupus, and many other Romans with him. Now it is reported, that Cherea bore this calamity courageously; and this, not only by the firmness of his own behaviour under it, but by the reproaches he laid upon Lu. pus, who fell into tears; for when Lupus laid his garment aside and complained of the cold,* he said, that cold was never hurtful to Lupus [i. e. a wolf.] And
• The piercing cold, here complained of by Lupus, agrees well to the time of the year when Clau dius began his reign; it being for certain about the months of November, December, or January, and most probably a few days after Jan. 24th, and a few days before the Roman Parentalia.
as a great many men went along with them to see the sight, when Cherea came to the place, he asked the soldier who was to be their executioner, whether this office was what he was used to ? or whether this was the first time of his using his sword in that manner, and desired him to bring him that very sword with which he himself slew Caius. So he was happily killed at one stroke. But Lupus did not meet with such good fortune in going out of the world, since he was timorous, and had many blows levelled at his neck, because he did not stretch it out boldly [as he ought to have done.]
6. Now a few days after this, as the parental solemnities were just at hand, the Roman multitude made their usual oblations to their several ghosts, and put portions into the fire in honour of Cherea, and besought him to be merciful to them, and not continue his anger against them for their ingratitude. And this was the end of the life that Cherea came to. But for Sabinus, although Claudius not only set him at liberty, but gave him leave to retain his former command in the army, yet did he think it would be unjust in him to fail in performing his obligations to his fellow confederates; so he fell upon his sword, and killed him. self, the wound reaching up to the very hilt of the sword.*
How Claudius restored to Agrippa his Grandfather's Kingdoms, and augmented
his Dominions : and how he published an Edict in Behalf of the Jeus. § 1. Now when Claudius had taken out of the way all those soldiers whom he suspected, which he did immediately, he published an edict, and therein con. firmed that kingdom to Agrippa which Caius had given him, and therein com. mended the king highly. He also made an addition to it of all that country over which lierod, who was his grandfather, had reigned, that is, Judea and Sama. ria : and this he restored to him as due to his family. But for Abilat of lysa. nias, and all that lay at Mount Libanus, he bestowed them upon him, as out of his own territories. He also made a league with this Agrippa, confirmed by oaths, in the middle of the forum, in the city of Rome: he also took away from Antiochus that kingdom which he was possessed of, but gave him a certain part of Cilicia and Commagena; he also set Alexander Lysimachus, the alabarch, at liberty, who had been his old friend, and steward to his mother Antonia, but had been imprisoned by Caius, whose son [Marcus] married Bernice, the daughter of Agrippa. But when Marcus, Alexander's son, was dcad, who had niarried
* It is both here and elsewhere very remarkable, that the murderers of the vilest tyrants, who yer highly deserved to die, when those murderers were under oaths or other the like obligations of fidelity to them, were usually revenged, and the murderers were cut off themselves, and that after a remarkable manner; and this son:etimes, as in the present case, by those very persons who were not sorry for such murders, but got kingdoms by them. The examples are very numerous both in sacred and profane his tories, and seem generally indications of divine vengeance on such murderers. Nor is it unworthy of remark, that such murderers of tyrants do it usually on such ill principles, in such a cruel manner, and as ready to involve the innocent with the guilty, which was the case here, chap. i. sect. 14, and chap. ii sect. 4, as justly deserved the divine vengeance upon them. Which seems to have been the case of Jeho also, when, besides the house of Ahab, for whose slaughter he had a commission from God, without any such commission, any justice or commiseration, he killed Ahab's great men, and acquaintance, and
, , . . bere to condemn Ehud or Judith, or the like executioners of God's vengeance on those wicked tyrants who hari unjustly oppressed God's own people under their theocracy; who, as they appeai still to have had no selfish designs nor intentions to slay the innocent, so had they still a divine commissiou, or a divine impulse, which was their commission for what they did, Judg. iii. 15, 19, 20; Judith, ix. 2 Test Levi. sect. 5, in Authent. Rec. p. 312. See also p. 432.
† Here St. Luke is in some measure confirmed, when he informs vs, chap. iii. 1, that Lysarias wan sume time before tetrarch of Abilene, whose capital was Abila; as he is farther confirmed by Proleniy, the great geographer, which Spanheim here observes, when he calls that city Abila of Lysanias. See the note on E. xvii. chap. xi. sect. 4, and Prid at the years 36 and 22. l'esteem this prineipality to have belonged to the land of Canaan originally, to have been the burying place of Abel, and referred, la As such, Matt. xxiii. 35: Luke, xi. 51. See Authent. Rec. Part ii. p. 883–885.