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Kingston, or crossing to the American ports of New York State, where the descendants of the Puritans and of the Dutchmen dwell in peaceful and money-making union.

The long peninsula, or isthmus, which forms the harbour was in ancient times a favourite resort of the Mississaga Indians, especially for the sick and exhausted. One of the first-founded institutions of York was a long, straight, and level race-course on the isthmus, and here occurred the Upper Canada Derbys, the veritable isthmian games of the pioneers. The peninsula is about two leagues long, being but a mere sand-bank, overgrown with wild grass, and tufted here and there with small trees, Gibraltar Point, on the west, nearly a mile wide, is partly occupied by fortifications for the defence of the entrance of the port, and by a lighthouse to guide marirers into the harbour.

On the eastern side of the city is the river Don, a slow and meandering stream, with rugged and picturesque banks and a marshy delta. On the other side is the Humber river, coming down out of the northern forests at a break-neck pace, affording eligible opportunities alike for the scenery-hunter and the miller. St. James's Cemetery and the Toronto Necropolis are on the banks of the Don; and the same locality also possesses a site already hallowed by history, which comes so slowly to crown these New World colonies. Governor Simcoe, the founder of Toronto, built a log château, named Castle Frank, on a high bluff over the river Don, close to his nascent capital, and connected with it by a road, which the soldiers of the garrison constructed. The mansion was named in honour of its youthful heir, Francis Simcoe, whose mangled corpse, some years later, was left among the pile of British dead which closed up the breach at Badajoz. The governor received from the Iroquois Indians the name of Deyonynhokrawen, “One whose door is always open;' and on his monument in the ancient Cathedral of Exeter it is recorded that “he served his king and his country with a zeal exceeded only by his piety towards God.” Castle Frank has long since disappeared, but its peaceful sylvan surroundings are a favourite rambling-ground for the young men and maidens of eastern Toronto.

The water-front of the city is formed by a broad strip of open ground, a simplified Thames Embankment, with some of the traits peculiar to the levées of the Mississippi river towns; and the huge and shapeless elevators suggest Chicago, which, by a courteous periphrasis, might be called the American Toronto.

It was a dream of the pioneers that a broad promenade should always be kept open before the town, looking out upon the lake; and in 1818 the erection of the Mall was decreed by royal patent.

But this sentimental scheme of the founders has given way to the Esplanade, which is, from a practical and nineteenth-century point of view, the chief glory of Toronto. It is an embankment faced with masonry, nearly a league in length, giving a new frontage to the town, and greatly improving its sanitary security. This magnificent marginal way is occupied by several parallel lines of railway—the grand routes between Upper and Lower Canada-with a long series of warehouses, factories, and other commercial buildings on one side, and the deep waters of the harbour on the other.

The most conspicuous object in the approach to a European city is usually a castle, a cathedral, or a palace ; but the genius of the New World seeks the embodiment of power in other forms, and allows its banners, mitres, and crowns to be obscured by the smoke of continent-crossing railway-trains. So it happens that the most conspicuous object seen on

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entering the harbour of Toronto is the great Union Railway Station, with its handsome architecture and high towers, rising from the Esplanade. The Grand Trunk Railway, which connects the remote shores of Lake Huron with Montreal, Quebec, and the seaboard, passes through this station. The other lines terminating at Toronto are the Great Western, for Niagara, Hamilton, and Detroit; the Northern, for Lake Simcoe and the ports on the great Georgian Bay of Lake Huron; the Credit Valley lines, through the rich countries to the westward; the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce, running to the distant harbours on Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; the Nipissing line, now constructed for many miles to the north-east, and heading for the remote and unpeopled solitudes about Lake Nipissing, in the diocese of Algoma. To the westward of the meridian of Toronto extends a rich and populous country, devoted to the culture of grain, and worthy the name of Canada Felix. To the north-eastward, extending over four degrees of longitude, as far as Ottawa, is a line of wilder counties, covered with valuable forests and strewn with myriads of crystalline lakes, among which are many settlements of hardy Canadian and Scottish backwoodsmen. This is a lake-country indeed, covering many thousands of square miles, and destined, in spite of its severe climate, to be the seat of a large and prosperous agricultural population. Lord Dufferin very happily expressed the main need of Canada in his celebrated Toronto speech :-" The only thing still wanted is to man the ship with a more numerous crew. From the extraordinary number of babies which I have seen at every window and at every cottage door, native energy and talent appear to be rapidly supplying this defect; still, it is a branch of industry in which the home manufacturer has no occasion to dread foreign competition, and Canadians can well afford to share their fair inheritance with the straitened sons of toil at home." Canada, with the adjacent British dominions of which she is heir, covers an area greatly exceeding that of the United States, and including the latitudes between those of North Cape, in Norway, and Tuscany. It is commonly supposed in Great Britain that this is a land hidden far in the frigid north, with a perpetual inclemency brooding over its dark forests. It is interesting to notice that all the inhabited part of Canada, the home of five million hard-working, happy, and prosperous people, is south of the parallel of 50° N.; and that the whole of Great Britain (save about three miles of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall) is north of that parallel.

