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Lyons.)

THE QUAYS.

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was discovered by the guards. The young knight made a gallant defence, but was slain under the very eyes of La Belle-Allemande. This alleged incident has been the theme of a romance, a drama, and two or three poems.

Lower down the Saône, on the left bank, stretches the long and delightfully planted quay known as the Cours Rambaud, a justly favourite promenade, with splendid views across the river of the Hill of Fourvières and its churches. The opposite Quai de la

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Muletière, otherwise known as Les Etroits, is also a charming promenade. It is associated with the memory of Jean Jacques Rousseau in the days of his youthful poverty.

The quays on the Rhône, in consequence of the more direct course and greater breadth of the river, display a vaster extent to the eye at one time, although with less variety than on the sister river. The Quai de St. Clair is the finest in Lyons, and was formerly the rendezvous of merchants and foreigners, and the centre of Lyonnese trade. To this succeeds the Quai de Retz, and then the Quai de l'Hôpital, with its second-hand booksellers spreading their treasures on the pavement, and its bird merchants vending splendid paroquets and bright-hued canaries and humming birds. The Quai de la Charité, planted with trees, conducts to the Chaussée de Perrache, which stretches down to the southern extremity of the city, where the waters of the Saône unite with those of the Rhône.

The Saône is spanned by thirteen bridges, of which the finest is the Pont de Tilsit, a very handsome stone structure, leading from the Place Bellecour to the cathedral. The Rhône has nine bridges; one of them, the Pont de la Guillotière, is the oldest bridge in the city. It was founded by Pope Innocent IV. in 1251, though no part of the present structure dates from that period. A bridge of wood, called the Pont du Rhône, had existed at this spot long before. In 1190 Lyons had been chosen as the rendezvous for the knights and soldiers about to accompany Richard Cour de Lion and Philip Augustus of France in the Third Crusade. The united armies crossed the Rhône by the bridge just named, and the two kings followed. Then came the train of baggage waggons; but the overstrained bridge suddenly broke down, and many persons were drowned.

There are many other open spaces, bright promenades, and so forth, among the out-door attractions of Lyons, but we must only stay to mention the beautiful Pavé de la Têted'Or, beside the Rhône. Previous to 1857, this spot was a wood, in which it was said a treasure was concealed, of which a head of our Saviour in gold formed part. Hence the name.

It is divided into two parts: the picturesque and the scientific; the former is peopled by the world of fashion every day, and by all classes of society on Sundays; its beautiful lake, with its islets and swans, bridges and gondolas, is perhaps its principal charm, while in the scientific portion are zoological and botanical collections.

Lyons, in spite of its frequent turbulence, its free-thought, and its democracy, has always been a very religious city. It has long been the most important centre of Jesuit intrigue, and the head-quarters of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. In no other city of France are the upper classes so completely dominated by clerical influence. After the Restoration the priests grew rampant, and threw into the mud the hats of those who passed without saluting them. Under Louis Philippe they were compelled to plot secretly, but during the Second Empire, under the protection of Marshal Castellane, priesteraft rose to its height of proud insolence. The convents, seminaries, and religious houses of all sorts became innumerable. The city was the first to receive with enthusiasm the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, and in honour thereof made the 8th of December its grandest festival. The churches of Lyons are very numerous, and their associations carry us back to the very first introduction of Christianity into Gaul. Greek Christians from Asia were the first teachers of the Gospel in ancient France; and in the second century there were a considerable number of the faithful in Lyons, when a terrible persecution broke out under Marcus Aurelius, in 177. Polycarp, the Bishop of Smyrna, a disciple of the Apostle John, sent Pothinus to be the apostle and pastor of the church at Lugdunum. In an underground crypt, afterwards the Church of St. Nizier, the good Pothinus celebrated divine service. The time of persecution began; the Christians were subjected to various humiliations; whenever they appeared in public they were pursued by angry crowds, and beaten and stoned. On being brought before magistrates, they boldly confessed their faith, and torture and imprisonment were alike powerless to move them. Many died in their dungeons; and at the annual gathering of people from all neighbouring nations to trade with each other in the great Forum, it was resolved to

Lyons.)

THE CHURCH OF AINAY.

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make a public example of those who refused to abjure the Christian religion. Eusebius has preserved a pathetic “ Epistle of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons to the brethren which are in Asia and Phrygia,” in which the sufferings of the Lyonnese martyrs are detailed. Blandina was tortured from morning till evening, till the executioners sank with fatigue. Many were tortured and then strangled. The Deacon Sanctus was burned with hot irons, lacerated with scourges, and thrown to the wild beasts. Maturus and Attala experienced a similar fate. The venerable Bishop Pothinus, more than ninety years of age, was so cruelly beaten that he died in his dungeon two days afterwards. Blandina was suspended from a cross amongst the wild beasts, but none of them touched her. Ultimately, however, she succumbed under the most brutal torture.

