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Pri un day ca the great steam ferry-brats. The best private schools in the State 24 d here; and the University of California is in the adjacent village of Berkeley,

the first of the Contra Costa Mountains. Thirty years ago, the site of Oakland was a

27and for wild cattle, but now it is oocupied by a city so beautiful as to have in the title of “ The Bride of the Bay.” Here the great Pacific Railway, which connects Ce with the Atlantic States, finds its terminus, and over and passengers are transAnd by fuzzy lin half an hour) to San Francisco. The Bar is enlivened all day long by salat, band for various suburban towns on its shores-for Saucelito, nestling under se Marin kills; San Quentin, the site of the State Prison ; San Rafael, where rich villas tesse reglare the ancient Spanish Mission ; Vallejo, a busy town near the l'nited States Sary Yard; Berkeley and Alamela; Sacramento, 117 miles distant, up the Sacramento Piret; and many another city or hamlet, far and near. It is only about fifty years since Kazebue, the dauntl-ss Russian explorer, thus prophesied concerning the Bay :-“ It has hurto burn the fate of this region, like that of modest merit or humble virtue, to remain

d; but pusterity will do it justice. Towns and cities will hereafter flourish where wil is now desert. The water, over which scarcely a solitary boat is seen to glide, will reflect w tre fiays of all nations; and a happy, prosperous people, receiving with thankfulness what proligal Nature bestows for their use, will disperse its treasures over every part of the world.”

Mount Diablo is but a few miles out, and ascends from a level plain to the height of 3,800 feet, making a conspicuous landmark as seen from the San Franciscan hills, and commanding an immense prospect up and down the coast. Mount Tamalpais rises from the formidable heights beyond San Rafael, and overlooks the ocean and the Bay for many leagues. Mount Hamilton, not far from the beautiful college town of San Jose and the famous quicksilver mines of New Almaden, rises over the Santa Clara Valley to a height of 4,443 feet, and is destined to be a famous locality in scientific circles. The late Mr. James Lick, a very wealthy San Franciscan, bequeathed £140,000 for the establishment, in connection with the University of California, of an astronomical observatory on the summit of Mount Hamilton, where the atmospheric conditions are peculiarly favourable.

The Golden Gate Park extends from the western border of the inhabited streets to the Pacific Ocean, forming a parallelogram, three miles long and half a mile wide. Five years ago this was as hopeless a waste of drifting sand-hills as could be found in all Sahara; but great quantities of lupin-seed were sown therein, and grew luxuriantly, anchoring the treacherous soil with a network of fibrous roots, and making possible the cultivation of more ornamental plants. The main expenditures have been made upon the broad and smoothly-paved drive-ways, where the handsome carriages and liveries of the bonanza noblesse are seen on every pleasant day, and more than ever on a bright Sunday. diThe surface of the Park is highly diversified, and very extensive views may be gained from its breezy hill-tops. Several creditable thickets have risen on the sandy ridges, and the usual paraphernalia of an urban park are being added from year to year. The avenue which leads into it is three-fourths of a mile long, and 275 feet wide, winding gracefully through scenes of new-born sylvan beauty. The conservatory has but one superior in America, and contains an interesting variety of palms, rare tropical plants and flowers, orchids, and aquatic plants, among which are the Egyptian lotus and the Victoria Regia.

San Francisco.)

THE SEAWARD VIEW.

29

Where the peninsula of San Francisco faces the Pacific is a long line of rugged and beetling cliffs, upon which rise the broad, low, and rambling walls of the Cliff House, the most famous suburban resort in this region. It is about six miles from the city, by the Point Lobos Road, or the route through the Golden Gate Park, and on a fair day the avenues leading in this direction are crowded with carriages, whose occupants take high delight in the invigorating sea-breeze, and the beautiful views of the Golden Gate, Point Bonita, and the remote blue peaks of Mount Tamalpais and the hills of the Coast Range. The prospect from the cliff extends over the blue and tranquil Pacific for many leagues, to the level horizon which dips away towards Asia. On a clear day, the distant rocky spires of the Farallone Islands may be seen low down in the west, weird, mysterious, and solitary. Not far off-shore are the Seal Rocks, inhabited by hundreds of sea-lions, whose hoarse barking and crying rise perpetually, as the huge and unwieldy creatures (some of which weigh fully 3,000 pounds) ride upon the dashing waves or clamber over the jagged ledges. A great number of sea-fowl inhabit the upper reaches of the rocky islets, and add to the ceaseless wild music which surrounds them. South of the Cliff House is a broad beach several miles long, where many carriages may be seen at low tide on a fine day, passing downward, and returning to town over the far-viewing road which crosses the Mission Hills. Beautiful as the scenery is along this rugged shore, however, it cannot lure the average visitor from the tables of the Cliff House, celebrated among Western men for its rich and characteristic cuisine.