On all sides of the harbour appear the evidences of high culture, commercial activity, and ancient foundations ; yet, less than a century has passed since the idle waters lapped against a lonely beach, whereon no signs of human life were visible. The name Toronto is of Indian origin, and appears frequently in the French-Canadian despatches of the seventeenth century, as applied to a locality of great importance north of Lake Ontario, where the trail to Lake Huron began. About the year 1749, the English trading-post at Oswego, on the southern shore of Ontario, enjoyed a thriving commerce with the natives; and the French Governor of Canada, M. de la Galissonière, resenting the prosperity of this remote bit of perfidious Albion, established a garrisoned post and trading-station at Toronto, on the opposite shore of the lake. For several years these two rival commercial ports, the Rome and Carthage of that midland sea, defied each other over the unsalted waves; and then the Marquis de Montcalm, with 3,000 Frenchmen and allied Indians, besieged and captured Oswego, with its garrison of 1,800 men, 134 cannon, and the supporting fleet. The handful of French Street was the main thoroughfare, and the names of the other streets commemorated the devotion of the citizens to the Hanoverian dynasty.

The present Parliament Buildings and Government House of the Province of Ontario are plain, spacious, and homely structures of red brick, secluded from the streets, and not far from the Union Railway Station and the principal hotels. The legislators who assemble here administer the local affairs of Ontario, a Province covering 121,260 square miles, which is larger than Hungary, Norway, or Italy, and within two square miles of the combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland. Nor is this so far a solitude as to have nothing but territorial area to boast of, for within less than a century its population has grown from 2,000 to upwards of 2,000,000, and even now exceeds that of Greece or Denmark, Saxony or Switzerland. There are two or three unimportant newspapers in Canada which advocate annexation to the United States, but no sentiment of that kind prevails among the people. Enjoying the privileges of autonomy, without its dangers, the greatest of the British colonies has developed rapidly and securely into a semi-independent State, and in time will probably expand into a conservative Republic, influenced by English traditions, and firmly allied to the mother-country by countless ties of duty and affection.

Sixty years ago, it was thought that Upper Canada could not support a college, and a romantic and ingenious scheme came under consideration, by which twenty-five lads should be sent annually to Oxford and Cambridge, at the cost of the Province. It was thought that

many others would follow them, and that the beneficiaries themselves would be stimulated to extraordinary exertions, returning to Canada finished scholars, to leaven the crudity of the new country with their wisdom. “What more especially invites the adoption of such a scheme is the amiable and affectionate connection which it would tend to establish between Canada and Britain.” Planted in poverty and adversity, however, and nurtured in discouragement, the colleges of Ontario have grown into strength and respectability, and bid fair to become wealthy and renowned. Toronto is now a University town of no mean rank, visited by many hundreds of earnest students, who learn here the best-approved methods of caring for bodies or minds diseased, of repairing broken States, of enlightening remote wilderness places.

University College stands in a beautiful and diversified park in the northern part of the city, and is approached by way of College Avenue, a grand thoroughfare nearly a mile long, and 100 feet wide, running due north from the business district. Double lines of trees border the avenue, and the park is adorned with many stately oaks. The building occupied by the college is the finest piece of Norman architecture in America, and forms three sides of a large quadrangle, the walls being of grey stone, trimmed with blocks from the quarries of Caen, charmingly irregular in outline, and mediæval in effect. From one side it suggests Rugby or Warwick; from another, Bury St. Edmund's; and many another similitude is found by the English exiles of Toronto. From the centre of the southern front rises a tall square tower, sustaining the great bell which, "swinging low with solemn roar," repeats the old-time curfew every evening. The main portal and window beneath form a perfect flower of Norman architecture; and the entrance hail, with its stunted columns and quaintly-carved capitals, is suggestive of the grey cathedral towns of England rather than of this new-born forest city. Under the pointed oaken roof of the

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entering the harbour of Toronto is the great Union Railway Station, with its handsome architecture and high towers, rising from the Esplanade. The Grand Trunk Railway, which connects the remote shores of Lake Huron with Montreal, Quebec, and the seaboard, passes through this station, The other lines terminating at Toronto are the Great Western, for Niagara, Hamilton, and Detroit ; the Northern, for Lake Simcoe and the ports on the great Georgian Bay of Lake Huron ; the Credit Valley lines, through the rich countries to the westward ; the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce, running to the distant harbours on Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; the Nipissing line, now constructed for many miles to the north-east, and heading for the remote and unpeopled solitudes about Lake Nipissing, in the diocese of Algoma. To the westward of the meridian of Toronto extends a rich and populous country, devoted to the culture of grain, and worthy the name of Canada Felix. To the north-eastward, extending over four degrees of longitude, as far as Ottawa, is a line of wilder counties, covered with valuable forests and strewn with myriads of crystalline lakes, among which are many settlements of hardy Canadian and Scottish backwoodsmen. This is a lake-country indeed, covering many thousands of square miles, and destined, in spite of its severe climate, to be the seat of a large and prosperous agricultural population. Lord Dufferin very happily expressed the main need of Canada in his celebrated Toronto speech :-" The only thing still

