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tumely of the proud and haughty; where vice should not encroach on virtue's rights, and where our ears shall not be pained with “every day's report” of wrong and outrage. In short, we must change our views of the goodness of God, and the equity and impartiality of his governmental proceedings, or enlarge the field of his operations, and give his retributive ailministration a broader sweep, that its perfect results may be unfolded.
3. This reasoning is confirmed by scripture and matter of fact. Consider the language of David. Ps. Ixxiii.)-_“I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity of the wicked.
They are corrupt, and speak wickedly concerning oppression: they speak loftily. They set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walketh through the earth. Therefore his people return hither, and waters of a full cup are wrung out to them. And they say, how doth God know ? and is there knowledge in the Most High? Behold, these are the ungodly who prosper in the worli; they increase in riches.
When I thought to know (to understand) this, it was too painful for me, un:il I went into the sanctuary of God; then understood I their end, Surely thou didst set them in slippery places; thou castedst them down to destruction.
As a dream when one awaketh ; 8) (will their prosperity pass away, when they awake to the realties of eternity, and so,) O Lord, when thou awakest, (in the work of final retribut 0.1) thou shalt despise their image.” Here is plain proɔf that the wicked of this world are to meet a just judgment in the world to come. (Job xxi. 7-15.)—" Wherefore do the wicked live, become old, yea, are mighty in power ?
They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance. They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the organ. They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave. Therefore they say 10 God, depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways." All ihis would be inexplicable on any equitable principles, without an arrangement like that contemplaied in the future and general judg.
Bui Job gives us the key which unlocks the mystery, in the 30th verse. " The wicked is reserved to the day of destruction ; they shall be brought forth to the day of wraih.” How exactly this agrees with 2 Pet. ïi 9.—“The Lord knoweth how to deliver the goully out of temptation, and reserve the unjust unt the day of judgment, to be punished.” (Eccl. viii. 14, 15.)
There be just men, to whom it happeneth according to the won of the wicked : Again, there be wicked men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the righteous.” So, also (chap. ix. 2.) the fact that the righteous are not in this life rewarded, nor the wicked punished to the full measure of their deserts, is set forth in the following language. “All ihings come alike 10 all: there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked : to the good, and to the clean, and to the unclean : to him that sacrificeth, and
to him that sacrificeth not: as is the good, so is the sinner, and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath.” From these pas. sages, it is as clear as sun-light, that this world is not a state of perfect retribution. And, “ because sentence against an evil work (sin] is nol speedily executed, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil.”—(Eccl. viii. 11.) They abuse the long suffering of God, which is intended to lead to salvation, and make it the occasion of increased guilt, and the enhancement of their final condemnation. To this effect are the words of Christ respecting Chorazin and Bethsaida.—“ But I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment than for you.”-(Matt. xi. 24.)
4. Moreover, on the ground assumed by Universalism, this world is not a state of perfect retribution, because the object of punishment, as taught by that theory, is not secured in this life. The leading design of punishment on the principles of the Univer. salist system, is the reformation of the offender; and punishment must be continued in every case until this object is achieved. But this design is not realized in very many cases. Men often grow harder in heart, and more wicked in life, under the penal visitations of God, and in the end, die in a state of impenitency and blasphemy. The object of punishment not being accomplished in this life, it follows, if 'it be attained at all, it must be in the future state ; otherwise, the Universalist theory of punishment is false. But if retributive punishment be inflicted in the future state, [as we have seen it inust be, if its end be answered, ) then must God's work of judgment be extended to the future world also. On any other supposition, we should have punishinent without law, and justice without a judge. That divine retribution is not finished in this world, is still farther evident from the fact, that our relations, and the in. fluence we exert in forming the character of others, do not admit of our being rewarded or punished in the present life, according to our works. Constituted as they are, the actions of men do not terminate in themselves, but the consequences pass over to others, and often are not fully developed until long after they are dead. To punish men before the evils of their conduct had been realize 1, would be to judge and punish in anticipation-according to what will be, and not according to what has been. This would not be “according to their works ;” and such an administration could not be justified in the view of a moral universe, and hence, could exert no salutary practical influence upon intelligent beings.
