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Toronto.)

HISTORY OF THE CITY.

111

entering the harbour of Toronto is the great Union Railway Station, with its handsome architecture and high towers, rising from the Esplanade. The Grand Trunk Railway, which connects the remote shores of Lake Huron with Montreal, Quebec, and the seaboard, passes through this station. The other lines terminating at Toronto are the Great Western, for Niagara, Hamilton, and Detroit; the Northern, for Lake Simcoe and the ports on the great Georgian Bay of Lake Huron; the Credit Valley lines, through the rich countries to the westward ; the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce, running to the distant harbours on Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; the Nipissing line, now constructed for many miles to the north-east, and heading for the remote and unpeopled solitudes about Lake Nipissing, in the diocese of Algoma. To the westward of the meridian of Toronto extends a rich and populous country, devoted to the culture of grain, and worthy the name of Canada Felix. To the north-eastward, extending over four degrees of longitude, as far as Ottawa, is a line of wilder counties, covered with valuable forests and strewn with myriads of crystalline lakes, among which are many settlements of hardy Canadian and Scottish backwoodsmen. This is a lake-country indeed, covering many thousands of square miles, and destined, in spite of its severe climate, to be the seat of a large and prosperous agricultural population. Lord Dufferin very happily expressed the main need of Canada in his celebrated Toronto speech :-" The only thing still wanted is to man the ship with a more numerous crew. From the extraordinary number of babies which I have seen at every window and at every cottage door, native energy and talent appear to be rapidly supplying this defect; still, it is a branch of industry in which the home manufacturer has no occasion to dread foreign competition, and Canadians can well afford to share their fair inheritance with the straitened sons of toil at home.” Canada, with the adjacent British dominions of which she is heir, covers an area greatly exceeding that of the United States, and including the latitudes between those of North Cape, in Norway, and Tuscany. It is commonly supposed in Great Britain that this is a land hidden far in the frigid north, with a perpetual inclemency brooding over its dark forests. It is interesting to notice that all the inhabited part of Canada, the home of five million hard-working, happy, and prosperous people, is south of the parallel of 50° N.; and that the whole of reat Britain (save about three miles of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall) is north of that parallel.

On all sides of the harbour appear the evidences of high culture, commercial activity, and ancient foundations ; yet, less than a century has passed since the idle waters lapped against a lonely beach, whereon no signs of human life were visible. The name Toronto is of Indian origin, and appears frequently in the French-Canadian despatches of the seventeenth century, as applied to a locality of great importance north of Lake Ontario, where the trail to Lake Huron began. About the year 1719, the English trading-post at Oswego, on the southern shore of Ontario, enjoyed a thriving commerce with the natives; and the French Governor of Canada, M. de la Galissonière, resenting the prosperity of this remote bit of perfidious Albion, established a garrisoned post and trading-station at Toronto, on the opposite shore of the lake. For several years these two rival commercial ports, the Rome and Carthage of that midland sea, defied each other over the unsalted waves; and then the Marquis de Montcalm, with 3,000 Frenchmen and allied Indians, besieged and captured Oswego, with its garrison of 1,800 men, 134 cannon, and the supporting fleet. The handful of French Kingston, or crossing to the American ports of New York State, where the descendants of the Puritans and of the Dutchmen dwell in peaceful and money-making union.

The long peninsula, or isthmus, which forms the harbour was in ancient times a favourite resort of the Mississaga Indians, especially for the sick and exhausted. One of the first-founded institutions of York was a long, straight, and level race-course on the isthmus, and here occurred the Upper Canada Derbys, the veritable isthmian games of the pioneers. The peninsula is about two leagues long, being but a mere sand-bank, overgrown with wild grass, and tufted here and there with small trees.

Gibraltar Point, on the west, nearly a mile wide, is partly occupied by fortifications for the defence of the entrance of the port, and by a lighthouse to guide marirers into the harbour.

On the eastern side of the city is the river Don, a slow and meandering stream, with rugged and picturesque banks and a marshy delta. On the other side is the Humber river, coming down out of the northern forests at a break-neck pace, affording eligible opportunities alike for the scenery-hunter and the miller. St. James's Cemetery and the

. Toronto Necropolis are on the banks of the Don; and the same locality also possesses a site already hallowed by history, which comes so slowly to crown these New-World colonies. Governor Simcoe, the founder of Toronto, built a log château, named Castle Frank, on a high bluff over the river Don, close to his nascent capital, and connected with it by a road, which the soldiers of the garrison constructed. The mansion was named in honour of

. its youthful heir, Francis Simcoe, whose mangled corpse, some years later, was left among the pile of British dead which closed up the breach at Badajoz. The governor received from the Iroquois Indians the name of Deyonynhokrauen, “One whose door is always open;" and on his monument in the ancient Cathedral of Exeter it is recorded that “he served his king and his country with a zeal exceeded only by his piety towards God.” Castle Frank has long since disappeared, but its peaceful sylvan surroundings are a favourite rambling-ground for the young men and maidens of eastern Toronto.