Such were the fiery conflicts through which the infant Church of Lyons had to pass. Above the crypt where St. Pothinus used to assemble the brethren, rose the church now known as that of St. Nizier, in memory of the bishop of that name, who was buried there. It was one of the churches destroyed by the Saracens, and subsequently restored by Leydrade. It has been rebuilt at various times; the present construction offers a fine example of fifteenth-century Gothic. The fine Renaissance portal is the work of the celebrated architect Philibert Delorme, a native of Lyons. Some beautiful marble statues of the Virgin, St. Pothinus, etc., and some fine paintings, adorn the majestic interior. The crypt has been restored, and connected with it is a mortuary hall, where pyramids of bones in triple range display the accumulations of centuries. From the ancient tower the Protestants, in 1562, fired on the Hôtel de Ville, and forced the guards to capitulate. In the émeute of 1834 several hundred insurgents were killed in this church. St. Nizier is not only interesting as the cradle of Christianity in Lyons: it was also the cradle of civic liberty. HIere the growing Commune met in the days of its resistance to the bishops, and the bell in the ancient tower used to call the citizens together to elect their magistrates.

The Church of Ainay is a very remarkable monument, linked as it is with both Pagan and Christian associations. As we have already said, close by this spot the Rhône and Saône met, until Perrache removed the place of confluence. Here was the earliest Forum, , where, overlooked by the Roman city on the Hill of Fourvières, Greeks, Orientals, Africans, Gauls, and Spaniards met to exchange the products of their various countries. Here the Gauls, reconciled by Augustus to the loss of their liberty, and proud of their new civilisation and polytheism, erected an altar, which they dedicated to the Emperor and to Rome. The altar, twenty feet in height, stood in the midst of the open Forum. The approach was flanked by two colossal columns of Egyptian granite, each surmounted by a statue of Victory. Near the altar was the Temple of Augustus, bright with brilliant mosaics, and adorned with sixty statues, representing the sixty Gallic nations who had shared in the construction of the edifice. Close by were the grand houses of the priests and pontiffs, who were chosen from the highest citizens of the State. Grand was the spectacle when Drusus, after his victories beyond the Rhine, solemnly inaugurated the Altar of Augustus; but far grander in its moral significance was the moment when Pothinus and Blandina, and their fellow-martyrs, were dragged before this altar to forswear their faith, and met all remonstrance with the simple answer, I am a Christian ! The fate of these noble champions of the truth has already been told.

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GENERAL VIEW OF LYONS.

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Pekin.)

POLICE ARRANGEMENTS.

271

their claims to relief, and in the cold weather subscriptions are raised to open kitchens for the gratuitous supply of gruel or porridge to the poor at the city gates and some of the temples. Between the two cities is the noted Bridge of Beggars, a magnificent marble structure, of which the central space between the two roadways is given up to the beggars. Here the most miserable of this class in Pekin assemble-half naked, leprous, diseased, and blind. The Marquis de Beauvoir says that “they are in such a state of starvation that they take the decomposing heads from the wicker cages at the executionground, salt them, and eat them !” He says he would not have believed it if he “had not seen it himself three several times.” We are afraid some of our readers will scarcely believe it still.

It might readily be supposed by any one surveying the teeming population in the main streets that amidst such a people disorders must be rife, but the fact is that in the capital, as in every town and city in China, the efficiency of the police is proverbial. In all the principal thoroughfares there are guards of soldiers, who are under rigid instructions to use their whips, without distinction of persons, upon any who are inclined to be quarrelsome or disorderly. Again, every ten houses are under the surveillance of one of the inhabitants as representative of the authorities. As soon as night falls every householder, rich or poor, has a lighted lantern before his door. Although the city has ro public lights, the fact is almost compensated by the universal passion for lanterns, even on a bright moonlight night these are seen everywhere; the palanquin bearers, the police, even the beggars, carry lights about, and children are seen with little lanterns, proportioned to the size of the diminutive bearers. A night patrol may be seen making the rounds, the commanding officer on horseback having borne before him an enormous lantern, inscribed with his names and titles, and every man in the force bearing a small lantern of the shape of a fish, a bird, or a stag. After a certain hour every side-street is closed with a barrier at each end, and the guards posted there on duty allow no one to pass unless carrying a lantern and able to assign a good cause for being out. It is said, however, that a little money judiciously bestowed will always procure a passage for the benighted wayfarer. During the whole night the streets are patrolled by watchmen, who prove themselves on the alert by striking a bamboo tube every few minutes. Europeans find this dull monotonous sound very irksome at first. The Chinese seem to like all these and other minute regulations for their safety and good conduct-a paternal government suits them.

Of the manners and customs and social life of the Chinese we cannot say much in a sketch of Pekin, but to marriages and funerals we must just briefly refer, as the processions connected with these events so often form prominent features in the street scenes of the city. As regards marriage, to describe in full the preliminaries, formalities, and superstitions connected with it would fill a volume. Previous to the wedding-day the bride is deprived of her eyebrows by the painful process of pulling out the hairs, that she may henceforth be recognised as a married woman. On the morning of the “lucky day," which has been selected with great care for the auspicious event, she is carried from her home to the home of her future spouse in a highly decorated bridal chair, sparkling with crystal ornaments. The procession is accompanied by musicians playing noisy tunes,

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