The good effected by Paul, and Howard, was not confined to the term of their natural lives, but has passed over to other men and other days; hence, during their earthly state, they were not rewarded according to their work and labor of love. So Paul understooil it, for he declares, (1. Cor. xv. 19.)—“ If in this life only, we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable ;" and when he was “ about to be offered," and “the time of his de.
parture was at hand," inasmuch as he had - fought the good fight,” and “
kept the faith,” in spite of “perils” and “persecutions”-he exulted in the contemplation of future reward — "henceforth there is laid up for me in heaven, a crown of righteousness.”. On the other hand, the evil effected by the infidel labors of Voltaire and Bolingbroke, furnish an apt illustration. Their writings still retain their power to blight the opening buds of virtue. The former spent a long life, and devoted his large capacity to the work of blaspheming Christ and his holy religion. The latter ma!ured his plans, and adjusted the weapons of his warfare, during his life time, but left the execution and application to another -his works in advocacy of infidelity, not being publis' ed until after his death. It was of him, I th nk, that Dr. Johnson remarked with so much pertinentcy and severity-—" he loaded up a blunderbuss against Christianity, but not having sufficient courage to fire it off, left a sum of money in his will to a beggarly Jew, to pay him for pulling the trigger after his death.” Now, as men cannot be finally and fully rewarded and punished for their works, until the influence those works have exerted in the formation of character in a state of probation shall be fully realized, hence the propriety and necessity of a judgment after this life, which, in its decisions, shall be based upon an enlightened view of the entire character of human conduct, and its influence upon the happiness of the moral universe.
5. The Jews believed in a future and general judgment. Of this there is abundant proof in the Jewish Talmuds, of which the following is a specimen. “When Rabbi Jochanan ben Zachai was sick, his disciples came to visit him; and when he saw them, he began to weep. They say unto him, Rabbi! the light of Israel, the right hand pillar, the strong hammer, wherefore dost thou weep? He answered them, if they were carrying me before a king of flesh and blood, who is here to-day, and to-morrow in the grave; who, if he was angry with me, his anger would not last forever; if he put me in prison, his prison would not be everlasting; if he condenned me to death, that death would not be eternal; whom I could soothe with words, or bribe with riches; yet, even in these circumstances, I should weep. But now I am going before the King of Kings, the holy and the blessed God, who live eth and endureth forever and forever ; who, if he be angry with me, his anger will last forever; if he put me in prison, his bondage will be everlasting; if he condemn me to death, that death will be eternal; whom I cannot soothe with words, nor bribe, with riches. When, farther, there are before me two ways, the one to hell and the other to Paradise, and I know not in which they are carrying me, shall I not weep?”—Talmud Beracoth, fol. 28.) Josephus speaks thus of the judgment, as believed by the Jews. “ For all men, the just as well as the unjust, shall be brought before God, the Word; for to him hath the Father committed all
judgment, and he, in order to fulfill the will of his father, shall shall come as Julge, whom we call Christ. For, Minos and Rha. da nanthus are not the Judges, as you Greeks do suppose, but He whom God the Father hath glorified; concerning whom we have elsewhere given a more particular account, for the sake of ihose who seek after truth. This person, exercising the righteous judgment of the Father toward all men, hath prepared a just sentence for every one according to his works; at whose julgment seat, when all men and angels and demons shall stand, they will send forth one voice and say, just is the juilgment; the rejoinder to which will bring a just sentence upon both parties, by giving justly to those who have done well, an everlasting fruition ; but allotting to the lovers of wicked works, eternal punishment."—(Discourse on Hides.) Our Lord was, as to his humanity, a Jew; and if the Jewish people had been in error in regard to a future judgment, he most certainly would have correcied them. But so far from having done this, his parables and other discourses do most unequivocally teach the same doctrine. For him to have left them in error on this point, while he corrected their inistakes in less important cases, is not to be thought of. The only consistent conclusion is, that he approved the doctrine, and re affirmed it.
