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and had developed a love for Italian art, constructed a portion of the Old Palace, and by largely adding to the works of his predecessors, gave the entire city such an air of grandeur and elegance, that when Gustavus Adolphus made his victorious entry after the battle of Ingolstadt, and saw so fine a town in the midst of so poverty-stricken a country, he declared that Munich was “a golden saddle on the back of a wretched horse.” But it is to a still later date that the chief glories of modern Munich are due. Maximilian Joseph, who became King of Bavaria in 1805, by the favour of Napoleon, traced the plan of the new city, and built some portions of it. His son Lewis went on with the work, and completely transformed the city. This prince was a devoted lover of art, poetry, and music, and, indeed, a worshipper of the beautiful in all its forms ;—he pursued his studies with equal ardour amongst the monuments of Rome and amongst the cantatrices and coryphées of the Opera House ; he filled Munich with splendid edifices, and made Lola Montes a countess; he wrote poetry and comedies; constructed canals and railways and Greek temples; and during his reign of twenty-three years his capital became completely changed. By his patronage of literature and art he won for Munich the proud title of the German Athens ; lodged within it many of the most precious relics of classic and mediæval art ; built palaces, museums, libraries, and churches, modelled after the finest specimens of architectural art in all ages; constructed new streets, squares, and promenades; and in fact, as we have said, altogether transformed the city as a whole, whilst leaving the oldest portions untouched.
And so Munich at the present day is in reality made up of two cities, presenting a totally different aspect. There is the old town, with its narrow streets, and its massive gates flanked by great towers, “where," as A. M. Howitt says, "frescoes, bleached by the sun, wind, and rain of centuries, are fading on the walls; where heavy-browed archways reveal mouldering stairs leading up into the tall, many-storeyed houses; where the walls and tall roofs and desolate towers are black with age; and where, beneath low arches, rush dismal rapid streams.” And in contrast to this is the new town, with its broad straight streets and immense open spaces. The most fashionable thoroughfare is the Ludwigs-Strasse, where ten carriages can drive abreast of each other, whilst spacious footways afford ample room for the promenaders. There are several favourite promenades in Munich. The English Garden is about four miles long by half a mile broad, and was a marshy waste till, in 1781, Count Rumford transformed it into the likeness of an English park. It is crossed by branches of the Isar, and very pleasant are the walks and drives amongst its groves and shrubberies. The squares and open spaces of Munich are numerous, all plentifully adorned with statues of dukes or kings, or great men of Bavaria. The Hofgarten, near the Royal Palace, is an immense square enclosure planted with trees, while round two sides runs an arcade, with frescoes representing historical events, and numerous landscape scenes from Greece, Italy, and elsewhere, accompanied by verses composed by King Lewis.
South-west of the city lies the immense treeless waste called the Theresien Wiese, the scene of all great popular festivities and of the periodical fairs of Munich.
Upon the western side, on a slightly rising bank, stands the Ruhmeshalle, or Temple of Fame, a Doric portico, with forty-eight columns and a symbolically sculptured frieze. Upon the wall behind the columns are the busts of no less than ninety distinguished Bavarians, and in the open space in front rises a colossal bronze statue of Bavaria, sixty-one feet in height, upon
(City of God). With the downfall of the Mogul Empire, evil days came on this great city. Mahrattas and Pathans and others pillaged it, till in 1801 it was ceded to the English. During the Mutiny of 1857 it was the scene of a serious outbreak. On June 6th the native infantry revolted, burnt and plundered the station, and massacred the Europeans. On the 11th General Neill arrived with reinforcements; shot and shell from the fort showered on the streets and bazaars, involving friends and foes in a common ruin. The city was much damaged, and during the reign of martial law terrible vengeance was taken. Six thousand human beings, supposed to be more or less guilty, were hanged on trees and sign-posts. But that day of terror has passed, and Allahabad bids fair to far outshine its ancient splendour ; ruins are being cleared away, and handsome buildings are rising ; by a magnificent bridge across the Jumna, the East Indian Railway enters the city from the east; two bridges of boats cross the Ganges; broad, handsome roads, planted on each side with trees, mark the English quarter, and several main roads cross the network of narrow streets forming the native town. “This city," says Rousselet, “is destined to become in a very short space of time much larger than it is now. No other city, indeed, could be so wonderfully adapted for a capital. Situated at the point of junction of the Ganges and Jumna, it commands the great fluvial highways; and being at an almost equal distance from Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, and Madras, it is the centre at which all the railways of the great Indian continent meet; and finally, its healthy though warm climate, and its soil, adapted for superior cultivation, give it such advantages over the present metropolis that it is difficult to understand why the English still persist in ascribing this position to Calcutta.”