The water-front of the city is formed by a broad strip of open ground, a simplified Thames Embankment, with some of the traits peculiar to the levées of the Mississippi river towns; and the huge and shapeless elevators suggest Chicago, which, by a courteous periphrasis, might be called the American Toronto.

It was a dream of the pioneers that a broad promenade should always be kept open before the town, looking out upon the lake; and in 1818 the erection of the Mall was decreed by royal patent. But this sentimental scheme of the founders has given way to the Esplanade, which is, from a practical and nineteenth-century point of view, the chief glory of Toronto. It is an embankment faced with masonry, nearly a league in length, giving a new frontage to the town, and greatly improving its sanitary security. This magnificent marginal way is occupied by several parallel lines of railway—the grand routes between Upper and Lower Canada—with a long series of warehouses, factories, and other commercial buildings on one side, and the deep waters of the harbour on the other.

The most conspicuous object in the approach to a European city is usually a castle, a cathedral, or a palace ; but the genius of the New World seeks the embodiment of power in other forms, and allows its banners, mitres, and crowns to be obscured by the smoke of continent-crossing railway-trains. So it happens that the most conspicuous object scen on

Toronto. )

THE FUTURE OF TORONTO.

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and shrubbery; the Crystal Palace, in which the famous annual expositions are held; the frowning walls of the Central Prison; and the Emigrant Sheds connected with the Grand Trunk Railway. On the shore of the harbour are the Old and New Forts, neither of which is (or needs to be) formidable from a military point of view. Among the British regiments which have been stationed at the Old Fort were the 1st, 15th, 32nd, 40th, 41st, 42nd, 68th, and 79th. The lines of white-stone barracks, the broad parade-ground, the grassy ramparts and crumbling walls still remain, but the natty infantrymen and aristocratic young officers of the Royal army are seen here no more.

During the last war between Britain and the United States, an American fleet appeared off Toronto, and landed a body of troops on the beach. After a severe cannonade between the ships and the shore-batteries, the American infantry carried the outer line of works by storm, and were about to assault the main battery, when a burning slowmatch exploded the outer magazine, and literally blew the head of the column to pieces. The whole district was shaken as if by an earthquake; and 232 soldiers of the attacking column, including General Pike, its commander, were killed or wounded. Barbarous though this act was, it did not prevent the Americans from occupying the fort and town, where they captured 293 militiamen. During the engagement, the garrison lost 149 men; and 350 of the invaders were killed or wounded. The Parliament House was burned, and great quantities of supplies and artillery were placed on the ships; and four days later the fleet sailed away to new scenes of conflict. Two months afterwards, the town was again captured, and eleven British transports and six cannon were seized.

The days of invasions and rumours of war have happily passed away, and in this prosperous reign of peace and prosperity, the citizens take ample time for amusement, for which both the means and the inclination are always ready. For the evenings, they have the two opera-houses, the theatre, the concerts at the Horticultural Gardens; and for pleasant days they have the cricket-ground, and the park where the three local clubs play Lacrosse, the national game of Canada. In winter, the Curling Club amuses itself on the firm ice of the harbour; in summer, the swift vessels of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club cruise up and down the lake. It will be remembered, also, that this city is the home of Hanlan, the champion oarsman of the world, who has so often vanquished his American, British, and colonial antagonists.

Though not the greatest of the Canadian cities, Toronto is the most hopeful, the most enterprising, and feels the ambition of Western progress to the fullest degree. The convenience of its site, the beauty of its streets and public buildings, and the intelligent activity of its people, prefigure a great future for the capital of Ontario, when the broad domains to the north and west shall have been occupied by a dense and industrious population. Here are the waiting acres of virgin soil; the happy colonists of the future are rapidly coming in from over-seas.

Of the vast Canadian Dominion, larger than Australia, and nearly as large as Europe, the metropolis is Montreal and the capital is Ottawa. Three hundred miles to the west

. ward of these is Toronto, the chief city of the Province of Ontario, whose people are of British origin; and nearly two hundred miles to the eastward is Quebec, the capital of the Province of Quebec, in which the French race far predominates. Toronto is rich in enterprise, modern splendour, and hope; its sister-city, five hundred miles to the eastward, is distinguished for its piety, picturesque antiquity, and history. One city, the

, Chicago of the East, builds railways and University. halls; the other, the Nuremberg of the West, repairs her mouldering convents and mediæval towers. In all things, save their common loyalty to Britain, the two communities are antithetical.

QUEBEC.

Quebec, the Gibraltar of America, occupies a site nearly triangular in form, with the St. Lawrence river on one side, the St. Charles on another, and a line of martello towers on the third, guarding the approaches from the Plains of Abraham.

