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Toronto.)

HISTORY OF THE CITY.

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entering the harbour of Toronto is the great Union Railway Station, with its handsome architecture and high towers, rising from the Esplanade. The Grand Trunk Railway, which connects the remote shores of Lake Huron with Montreal, Quebec, and the seaboard, passes through this station. The other lines terminating at Toronto are the Great Western, for Niagara, Hamilton, and Detroit; the Northern, for Lake Simcoe and the ports on the great Georgian Bay of Lake Huron; the Credit Valley lines, through the rich countries to the westward; the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce, running to the distant harbours on Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; the Nipissing line, now constructed for many miles to the north-east, and heading for the remote and unpeopled solitudes about Lake Nipissing, in the diocese of Algoma. To the westward of the meridian of Toronto extends a rich and populous country, devoted to the culture of grain, and worthy the name of Canada Felix. To the north-eastward, extending over four degrees of longitude, as far as Ottawa, is a line of wilder counties, covered with valuable forests and strewn with myriads of crystalline lakes, among which are many settlements of hardy Canadian and Scottish backwoodsmen. This is a lake-country indeed, covering many thousands of square miles, and destined, in spite of its severe climate, to be the seat of a large and prosperous agricultural population. Lord Dufferin very happily expressed the main need of Canada in his celebrated Toronto speech :-" The only thing still wanted is to man the ship with a more numerous crew. From the extraordinary number of babies which I have seen at every window and at every cottage door, native energy and talent appear to be rapidly supplying this defect; still, it is a branch of industry in which the home manufacturer has no occasion to dread foreign competition, and Canadians can well afford to share their fair inheritance with the straitened sons of toil at home.” Canada, with the adjacent British dominions of which she is heir, covers an area greatly exceeding that of the United States, and including the latitudes between those of North Cape, in Norway, and Tuscany. It is commonly supposed in Great Britain that this is a land hidden far in the frigid north, with a perpetual inclemency brooding over its dark forests. It is interesting to notice that all the inhabited part of Canada, the home of five million hard-working, happy, and prosperous people, is south of the parallel of 50° N.; and that the whole of Great Britain (save about three miles of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall) is north of that parallel.

On all sides of the harbour appear the evidences of high culture, commercial activity, and ancient foundations; yet, less than a century has passed since the idle waters lapped against a lonely beach, whereon no signs of human life were visible. The name Toronto is of Indian origin, and appears frequently in the French-Canadian despatches of the seventeenth century, as applied to a locality of great importance north of Lake Ontario, where the trail to Lake Huron began. About the year 1749, the English trading-post at Oswego, on the southern shore of Ontario, enjoyed a thriving commerce with the natives; and the French Governor of Canada, M. de la Galissonière, resenting the prosperity of this remote bit of perfidious Albion, established a garrisoned post and trading-station at Toronto, on the opposite shore of the lake. For several years these two rival commercial ports, the Rome and Carthage of that midland sea, defied each other over the unsalted waves; and then the Marquis de Montcalm, with 3,000 Frenchmen and allied Indians, besieged and captured Oswego, with its garrison of 1,800 men, 134 cannon, and the supporting fleet. The handful of French Kingston, or crossing to the American ports of New York State, where the descendants of the Puritans and of the Dutchmen dwell in peaceful and money-making union.

The long peninsula, or isthmus, which forms the harbour was in ancient times a favourite resort of the Mississaga Indians, especially for the sick and exhausted. One of the first-founded institutions of York was a long, straight, and level race-course on the isthmus, and here occurred the l'pper Canada Derbys, the veritable isthmian games of the pioneers. The peninsula is about two leagues long, being but a mere sand-bank, overgrown with wild grass, and tufted here and there with small trees. Gibraltar Point, on the west, nearly a mile wide, is partly occupied by fortifications for the defence of the entrance of the port, and by a lighthouse to guide marirers into the harbour.