6. The doctrine of a future and general judgment is most emphatically taught in the Holy Scriptures.
1. It is represented as the ju.gment lo come. In Eccl. viii. 11. the judgment is said to be postponed to a future time—" sentence against an evil work is not speelily executed.” (xi. 9.)—“Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee in the days of thy youth; and walk in the ways of thy heart, and in the sight of thine eyes; but know thou, that for all these things, God will bring thee into juilgment.” (Acts xxiv. 25.)-Paul“ reasoned of righteousness, iemperance, and a judgment to come. Felix trembled," &c. (Rom. i. 6-16.)—In these verses, frequently quoled already, the Apostle describes the retributions of God as adapted to the character and works of men, and then specifies the time when they shall be awarded, viz. - In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel.” This passage can have no reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, since the Gentile world generally (who have not the law,] are included in the decisions and retributions of the day spoken of. (1 Tim. iv. 8.)— Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righ'eousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will give me at that day.” This cannot refer to the day in which Jerusalem was destroyed, because Paul died before that event took place. (Rom. xiv. 10.)-: We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.” (1 Cor. iv. 5.)— Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come; who will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and make manifest the coun. sels of the heart.” (2 Pet. ii. 9.)—- Reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment, to be punished.”
2. Another point in our argument for the futurity of the general judgment is, that it is to take place after death ; hence, God is said to be judge of the “ quick and dead.” (2 Tim. iv. 1.) Here it is said, “ The Lord Jesus Christ shall judge the quick and dead, at his appearing, and his kingdom.” (John v. 22–29.)— In this place Christ says, God " hath committed all judgment unto the Son;" and that by his “ authority to execute judgment,” “ all that are in the graves shall hear his voice and come forth ; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.” (Acts x. 42.)- Peter declares Christ was " ordained of God, to be the judge of quick and dead.” (Heb. ix. 27.)--"And as it is appointed unto men once to die, and after this the judgment: so Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him, shall he appear the second time, without sin unto salvation." Also, St. Paul speaks of receiving a crown of righteous. ness, after his martyrılom-which, says he, “ the righteous judge shall give me at that day.” Finally, in Jude 6 —the angels which kept not their first estate, are said to be “ reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day.”
3. The third point we make in this part of our argument is, that this day of general judgment is said to be appointed. (Acts xvii. 30, 31.) —"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he hath ordained ; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him írom the dead.” Here we have the day “appointed," the judge (Christ) selected, the rule of judgment specitied, “righteousness,” and the confirmation or proof of the whole is in the resurrection of Christ “ from the dead.”
T'he passages quoted above, to prove the fact of a general judgment-and that it will take place in the future world, are so di. rect and specific, that no comment can make them plainer; but the construction of this last passage is so peculiar and forcible, that we cannot forhear to give it in the original. “ Estesen emeran en e mellei krinein ten oikoumenen.” He (God) estesen, hath appointed or fixed upon, emeran a day, en e in which, mellei he will, intends, or is about, krinein to judge, oikoumenen the world or " habitable globe.” The verb mellei, is from melldo, and signifies “to be about to do—to intend doing—to be about to come to pass, or destined to happen." Donnegan says, when used “with a verb in the infinitive of the present, aorist, or future, it expresses the future, in relation to another time which is marked by that in which melldo stands.” In the present case, mellei is connected with krinein, which is of the infinitive future; hence it expresses the future in relation to another time which is marked-marked by the verb estesen, "hath appointed.” The time marked, is the day appointed, in which God will judge the world. Donnegan farther states" Homer rarely uses it (melldo) to signify a future depend