. wanted is to man the ship with a more numerous crew. From the extraordinary number of babies which I have seen at every window and at every cottage door, native energy and talent appear to be rapidly supplying this defect; still, it is a branch of industry in which the home manufacturer has no occasion to dread foreign competition, and Canadians can well afford to share their fair inheritance with the straitened sons of toil at home.” Canada, with the adjacent British dominions of which she is heir, covers an area greatly exceeding that of the United States, and including the latitudes between those of North Cape, in Norway, and Tuscany. It is commonly supposed in Great Britain that this is a land hidden far in the frigid north, with a perpetual inclemency brooding over its dark forests. It is interesting to notice that all the inhabited part of Canada, the home of five million hard-working, happy, and prosperous people, is south of the parallel of 50° N.; and that the whole of Great Britain (save about three miles of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall) is north of that parallel.

On all sides of the harbour appear the evidences of high culture, commercial activity, and ancient foundations; yet, less than a century has passed since the idle waters lapped against a lonely beach, whereon no signs of human life were visible. The name Toronto is of Indian origin, and appears frequently in the French-Canadian despatches of the seventeenth century, as applied to a locality of great importance north of Lake Ontario, where the trail to Lake Huron began. About the year 1749, the English trading-post at Oswego, on the southern shore of Ontario, enjoyed a thriving commerce with the natives; and the French Governor of Canada, M. de la Galissonière, resenting the prosperity of this remote bit of perfidious Albion, established a garrisoned post and trading-station at Toronto, on the opposite shore of the lake. For several years these two rival commercial ports, the Rome and Carthage of that midland sea, defied each other over the unsalted waves; and then the Marquis de Montcalm, with 3,000 Frenchmen and allied Indians, besieged and captured Oswego, with its garrison of 1,800 men, 134 cannon, and the supporting fleet. The handful of French wide, the façade of the college closes the vista with imposing effect. Dr. Baldwin, who laid out this thoroughfare (three miles long), and named it in honour of his adjacent mansion, came to Toronto eighty years ago, and, acquiring great wealth, resolved to found a family of distinction, enriched by the revenues of entailed estates. There should always be a Baldwin of Spadina; but his son was the statesman who carried through the Canadian Legislature the bill abolishing the rights of primogeniture.

Upper Canada College was founded in 1829 by Sir John Colborne, then Governor of the Province. He had previously been Governor of Guernsey in the Channel Islands), where he re-established Elizabeth College. Sir John also gave the name of Sarnia, by which Guernsey was known in classic times, to a new hamlet near Lake St. Clair, which has since become a flourishing port. For his college he secured the services of five reverend gentlemen from Cambridge and Oxford, and an endowment of 66,000 acres of land. The institution occupies a group of antique and homely brick buildings, near the centre of the city, but somewhat secluded from the streets. It has about a dozen instructors.

The Provincial Normal and Model Schools occupy a handsome Palladian building, with a large hall, and some smaller edifices, including the Educational Museum, with its Flemish and Italian paintings and casts from ancient statuary. The surrounding public gardens cover nearly eight acres; and but a little way off are the Horticultural Gardens, famous throughout Upper Canada. In addition to the various colleges elsewhere spoken of, Toronto has three considerable schools of medicine, furnishing the disciples of the art of healing for all Western Canada. In the building of the College of Technology, near the cathedral, are the halls and reading-rooms of the Mechanics' Institute, an association now more than half a century old. There are upwards of 8,000 volumes in its library.

Queen's Park adjoins the park of the University, and has been leased to the municipality for 999 years.

It is a beautiful domain of fifty acres, adorned with a profusion of flowers and shrubbery, and but little more than a mile from the centre of the city. Near its entrance stands a bronze statue of Queen Victoria (designed by Marshal Wood), at whose foot are two trophy cannon from Inkerman and Sebastopol. When Lord, Dufferin bade farewell to Toronto, in 1878, 20,000 people assembled in Queen's Park to do him honour, and the entire domain was brilliantly illuminated at night, while the Tenth Royals, the Queen's Own, and the Artillery corps enlivened the scene with their uniforms and the music of their bands. Near the shore of a pretty lakelet stands a brown-stone monument, with a colossal marble statue of Britannia on its summit, and four marble statues in niches, commemorating the volunteers who died during the Irish invasion of the Dominion. In the summer of 1866 large bodies of armed Fenians threatened Canada from various points inside the American frontier, and at last a force of over 1,000 men crossed the Niagara river, and entrenched itself on the heights of Lime-ridge. Canada had 40,000 volunteers in the field, covering her exposed borders, and two columns at once hastened against the invaders. The weaker of these, numbering but 900 men, and mainly composed of the Queen's Own Regiment, the flower of the youth of Toronto, came into collision with the Fenian forces, and, after a gallant skirmish, was thrown into confusion by the unskilful conduct of the commander, and broke into a panic-stricken

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