The chief lion of Allahabad is its famous fort, 2,500 yards in circumference, the Ehrenbreitstein of India. From earliest ages a stronghold stood here, long before Akbar built the picturesque castle which has been modified into the present citadel by cutting down the high towers, topping the stone ramparts with turfed parapets, and fronting them with a sloping glacis. Across the two rivers it frowns defiance to every foe. Well might Sir Henry Lawrence, in the days when trouble was coming, telegraph to “ keep Allahabad safe.” When burning cantonments, murdered garrisons, opened gaols, and plundered treasuries seemed to presage the collapse of the English power in Upper India, a handful of men heroically stood their ground here till detachment after detachment arrived and the turning-point was reached.
The imperial hall of Akbar, 172 feet long, forms the splendid arsenal of the fort. Just within the fortress gateway stands the celebrated column of the Buddhist Emperor Asoka, dating from 240 B.C. Close by is an underground temple said to contain an undying banyan-tree, which has, however, been leafless for more than a century.
There are two or three mosques, serails, and mausoleums of minor importance in Allahabad, and numerous good modern buildings-viz., the Government offices and courts, barracks, Roman Catholic Cathedral, Central College, and Town Hall. The town has no particular trade or manufacture of its own, but enormous quantities of goods pass through it, and it is becoming a great exchange mart for the North-western Provinces.
At the full moon in January takes place the great Magh Mela, when innumerable pilgrims come to bathe at the confluence of the rivers—a spot looked upon as specially sarad by al Hirdos. The ter o deroes is eart sted , erea erebrows and creates, and accomed ten isto toe river. For etery hair dripped into the waters a Litin of year in Parise is promised Tze a coisat prests and tarbers, of course, make a good thing vat of this festival
Tise pilgrims, am wonen, hare come iron ai pars of India, some vn foot for lary a lous weary me; fur daring the maths of December and January every faitful Huda must, at kast once in his e, journey to Allahabad, and lathe at the sut where the two sured rivers unite their waters. Al the precautions taken be the Erzish authorities cannot prevent a certain number of suicides every year, of enthusiasts, who, eager to assure themselves of Paradise, choose to quit lie at this moment, when by the cleansing baptism they are pirited from all sin.
Curious sights are to be seen at Aababad during the time of this festival. Here are the Fakirs, those holy beggars who, like mediaval ascetics, espouse poverty and self-mortification as their rule of life. And no sham penances hare we here—no boil!
-. ing of the peas, no sparing of the lash. Here is one, with his bodes breaking through kis skin, and his skeleton arms heid above his head, the joints, as one can see, being able to bend no longer, and the long, crooked nails of the bony hands being like birds' talous, who has kept this attitude for ten or perhaps twenty years; here is another with bis head twisted under ope arm and the chest grown into a frightful curve; and bere are cthers and others with self-inflicted distortions too horrible for description. Vor we come un groups of priests with wild chants and the musie of tomtoms surrounding 521.Tad bulls, the marks of special sanctity being some natural defect, such as a withered limb or a horn too many. If we enter the fair itself, we come upon straw booths, forming a sort of street, and, by way of wares, idols and rusaries, and false jewellery and bright drinking vessels, and all kinds of glittering trash delightful to the native eye. Here and there among the booths we may catch sight of a missionary, striving hari to make an impression on the few idlers who surround him. On the banks of the river the sight is extremely picturesque and pretty. There are the fluttering many-hued clouds of garments, tiure are the dark-skinned bathers standing up to their knees in the stream, pouring orer their heads from bright copper vessels the water, which gleams and glistens in the night, and there, overhanging the beautiful blue Jumna, are Akbar's fort and the ruins of the c!d town long since destroved.
