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the clit, con-picuons from the river for many leares, while the views from its windows include a vast panorama of boid and pictures ne seenery. The Weaith of the University is in its cretly apparat nas, imported from Paris; the great mineral and crystal collections made by the Abbé Haüy; the cabinets of Hiro antiquities and Canadian zoology; the library, with nearly 40,000 volumes; the picture gallery, containing many paintings by the old masters; and the great Hall of Convocation. It is but a few years since M. Rameau published, at Paris, his book entitlel “La France aux Colonies,” predicting that by the year 1920 Lower Canada wonld be the home of five million French people, “ the general and eguential principle of whose material and intellectual power is in their religious faith, and in the simplicity of their manners,” ameliorating the Anglo-American “imporеrishment of intelligence and corruption of manners," and enlightening the continent with Græco-Latin gojenie and art from the high walls of Laval University. This chosen race, if M. Rameau is not too sanguine, will be for ever illustrious for its culture “ de l'esprit, la modestie des monte, la liberté, et la religion.”
Another of the strange old-world nooks of the Upper Town is the l'rsuline Convent, founded in 1639 hy Mother Marie de l'Incarnation, “the St. Teresa of her time,” who landed at Quebec amid salutes from the castle batteries, and immediately began her great mission of evangelising and educating the maidens of the Indian tribes. She mastered the languages of the Hurons and the Algonquins, and in her letters to France prepared one of the most valuable records of the early days of Canada. The buildings and their enclosed gardens now cover an sirra of seven acres, and are occupied by forty nuns, who teach the girls of Quebec, and also produce choice works in embroidery and decorative painting, after the manner of nuns in general. The chapel of the convent contains a dozen or so of ancient religious paintings, from the studios of Restout, Philippe de Champagne, and other French masters; and a collection of relics of the Christinn martyrs, brought from the Roman catacombs. When the British batteries were bombarding Quebec in 1759, a shell fell within the sacred enclosure of this chapel, and tore up the ground beneath ; and in this martial grave were laid the remains of the French commanderin-chief, “The High and Mighty Lord, Louis Joseph, Marquis of Montcalm.” There the bold soldier still rests, and over his tomb is the inscription : Honneur à Montcalm! Le clestia on lui il robant ile la rictoire l'a récompensé par une mort glorieuse.
Another great religious establishment of the Upper Town is the Hôtel Dieu, occupying i wide area between Palace Street and the Rampart, with its spacious hospital buildings and gardens, and the convent in which two-score Hôpitalière nuns are cloistered. The chapel contains paintings by Le Sueur, Zurbaran, and other well-known painters. Here also is a lifesize silver bust of Brébeuf, the Jesuit missionary and martyr, and in its pedestal his skull is preserved. It was in the year 1619 that the fierce Iroquois Indians stormed the village where Brébeuf had gathered his catechumens. He was bound to a stake, and scorched from head to foot; they out away his lower lip, and thrust a red-hot iron down his throat; poured boiling witer over his head and face, in demoniac mockery of baptism ; cut strips of flesh from his Timbw, and ato them before his eyes; tore the scalp from his head ; cut open his breast, and drank the living blood ; filled his eyes with live coals; and after four hours of such bitter tor. ture, a chief toro out his heart and devoured it. “Thus died Jean de Brébeuf, the founder of the Huron mission, its truest bero, and its greatest martyr. He came of a noble race—the same,
to bring in its train, may be amply appeased. Especially famous is the Restaurant Roubion, where the traditional dish La Bouillabaise, the rich and savoury hotch-potch of all sorts of fish, immortalised by Thackeray, is the great feature of the cuisine. The view from this point along the winding shore, and across the broad bosom of the Mediterranean, is something to be remembered. Unfortunately, the Fort St. Nicholas blocks the way, or the Corniche Road would sweep grandly into Marseilles. Not far from where it reaches the quarter of Les Catalans is the garden known as the Colline Bonaparte, with a statue of the First Napoleon in the centre. It is on elevated ground, overlooking the city and the old harbour, and affords splendid prospects. It is a favourite resort, especially on summer evenings, when the band is playing. The Zoological Gardens are in the east of the town. Here there is a grand cascade of some celebrity in Marseilles. By a fairy-like arrangement of rock-work and caverns, grassy lawns, and imitation deserts and wildernesses, the animals are exhibited, not shut up in dens and cages as with us, but amidst surroundings somewhat similar to their natural habitats, although, as a matter of course, of securely circumscribed extent.