On the eastern side of the city is the river Don, a slow and meandering stream, with rugged and picturesque banks and a marshy delta. On the other side is the Humber river, coming down out of the northern forests at a break-neck pace, affording eligible opportunities alike for the scenery-hunter and the miller. St. James's Cemetery and the Toronto Necropolis are on the banks of the Don; and the same locality also possesses a site already hallowed by history, which comes so slowly to crown these New-World colonies. Governor Simcoe, the founder of Toronto, built a log château, named Castle Frank, on a high bluff over the river Don, close to his nascent capital, and connected with it by a road, which the soldiers of the garrison constructed. The mansion was named in honour of its youthful heir, Francis Simcoe, whose mangled corpse, some years later, was left among the pile of British dead which closed up the breach at Badajoz. The governor received

. from the Iroquois Indians the name of Deyonynhokrawen, One whose door is always open;" and on his monument in the ancient Cathedral of Exeter it is recorded that “he served his king and his country with a zeal exceeded only by his piety towards God.” Castle Frank has long since disappeared, but its peaceful sylvan surroundings are a favourite rambling-ground for the young men and maidens of eastern Toronto.

The water-front of the city is formed by a broad strip of open ground, a simplified Thames Embankment, with some of the traits peculiar to the levées of the Mississippi river towns; and the huge and shapeless elevators suggest Chicago, which, by a courteous periphrasis, might be called the American Toronto.

It was a dream of the pioneers that a broad promenade should always be kept open before the town, looking out upon the lake; and in 1818 the erection of the Mall was decreed by royal patent.

But this sentimental scheme of the founders has given way to the Esplanade, which is, from a practical and nineteenth-century point of view, the chief glory of Toronto. It is an embankment faced with masonry, nearly a league in length, giving a new frontage to the town, and greatly improving its sanitary security. This magnificent marginal way is occupied by several parallel lines of railway—the grand routes between Upper and Lower Canada—with a long series of warehouses, factories, and other commercial buildings on one sile, and the deep waters of the harbour on the other.

The most conspicuous object in the approach to a European city is usually a castle, a cathedral, or a palace ; but the genius of the New World seeks the embodiment of power in other forms, and allows its banners, mitres, and crowns to be obscured by the smoke of continent-crossing railway-trains. So it happens that the most conspicuous object seen on

Toronto.)

HISTORY OF THE CITY.

111

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entering the harbour of Toronto is the great Union Railway Station, with its handsome architecture and high towers, rising from the Esplanade. The Grand Trunk Railway, which connects the remote shores of Lake Huron with Montreal, Quebec, and the seaboard, passes through this station. The other lines terminating at Toronto are the Great Western, for Niagara, Hamilton, and Detroit; the Northern, for Lake Simcoe and the ports on the great Georgian Bay of Lake Huron ; the Credit Valley lines, through the rich countries to the westward ; the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce, running to the distant harbours on Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; the Nipissing line, now constructed for many miles to the north-east, and heading for the remote and unpeopled solitudes about Lake Nipissing, in the diocese of Algoma. To the westward of the meridian of Toronto extends a rich and populous country, devoted to the culture of grain, and worthy the name of Canada Felix. To the north-eastward, extending over four degrees of longitude, as far as Ottawa, is a line of wilder counties, covered with valuable forests and strewn with myriads of crystalline lakes, among which are many settlements of hardy Canadian and Scottish backwoodsmen. This is a lake-country indeed, covering many thousands of square miles, and destined, in spite of its severe climate, to be the seat of a large and prosperous agricultural population. Lord Dufferin very happily expressed the main need of Canada in his celebrated Toronto speech :-" The only thing still wanted is to man the ship with a more numerous crew. From the extraordinary number of babies which I have seen at every window and at every cottage door, native energy and talent appear to be rapidly supplying this defect; still, it is a branch of industry in which the home manufacturer has no occasion to dread foreign competition, and Canadians can well afford to share their fair inheritance with the straitened sons of toil at home.” Canada, with the adjacent British dominions of which she is heir, covers an area greatly exceeding that of the United States, and including the latitudes between those of North Cape, in Norway, and Tuscany. It is commonly supposed in Great Britain that this is a land hidden far in the frigid north, with a perpetual inclemency brooding over its dark forests. It is interesting to notice that all the inhabited part of Canada, the home of five million hard-working, happy, and prosperous people, is south of the parallel of 50° N.; and that the whole of Great Britain (save about three miles of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall) is north of that parallel.