Facing seaward, between Point Lobos and the Golden Gate, is a continuous line of military works, nearly three-fourths of a mile long, composed of twenty-five batteries, each containing two heavy guns, a magazine, and traverses. The parapet of this formidable defence is thirty-six feet thick, and consists of sea-sand, covered with firm green turf. On the right of these works, at the southern portal of the Golden Gate (here about a mile wide), stands a huge fortress of stone and brick, mounting 100 guns, in four tiers, and on three sides beaten by the waves of the Pacific. Above its roof rises the Fort Point Lighthouse; and far below, in the court, are the furnaces for heating shot. On either side of the iron entrance-gate are ancient Spanish cannon, bearing the arms of Charles III., and probably mementoes of Fort Blanco, which the Spaniards erected near this site, and armed with ten iron sixteen-pounders. Across the Golden Gate are the heavily-armed Lime Point batteries, some at the water-side, and others on the bluffs and on Point Cavallo, commanding the adjacent coasts and sea-ways for leagues. Inside the channel is Alcatraz Island, the Gibraltar of the Pacific, whose imposing bulwarks of masonry have been demolished, since the advent of iron-clads revolutionised naval warfare, and are replaced by low earth-works of enormous thickness, rising in tiers one above another. Alcatraz is garrisoned by artillerists, and contains the chief military prison of the Department of the Pacific, where insubordinate soldiers are compelled to work on the fortifications.

A little way to the north is Angel Island, pertaining to the Government, and the head-quarters of an infantry regiment; and on the south, in the confines of the city, is another strong battery, manned by a company of artillery. Most of these defensive works are armed with 15-inch and 20-inch guns, and effectually protect the city against any

manoeuvres.

attack short of that of a first-class iron-clad squadron. The chief American naval station on the Pacific side is several leagues north of San Francisco, where the Strait of Carquinez connects San Pablo Bay (a northerly extension of San Francisco Bay) and Suisun Bay, the embouchure of the great Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. Just off this important strait, on Mare Island, the Government has spent many millions of dollars in erecting dry docks, massive buildings, barracks, and other appurtenances of a first-class dock-yard.

Between Fort Point and the city is the Presidio, formerly the site of the Spanislı garrison, and now owned by the United States Government, which has occupied the domain with spacious barracks, officers' quarters, and a parade-ground large enough for brigade

The general in command of the Department of the Pacific usually makes his head-quarters here, retaining about him a few companies of infantry, ready to be sent against the Indians of Oregon, or Arizona, or the Sierras. A part of the Spanish constructions of 1776, which consisted of a high adobe wall and several garrison buildings, still remains; and the officers' quarters, surrounded with flowers, and commanding exquisite sea-views, are the abode of the aristocratic and refined society of an important military post. The roses are surrounded by walls of rusty cannon-balls, and the ladies of the garrison are often entrenched in such cliques as are familiar in Chatham, and Gibraltar, and Simla ; but the military band discourses sweet music every day, and the sea-winds blow through the straits with refreshing vigour. At one time this post was commanded by General Sherman, the hero of the world-renowned march to the sea ; and its present chief is General McDowell, the head of the Federal army at the disastrous defeat of Bull Run.

Among the first immigrants to California were thousands of wild adventurers, veterans of the Mexican war, semi-piratical fillibusters, convicts escaped from the British penal colonies in the South Seas, caucus politicians from New York, Southern desperadoes, and Northern bankrupts. But these grim Philistines were not the men who elevated an insignificant Spanish hamlet to metropolitan splendour and power—who established the longest railway and steamship lines in the Western world—who organised a State, vigorous and efficient in all its departments—who replaced the mud walls of Mission Dolores with the stately buildings and long-drawn streets of the capital of the Pacific coast. Thousands of the immigrants of the golden age were men of high culture and trained powers, the most adventurous and enterprising of the younger generations of America and England. They found a group of barren hills and a gloomy shore-but they remembered Venice, and built miles of streets and hundreds of houses over the waters of the bay; they remembered Rome, and cut down the ancient heights to make noble roads; they remembered Westphalia, and destroyed lawlessness by a tribunal more stern and powerful than the Vehmgericht.

It is not many years since the myriads who poured into California in search of wealth ceased to regard it as a sojourning-place, and came to regard it as a home. The growth of local pride has been rapid and exuberant; and the Californian of to-day remembers his early home—the rocky bills of New England, the worn-out plains of Virginia, even the forests and farms and grey old towers of England-only with a kindly pity. The imperial State which lies between Mount Shasta and San Bernardino, between the Yo Semite and the blue and placid Pacific, is his home; and he loves the orchards of

San Francisco.)

FUTURE OF CALIFORNIA.

31

Santa Clara, the orange-groves of Los Angeles, the grain-lands of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, the vineyards of Sonoma, better than the elms of Massachusetts, the pines of the South, or the venerable oaks of Britain. The feeling of State pride, so lately born, has already become a distinguishing trait, and generates a firm belief that no other land is so fair, no other people so favoured, or has been since the world began. This beautiful and profound enthusiasm has already achieved mighty works, and will establish, in time, a new and peculiar people in the isolated paradise of the Pacific. As yet, however, California is but "mewing her mighty youth,” and passing through a period of strange transitions. There are four elements of danger, which may retard her growth—the monopolist, the demagogue, the hoodlum, and the Chinaman; but these may be mitigated by the pressure of awakened public sentiment, or allowed to counteract each other, or be swept away by such a popular up-rising as San Francisco has already seen. In the meantime, as the Westminster Review has wisely remarked, after being the treasury, California has become the garden of the world.

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