A high rocky promontory advances towards the confluence of the rivers, and supports on its crest the great churches and convents, public buildings and barracks, the fortress-walls and citadel of the Upper Town, perched on the heights like the nest of a sea-bird, proud, heroic, and renowned. On the narrow strands between the waters and the bases of the cliffs are the busy commercial streets of the Lower Town, with their dingy shops and warehouses, their markets and other civic institutions, and the practical activities which go to support the great piece of historic bric-à-brac, the shred of the Middle Ages, on the rocks overhead. The population of the city reaches about 73,000, mainly descendants of the ancient immigrants from the northern provinces of France, with newspapers, shopsigns, and a great body of literature in their own language. The adventurers who came hither were mainly Normans. The peasants of Poitou and Anjou sought the rich farming lands to the eastward; but the descendants of Rollo's sea-kings preferred to make their homes hard by the Great River of Canada, in comparison with which their own Seine was but a summer brook. For this St. Lawrence, over which Quebec stands guard, is one of the noblest rivers in the world. Pilots say that there are no soundings until 150 miles upward from its mouth. It rises in the greatest lake (Superior) in the world ; thunders over the most majestic falls (Niagara); and drains a basin of a million square miles, containing half of the fresh water on the earth. Quebec is 180 miles below Montreal, and the average breadth of the stream between the two cities is two miles. Below Quebec it widens rapidly, being 11 miles across at Rivière du Sud, 25 miles at the Paps of Matane, and 96 miles at its mouth. The salt tides ascend for 432 miles. A single one of its tributaries, the Ottawa, contains more water than all the rivers in Great Britain, were they flowing in one.

The chief business at Quebec is connected with timber, vast quantities of which are brought down the river every year, and exported on European vessels. Ship-building is carried on to some extent; and other manufactures exist, but rather feebly. A Government railway connects the city with Montreal; and another line is being constructed towards Lake St. John, near the lonely head-waters of the Saguenay. Across the St. Lawrence is the terminal station of the Grand Trunk Railway, for Upper Canada and the West, and for the Maritime Provinces on the Atlantic, and the ports of New England. But, with all her advantages of position, Quebec may almost be called decadent. Real estate is declining in value, and the boundaries of the town encroach but slowly on the adjacent

Toronto.)

HISTORY OF THE CITY.

111

entering the harbour of Toronto is the great Union Railway Station, with its handsome architecture and high towers, rising from the Esplanade. The Grand Trunk Railway, which connects the remote shores of Lake Huron with Montreal, Quebec, and the seaboard, passes through this station. The other lines terminating at Toronto are the Great Western, for Niagara, Hamilton, and Detroit ; the Northern, for Lake Simcoe and the ports on the great Georgian Bay of Lake Huron; the Credit Valley lines, through the rich countries to the westward; the Toronto, Grey, and Bruce, running to the distant harbours on Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; the Nipissing line, now constructed for many miles to the north-east, and heading for the remote and unpeopled solitudes about Lake Nipissing, in the diocese of Algoma. To the westward of the meridian of Toronto extends a rich and populous country, devoted to the culture of grain, and worthy the name of Canada Felix. To the north-eastward, extending over four degrees of longitude, as far as Ottawa, is a line of wilder counties, covered with valuable forests and strewn with myriads of crystalline lakes, among which are many settlements of hardy Canadian and Scottish backwoodsmen. This is a lake-country indeed, covering many thousands of square miles, and destined, in spite of its severe climate, to be the seat of a large and prosperous agricultural population. Lord Dufferin very happily expressed the main need of Canada in his celebrated Toronto speech :-“The only thing still

. wanted is to man the ship with a more numerous crew. From the extraordinary number of babies which I have seen at every window and at every cottage door, native energy and talent appear to be rapidly supplying this defect; still, it is a branch of industry in which the home manufacturer has no occasion to dread foreign competition, and Canadians can well afford to share their fair inheritance with the straitened sons of toil at home.” Canada, with the adjacent British dominions of which she is heir, covers an area greatly exceeding that of the United States, and including the latitudes between those of North Cape, in Norway, and Tuscany. It is commonly supposed in Great Britain that this is a land hidden far in the frigid north, with a perpetual inclemency brooding over its dark forests. It is interesting to notice that all the inhabited part of Canada, the home of five million hard-working, happy, and prosperous people, is south of the parallel of 50° N.; and that the whole of Great Britain (save about three miles of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall) is north of that parallel.

On all sides of the harbour appear the evidences of high culture, commercial activity, and ancient foundations ; yet, less than a century has passed since the idle waters lapped against a lonely beach, whereon no signs of human life were visible. The name Toronto is of Indian origin, and appears frequently in the French-Canadian despatches of the seventeenth century, as applied to a locality of great importance north of Lake Ontario, where the trail to Lake Huron began. About the year 1719, the English trading-post at Oswego, on the southern shore of Ontario, enjoyed a thriving commerce with the natives; and the French Governor of Canada, M. de la Galissonière, resenting the prosperity of this remote bit of perfidious Albion, established a garrisoned post and trading-station at Toronto, on the opposite shore of the lake. For several years these two rival commercial ports, the Rome and Carthage of that midland sea, defied each other over the unsalted waves; and then the Marquis de Montcalm, with 3,000 Frenchmen and allied Indians, besieged and captured Oswego, with its garrison of 1,800 men, 134 cannon, and the supporting fleet. The handful of French

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