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chair, and in a dignified manner exclaimed, “Why such alarm ? Know that where Haydn is no harm can come.” The exertion, however, had been too much for him; convulsive shudderings prevented him from further speech, and he was conveyed to his bed forthwith. A few days afterwards, when life was ebbing away, he had his piano moved towards him, and three times he sang as loudly as he could, “God save the Emperor;” it

“ was his last song, those were his last words, and on the 31st May, 1809, the great musician peacefully fell into his long sleep.

Not only Schönbrunn, but the whole of the city of Vienna and the suburbs take pride in having been the home for many years of the world's greatest musicians, Haydn,

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Mozart, and Beethoven, and the fact of the residence of these three having been so nearly cotemporaneous has no doubt largely fostered that love of music for which the Viennese are distinguished. Only a few of the leading events in the lives of these great artists can be given here. Haydn was born in 1732, at a small village about fifteen leagues from Vienna. When quite a boy his rich and pleasing voice attracted attention, and at the early age of eight years he was placed in the choir of St. Stephen's Cathedral. When he left the chcir at the age of thirteen with a yet unformed voice, and with his serious musical education barely commenced, he found himself almost destitute. By dint of hard work he managed to scrape a little money together, which he spent either in taking lessons from some Viennese music-master, or in buying books on music, and so prosecuting a theoretical study of his art. After a few years he managed to obtain a little instruction





from the Neapolitan Porpora, from whom he acquired an Italian style of singing, and was subsequently, at the age of nineteen, again attached to the choir of St. Stephen's

a tenor singer. By this time he had composed some sonatas and serenades as well as his first opera,

“ The Devil on Two Sticks.” From this time onward he never wanted for fame, although he was sorely in need of money. For six years he was housed, first by one Keller, a barber, to whom, as a recompense, he gave a promise to marry his daughter,

a which promise was fulfilled so soon as means permitted, but the results were not happy; and secondly by one Martiney, who was paid by receiving from Haydn instruction for

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his two daughters on the pianoforte. In 1790 and again in 1794, Haydn visited London, where he was a great favourite with George III., and the distinction of Doctor of Music was conferred on him by the University of Oxford, a distinction which at that time had only been conferred on four persons since 1400. It is very gratifying to Englishmen to know it was with the proceeds of the concerts he gave in London (£2,400) that he purchased his dearly-loved villa at Schönbrunn, where, as we have seen, he spent his last days.

In fifty years he produced close upon 600 instrumental compositions, and although in dramatic music he was excelled by Mozart and others, his name has come down to us, and will go down to posterity, as that of the greatest symphonist in the world. The one great work, “The Creation," on which perhaps more than on any


the age

other single work his fame may be said to depend, was commenced in 1795 and compitel in 1798. It was performed for the first time at Easter, 1799, in Vienna, and was at once recognised as a master-composition. During his later years his great powers failed him, but for a time he amused himself by writing accompaniments to some ancient Scottish melodies for a London publisher at two guineas a song; and in 1805, five years before his death, he entirely gave up work.

Mozart was born at Salzburg, in January, 1756. Unlike Haydn, Mozart had ereri encouragement, and the most careful training in early youth. His father was a great musician, and undertook the instruction of his son. From the early age of three he began to display his extraordinary abilities, and his original compositions date from bis fifth year. He was as astonishingly precocious in classical literature as he was in music. At the age of seven the fame of the young musician had spread throughout Europe, and in 1763 his first published work was given to the world from Paris. In 176t, at

of eight, he visited England, and there published six sonatas, which were delicated to the Queen. He then made the tour of the great cities of Europe, and at the age of twelve performed at Vienna in the presence of the Emperor Joseph II. He made 3 somewhat lengthened stay in Vienna, and received the command of the Emperor to compose the music of the opera known as “ La Finta Semplice." At the consecratiu of the Orphans' Home in the same year he composed the music of the Mass, and though then only twelve years of age, conducted in person the musical solemnity in the presene of the Emperor and of the Imperial Court. During the Passion week of 1769, Mizart was in Rome, and on the Wednesday evening he went to the Sistine Chapel to hear Gregorio Allegri's celebrated Miserere, a composition which hitherto had been prohibited, under pain of excommunication, from being given or copied except with the content of the Pope. Being aware of this fact, the boy listened with such attention, that upon leaving the chapel and reaching his home he noted down the whole piece, and subsequently sang it correctly at a concert. At the age of nineteen, Mozart had attained the highest perfection in his art, and then, after having again made the tour of Europe, he seitlal in Vienna, and entered the service of the Emperor, to whom he remained attached for the remainder of his life. He received repeated offers to change his master, nitabs from the King of Prussia, and on one occasion, when offered a salary of 3,000 en was to remain at Berlin and superintend the King's orchestra, Mozart, although not receining any salary at Vienna, replied, “No, I could not leave my Emperor, I love to lire ai Vienna, the Emperor is fond of me, and I don't value money.”