Amongst the open spaces of Marseilles, the Quais claim prominent notice. The Quai Napoléon, or De la Fraternité, on the east of the Old Port, displays a long array of gailycoloured boats, whose proprietors shout ceaselessly for patrons. Here, too, are the vendors of shell-fish, a very popular class of tradesmen ; around their stalls in summer-time would-becustomers are seen patiently waiting en queue, as Parisians wait for the theatre to open. On the north side of the Old Harbour is the Quai du Port, perhaps the gayest and liveliest scene in the whole city. Natives of every Mediterranean shore and of regions more remote -Greeks, Turks, Armenians, Arabs, in their varied costume-mingle in the motley crowd, laughing, disputing, jesting, quarrelling, a very Babel of picturesque confusion. It was here that good King Réné loved to gossip with the master-fishers. The Quai Rive Neuve, on the opposite shore, likewise presents an animated and amusing spectacle. The Quai de la Joliette, with its busy traffic and surroundings, has been alluded to as forming part of the view from the end of the Boulevard des Dames.
Before glancing at the magnificent system of harbour accommodation now forming the most conspicuous feature of Marseilles, it will be best to touch briefly on the past history and present state of the commerce of the city. About 327 B.c., before Alexander of Macedon had pushed eastward to India, two noted Massalians, Pytheas and Euthymenes, were sent through the Pillars of Hercules, to explore unknown seas and extend the commerce of the city. Pytheas crept along the coasts of Spain and France and the British Isles, and ventured as far north as Iceland. In a second voyage he sailed along the north-eastern coast of Europe to the Baltic. Euthymenes turned southward, along the coast of Africa, as far as the Senegal. Immense advantages resulted to Massalia from these voyages. She now shared with Phænicia and Carthage the trade in tin and amber hitherto monopolised by those cities. Her vessels also brought ivory, gum, and slaves from Africa; metals, wools, honey, and linen-cloths from Spain. As Tyre succumbed to the victorious arms of Alexander, Massalia rose to still greater importance as a commercia emporium; and though subjected to many severe blows at various epochs, the trade of the city was always very considerable. Even the barbarians who overran Provence at the downfall of the Roman Empire, whilst despising commerce themselves, encouraged it in the conquered cities, on account of the luxuries and conveniences it procured. In the time of Charlemagne, Marseilles was carrying on an immense trade with the Levant, taking a place next in rank to Venice, Genoa, and Pisa. Her ships were familiar in every port, and twice a year her merchants repaired to Alexandria, and brought home Indian spices and Arabian perfumes. In the dark times that succeeded, Western Europe still obtained through Marseilles the products of the East. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries silk became an important article of trade. The union of Marseilles to France, in the seventeenth century, favoured its commercial prosperity. The era of independent cities was dying out, and Marseilles took its place in the new order of things as a maritime port of a great Power. Just before the Revolution 4,000 vessels annually brought the tribute of Asia, Africa, and America to the Old Port, and fleets were constantly sailing to those regions with the
, products and manufactures of France. The Revolution and the subsequent wars for a time severely damaged the trade of Marseilles, but the Restoration brought prosperity, which was considerably increased by the colonisation of Algeria. But the most marvellous growth of Marseilles has taken place since 1850. No other city in France has ever made such progress in so short a time, both as regards extension and embellishment of the city, and the colossal increase of its commercial importance.
Marseilles is now the first trading town in France, and one of the ten or twelve most important in the world. The shipping in its harbours is double that of Havre, three times that of Bordeaux, or six times that of Nantes. Its trade, however, is subject to great variations, as it consists to a very considerable extent in the importation of wheat, which, of course, largely depends on the yield of the French harvests. Next in importance to cereals from the East, from Russia, and from the Danubian Provinces, are cattle from Algeria, Spain, and Italy, cottons from India and Egypt, wools and iron ore from Algeria, wines from Spain, teas and silks from China, petroleum from the United States, timber from Canada, skins from South America, guano from Peru, sugar from the West Indies, and numerous other commodities. It exports, in return, wool, silk, and cotton goods, refined sugars, wines, and spirits.