On all sides of the harbour appear the evidences of high culture, commercial activity, and ancient foundations; yet, less than a century has passed since the idle waters lapped against a lonely beach, whereon no signs of human life were visible. The name Toronto is of Indian origin, and appears frequently in the French-Canadian despatches of the seventeenth century, as applied to a locality of great importance north of Lake Ontario, where the trail to Lake Huron began. About the year 1749, the English trading-post at Oswego, on the southern shore of Ontario, enjoyed a thriving commerce with the natives ; and the French Governor of Canada, M. de la Galissonière, resenting the prosperity of this remote bit of perfidious Albion, established a garrisoned post and trading-station at Toronto, on the opposite shore of the lake. For several years these two rival commercial ports, the Rome and Carthage of that midland sea, defied each other over the unsalted waves; and then the Marquis de Montcalm, with 3,000 Frenchmen and allied Indians, besieged and captured Oswego, with its garrison of 1,800 men, 134 cannon, and the supporting fleet. The handful of French

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Kingston, or crossing to the American ports of New York State, where the descendants of the Puritans and of the Dutchmen dwell in peaceful and money-making union.

The long peninsula, or isthmus, which forms the harbour was in ancient times a favourite resort of the Mississaga Indians, especially for the sick and exhausted. One of the first-founded institutions of York was a long, straight, and level race-course isthmus, and here occurred the Upper Canada Derbys, the veritable isthmian games of the pioneers. The peninsula is about two leagues long, being but a mere sand-bank, overgrown with wild grass, and tufted here and there with small trees.

Gibraltar Point, on the west, nearly a mile wide, is partly occupied by fortifications for the defence of the entrance of the port, and by a lighthouse to guide marirers into the harbour.

On the eastern side of the city is the river Don, a slow and meandering stream, with rugged and picturesque banks and a marshy delta. On the other side is the Humber river, coming down out of the northern forests at a break-neck pace, affording eligible opportunities alike for the scenery-hunter and the miller. St. James's Cemetery and the Toronto Necropolis are on the banks of the Don; and the same locality also possesses a site already hallowed by history, which comes so slowly to crown these New-World colonies. Governor Simcoe, the founder of Toronto, built a log château, named Castle Frank, on a high bluff over the river Don, close to his nascent capital, and connected with it by a road, which the soldiers of the garrison constructed. The mansion was named in honour of its youthful heir, Francis Simcoe, whose mangled corpse, some years later, was left among the pile of British dead which closed up the breach at Badajoz. The governor received from the Iroquois Indians the name of Deyonynhokrauen, "One whose door is always open;' and on his monument in the ancient Cathedral of Exeter it is recorded that “he served his king and his country with a zeal exceeded only by his piety towards God.” Castle Frank has long since disappeared, but its peaceful sylvan surroundings are a favourite rambling-ground for the young men and maidens of eastern Toronto.

The water-front of the city is formed by a broad strip of open ground, a simplified Thames Embankment, with some of the traits peculiar to the levées of the Mississippi river towns; and the huge and shapeless elevators suggest Chicago, which, by a courteous periphrasis, might be called the American Toronto.

It was a dream of the pioneers that a broad promenade should always be kept open before the town, looking out upon the lake; and in 1818 the erection of the Mall was decreed by royal patent.