Mozart's opera of “ Don Giovanni” was first represented at Prague, but it was not well receired, and upon its merits being discussed at an assembly where most of the musical connoisseurs of Vienna, together with Haydn, were present, it was considered on all sides to be a wors of merit, possessing richness and brilliancy of imagination, but each one present except Haydn found some fault with it. Haydn had not spoken, and when asked for his opinion is reported to have said, “I am not capable of judging in this dispute; all that I know is that Mozart is certainly the greatest composer now in existence.” And it is to be remarked that Mozart always acted towards Haydn with similar generosity.

A composer of some note was very fond of coming to Mozart to point out so-called negligences




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in Haydn's style, and defects in his compositions. Mozart always did his best to turn the conversation, but on one occasion his patience was quite gone, and he exclaimed, “Sir, if you and I were melted down together, we should not even then make one Haydn.” Mozart's "Requiem” was his last great work, and soon after its completion he died, on December 5th, 1791, at the early age of thirty-five. No musician ever took a wider range in his art than Mozart; he excelled in all styles from symphony to dance, from opera to simple ballad music, and in addition he was one of the finest pianists in Europe.

Beethoven, the son and grandson of professional musicians, was born at Bonn in 1770. His training and early publications took place in Northern Germany, and it was not until after 1790 (the exact date seems uncertain) that he took up his residence in Vienna, a city he never afterwards deserted. Although a great musician-one of the greatest—he lacked the supreme genius of Mozart and the industry and application of Haydn. The grandeur of Beethoven's conceptions and his marvellous skill in development are most manifest in his orchestral works, overtures and symphonies. He held an undivided sway over his Vienna audiences, and this power is the more remarkable when we consider the position already taken by Haydn and Mozart. At an early age he was afflicted with deafness, and this calamity resulted in a habit of gloomy anxious distrust, and a morbid desire for solitude. To read and to stroll into the country became his sole delight and chief occupation, a small and select circle of friends forming his only social enjoyment. By slow degrees, from irritation, and the maladies incident thereto, his life wore away, and he died in 1827 in the fifty-seventh year of his age.

The city and suburbs of Vienna are full of reminiscences of those three famous men. In every direction around the city pretty walks are to be found one of almost surpassing beauty is to be found worthwards in the neighbourhood of Döbling, which is reached on foot in half an hour, and where the fresh country air may be breathed, and extensive views obtained of orchards, fields, and vineyards. A little beyond is a footpath running beside a winding rivulet overgrown with shrubs. Beethoven loved and frequented this walk; every spot was dear to him, and it is to this day called “ Beethoven's Walk.” On one part of it a clearance has been made; a plot of ground laid out with trees, and on a pedestal in the centre is placed a bust of the musician. Just beyond this path, up among the vineyards, is a little promontory, from which the vines have been cleared, and a seat placed. This is “Beethoven's Seat,” where the musician often sat watching with delight the dancing sunshine on the green hill-side, while the beauty of the scenery was impressing itself on his mind, to be reproduced in another form in his masterly compositions.

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As a manufacturing centre Vienna is but of little importance. There is no staple industry for which it is famous. It is the centre of Austrian commerce, of its capital, and its enterprise, but as a commercial city it is devoted to distribution rather than

a to production. The principal manufactories are of arms and cannon belonging to the Government; of tobacco manufactured under a Government monopoly; silks, stuffs, gold and silver lace, ribbons, needles, philosophical instruments, carriages, paper, hardware and ironmongery, meerschaum pipes, and porcelain. The porcelain factory is probably the most interesting and attractive. It was originated in 1720, but does not appear to have been very noteworthy until it received the patronage of Maria Theresa and of the Emperor Joseph. The porcelain of Vienna holds a lower rank than that of Dresden or Berlin, but it has real merit. Its chief feature is its raised and gilded work, and in recent years the application in relief of solid platinum and gold. At the present time the works are in private hands, and the chief markets to which the productions find their way are those of Turkey, Russia, and Italy.

In connection with the commercial aspect of the city may be mentioned the Great

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Exhibition of the Industries of all Nations held there in the year 1873, which year was also the twenty-fifth anniversary of the present Emperor's accession to the Imperial dignities, an event celebrated with great rejoicings.

The Exhibition was opened on May 1st, and was closed on December 2nd, between which dates it was visited by 7,254,687 persons. The year 1873 was remarkable too for the occurrence of one of the most serious financial panics ever known in the city, and also for the completion of the great water-work system. These works occupied three and a half years in their construction, and involved a cost of twenty millions of florins; they are the largest water-works in the world, and convey, by means of tunnels and aqueducts, water from the Alps to Vienna,

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