Till 1850 Marseilles possessed, for the needs of its vast and growing commerce, only its Old Port, an oblong basin 1,000 yards long by 330 broad, occupying an area of about 42 acres, with a depth of water varying from eighteen to twenty-four feet, and capable of accommodating 1,200 merchant vessels at once. It is protected on the right by Fort St. Nicolas and on the left by Fort St. Jean, and the narrow entrance used formerly to be closed by a strong chain stretched across it. The harbour was formerly very offensive, in consequence of being a receptacle for the town drainage; but this nuisance has been modified, and the barbour is flushed with the surplus water from the Durance Canal. The harbour of La Joliette, to the north, with a surface of 33 acres, was completed in 1855. It is formed by a breakwater 1,300 yards long, parallel to the shore, at a distance of 1,300 feet from it. By means of piers, a basin and two outer harbours are formed, the basin being conneeted with the Old Port by a canal behind the Fort St. Jean. The increase in the number of ships frequenting Marseilles has been so great that it has been needful to open other basins beyond La Joliette, viz., D'Arene,
Lazaret, National, &c., so that the ports of Marseilles now cover nearly 170 acres. But there has been a difficulty in procuring the necessary length of quay for lading and unlading, and long moles bave been constructed to meet the requirements of the case. “When the projects now in hand are completed,” says Joanne, “no port in the world, in direct communication with the sea, will enjoy an equal superficies of water and utilisable quays." The docks can accommodate 230,000 tons; the pile of bonded warehouses, six storeys high and a quarter of a mile in length, is the finest in Europe. It is intended ultimately to carry the line of harbours beyond Cap Pinede.
In turning our attention next to the Churches of Marseilles, it is desirable to glance at the introduction of Christianity into this region. It is an unquestionable fact that the evangelisation of Gaul was a slow and difficult process, and it was in the urban municipalities of Rome that the faith of the Redeemer secured its earliest triumphs. To the Greeks of Massalia and her sister colonies, as to the Greeks elsewhere, the Gospel was “foolishness." To the Massalians the polytheism of Ionia was a matter of pride and patriotism. For eight centuries Diana, the goddess of chastity, and Apollo, the god of art and poetry and culture, presided over its fortunes. The tradition of a later age absurdly asserts that Lazarus, the friend of our Lord, accompanied by his sisters Mary and Martha, came to dwell at Marseilles, and became the first bishop. To these personages, as well as to Maximin, an immediate disciple of the Saviour, Sidonius, the man “ born blind” and
. miraculously healed, Mary the mother of James, and Salome, the origin of various churches in the district was assigned. But the truth of the matter seems to be that although isolated Christians may have previously penetrated to Marseilles, and there suffered martyrdom for their principles, yet the real introduction of Christianity into the city did not take place till the latter half of the third century, between the persecutions of Valerian and Diocletian. St. Vietor won the crown of martyrdom in 288. He held a command amongst the Roman troops that garrisoned the citadel, and preached the Gospel to his soldiers. For this he was cruelly beaten, and put to death in company with three of his converts. Their bodies were thrown into the river, but were recovered, and interred in the cave which served as the earliest meeting-place of the Massalian Christians, and which was subsequently known as the Grotto of St. Victor. There is little doubt but that no Christian edifice was tolerated in Marseilles until Constantine had given to the new religion the sanction of Imperial power.
Upon the site of the Temple of Diana rose the Church of La Major, the most ancient of the sacred edifices of Marseilles. Dismantled of their ancient splendour, the ruinous and partly demolished walls still stand at the end of the Esplanade de la Tourette, close beside the new Cathedral. The barbaric invaders who successively occupied Marseilles hal, for the most part, a superstitious reverence for holy places, even while refusing allegiance to the Christian faith; and the robed priest at the altar could often check the wild career of fierce warriors. But the Saracens were susceptible of no such emotions ; Christian symbols only inflamed their fury. In 923 they drove out Bishop Drogon from the sanctuary, and completely destroyed the Church of La Major. But, by means of the contributions of the faithful, another church rose from the ruins, and kings and Popes