But this sentimental scheme of the founders has given way to the Esplanade, which is, from a practical and nineteenth-century point of view, the chief glory of Toronto. It is an embankment faced with masonry, nearly a league in length, giving a new frontage to the town, and greatly improving its sanitary security. This magnificent marginal way is occupied by several parallel lines of railway—the grand routes between Upper and Lower Canada-with a long series of warehouses, factories, and other commercial buildings on one side, and the deep waters of the harbour on the other.

The most conspicuous object in the approach to a European city is usually a castle, a cathedral, or a palace ; but the genius of the New World seeks the embodiment of power in other forms, and allows its banners, mitres, and crowns to be obscured by the smoke of continent-crossing railway-trains. So it happens that the most conspicuous object seen on

Toronto.)

YONGE STREET.

115

Captain Nolan, of the 70th Regiment, whose famous son fell in the charge of the Light Brigade ; and one of their managers was grandson of Prince Charles Edward Stuart's secretary and a personal friend of Sir Walter Scott. The next village on Yonge Street is Thornhill, settled by Dorsetshire families; and this is followed by the Oak Ridges, anciently the home of the McLeods of Skye and their Gaelic court, and of the Vicomte de Chalûs, the Comte de Puisaye, and many other unfortunate French émigrés, who, as Burke said, “quitting that voluptuous climate and that seductive Circean liberty, have taken refuge in the frozen regions, and under the British despotism, of Canada." Elsewhere, on and near Yonge Street, were colonies of banished American loyalists, Quakers from Pennsylvania, Mennonites, and other singular communities, hidden in this gloomy northern wilderness, and occasionally visiting Toronto to purchase supplies. It was a museum of strange types, through which Yonge Street stretched its unswerving lines, a collection of human oddities, merging now rapidly into the well-known and clearly-marked Anglo-Canadian race. During the Canadian rebellion of 1837, a strong force of insurgents marched from these forest-towns against Toronto, and advanced into its immediate suburbs. Eight hundred of them attempted to enter the city, but were repulsed by a handful of militia ; and soon afterwards Sir Allan MacNab, a gallant Scottish-Canadian chieftain, attacked their position with a thousand volunteers, and scattered the ragamuffin army, with severe loss.

The intersection of Yonge Street and King Street, within a quarter of a mile of the harbour, is the heart of the town, and forms a very striking and attractive carrefour, with stately buildings and busy thoroughfares stretching away to the four points of the compass, and all the life and beauty of Young Canada moving along the side-walks, or in vehicles on the well-paved roadways. The Masonic Temple is in this vicinity; and also the large and picturesque building of the United Empire Club. The Toronto Club and the National Club, in other parts of the city, are powerful and well-known organisations. One of Lord Dufferin’s most famous speeches was made at a feast of the Toronto Club, in 1874. The commercial and financial district surrounds the lower part of Yonge Street, and attests its prosperity by the magnitude and costliness of the buildings occupied. There are fifteen banks, wherein a large part of the financial business of Ontario is transacted, and most of these occupy handsome stone buildings, rich in architectural adornments. Here are the offices of the manufacturing corporations, whose works supply a great part of Upper Canada. The journalistic enterprise of Toronto is exemplified by three thriving daily newspapers. The Globe is a powerful factor in Canadian politics; and the Mail owns and occupies one of the finest buildings in the city. There are nineteen weekly papers, half of which are religious in character, and seventeen monthlies. Grip, the Canadian Punch, is published here.

The first locomotive railway engine made in the colonies of Great Britain was completed at Toronto, in 1852. The manufacturing interests are now large and important, and include iron and steel works, enormous breweries, tanneries, distilleries, and other profitable industries.

Not far from the site of the railway station stood the house of the Jamesons. Mr. Jameson, Vice-Chancellor of Upper Canada, was famous for his conversational powers, his high culture, and rare versatility; and no English or American student of art and belleslettres needs to be told who Mrs. Jameson was. In one of her charming books she gives a description of Canada as it appeared during her sojourn.

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