l'mn the right bank of the Jumna, 300 miles above its confluence with the Ganges, hands gra, with a population of 119,000. There has been a town here since the barimt years of the Christian era, but its Hindu history was insignificant. It was Aktrar who, in 1556, made it the capital of the great Mogul Empire, and who, with hin trenowned citadel and splendid palaces and mosques, made Akbarabad (as the natives **ill call it, a city of marvels. The present city is four miles long by three broad; in the
; mixteenth century it was a walled city 20 miles in circumference, with 100 mosques, $) %" wrails, 500 public baths, 15 bazaars, and a population of 600,000. The modern town, very largely constructed of ancient material, is rapidly rising in importance as a commercial
citizens, the butchers assembled in their hall, and thence marched in procession to the market-place, where they plunged, one and all, into the cold water of the fountain basin, and returned dripping wet, without any ill effects or any fresh case of the terrible plague. In memory of the event the ceremony was kept up annually; and now, when the butchers' apprentices take up their freedom, amidst the other festivities of the occasion the young men have to take the Metzgersprung, or butcher's leap, into the fountain basin. The figure of a butcher's apprentice surmounts the fountain ; at the base are crouching figures, representing plague and cholera. Close beside the Rathhaus is the house (now an omnibus office) in which the great Gustavus Adolphus took up his quarters in 1632. On the east of the square stands the old Rathhaus, with its frescoed tower and its zinc statues of Henry the Lion and Lewis the Bavarian. The column called the Mariensaule was erected in 1638 by Maximilian I., to commemorate his victory, in conjunction with the Einperor Ferdinand II., over the Protestant forces of the Elector Palatine at the White Mount, near Prague, in 1621. A statue of the Virgin adorns the summit, and at the corners are four angels destroying four monsters, typifying pestilence, famine, war, and heresy.
Of the numerous edifices raised by King Lewis and his successor for various civic, artistic, educational, or other purposes, we can, of course, only name the principal. To the museums we shall refer presently. One of the most remarkable modern buildings is the Kriegs-Ministerium (Ministry of War), designed by Van Klenze. It is in the Florentine style, with fine arcades, of which the pilasters are decorated with armour and military trophies; the windows are adorned with sculptures, the work of various Bavarian masters. At the south end of the Ludwigs-Strasse stands another creation of the same monarch, the Feldherrnhalle, or Hall of the Marshals, copied from the Loggia de' Lanzi at Florence. It contains two bronze statues modelled by Schwanthaler: one of Count Tilly, who commanded the Bavarian armies in the Thirty Years' War, and one of Wrede, the Bavarian field-marshal during the wars of Napoleon.
Before passing to the museums of sculpture and painting, which are the crowning glory of Munich, we must say a word or two more with respect to its out-door decorations. In addition to the numerous beautiful buildings, of which some have been mentioned, the city teems with statues and fountains. Near the Wittelsbach Palace, where King Lewis spent the remainder of his days from his abdication to his death, rises the stately form of the great Elector Maximilian I., the foe of the Protestants. In the broad Maximilian-Strasse are statues of Schelling the philosopher, Count Rumford, and other worthies. The Isarthor, at the end of the Thal, is one of the ancient gates of mediæval Munich. Three massive towers are connected by huge walls, pierced by eight gateways. The exterior of this restored monument of the past is covered by a great fresco, from cartoons by Cornelius, representing the triumphal entry into Munich of Lewis the Bavarian in 1322, after vanquishing his rival competitor for the imperial throne, Frederic the Handsome. On the circus called the Karolinenplatz stands a bronze obelisk, in memory of the 30,000 Bavarians who perished to oblige Napoleon in the Russian campaign. The inscription says-“ These also died for the deliverance of their native land: ” words which have been a standing enigma to all beholders with any knowledge of history. We cannot undertake even to enumerate the statues of princes and warriors, poets, artists, musicians, which