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towards the light, till crowned at last with the proudest laurels. The son of an obscure jeweller, the scorn and derision of his jealous companions, he struggled painfully through years of trial, till he won for himself not only imperial regard, but still prouder honour as the great master of art in Germany." Dürer was the last and greatest of the Franconian school of painters. His death marks the period of the temporary decline of both

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poetry and art in Germany. The bards of the Niebelungenlied and the Minnesingers had given place to the guilds of the Master-singers, who, in the great Free Cities of South Germany, made poetry a civic institution. Their poetry was never worth much ; but it is a striking fact that when upper and lower classes were alike wallowing in a slough of sensuality and ignorance, the craftsmen and burghers were devoting themselves to poetry and song as congenial recreations. These guilds met in town halls and churches to recite or sing their compositions, and receive the rewards of merit. At Nuremberg





pastry-cooks, kneading their tempting wares in sight of the public—all these and many others, in their distinct groups, help to make the Chandni Chowk an intensely interesting thoroughfare.

Delhi has ever been famous for its architectural glories. It is, of course, impossible here to enumerate the buildings, ruins, columns, arches, and other structures of this historic locality. The Palace of Shah Jehan and the Jumma Musjid, or Great Mosque, call for a brief description. Such works as Mr. Fergusson's “ History of Indian and Eastern Architecture" will supply full details.

The Fort or Palace of Shah Jehan resembles a city in miniature, its high red walls being a mile and a half in circumference. The Dewani-Am, or Hall of Public Audience, is a large and lofty hall, in which stands the marble throne whereon sat Shah Jehan, with his face toward Mecca, as Vicegerent of God on earth, to receive the homage of his :subjects. The Dewani-Khâs, or Hall of Private Audience, is the most ornamented of all Jehan's buildings. It overhangs the river, and its poetical design and elaborate delicacy of execution are beyond all description. Around the roof once ran the famous inscription, “If there is a heaven on earth, it is this, it is this !” The pavement is of jasper; the pillars and arches are ornamented with wreaths and flowers in precious stones; the ceiling was entirely covered with a rich filagree-work of silver, which was torn down and melted into seventeen lacs of rupees by the Mahrattas in 1759. The harem and private apartments of the palace covered more than twice the area of any palace in Europe. The halls we have mentioned, and one or two others, are all that are now left of the wonderful palace of which Bernier and Tavernier gave such simple yet graphic accounts.

What we now

see were the "gems of the palace, it is true," says Fergusson, "but without the courts and corridors connecting them they lose all their meaning and more than half their beauty. Being now situated in the middle of a British barrack-yard, they look like precious stones torn from their setting in some exquisite piece of Oriental jeweller's work and set at random in a bed of the commonest plaster.”

Close beside the Chandni Chowk, on some rocky rising ground, stands the Jumma Musjid, the highest building in Delhi. It was raised in nineteen years by Shah Jehan at a cost of ten lacs of rupees, when food and labour cost far less than now. A red sandstone colonnade encloses a magnificent paved terrace commanding a view of the whole city. On this terrace stands the splendid mosque, with its three white marble domes and its graceful minarets. Travellers unite in praising the “chaste richness, elegance of proportion, and grandeur of design » of this building: This mosque was the head-quarters of Mohammedan revolt in 1857, and it only just escaped demolition. For some years the Mussulmans were not allowed to go near it.

Terrible indeed were the scenes that took place in Delhi during the sepoy rebellion of 1857, when, after the outbreak at Meerut, the mutineers made their appearance at the gates at early morn. The houses of the European residents were plundered, and their inmates murdered, and by eight o'clock the rebels held the whole city, except the Magazine and Main Guard. The Magazine was blown up, to prevent it from falling into the hands of the rebels. At the Main Guard the native troops threw off their allegiance towards

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great favourite with the peasants. It was executed in 1577, and is the very clever work of an artist named Panerdz Laben wolf.

But most renowned of all the Nuremberg fountains is the Schöne Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain), in the north-west angle of the Hauptmarkt, or market-place. work Gothic spire, fifty-six feet in height, erected about the time of the Eleanor Crosses in England, and somewhat resembling them in general effect. It is adorned by twenty-four statues—the “neun starken Helden” (nine stout heroes), Charlemagne, Godfrey de —

' Bouillon, Clovis, Judas Maccabæus, Joshua, David, Cæsar, Alexander, Hector. With these are grouped the Seven Electors. Above are Moses and the Seven Prophets. It will be noticed that a truly catholic spirit of toleration has been observed in the above assemblage. It is a great gossiping-place for the damsels who come of an evening to draw water, and the citizens are very proud of their Beautiful Fountain. Many a rumour can be traced no farther than “I was told it at the Fountain.”

The Rathhaus, or town hall, rebuilt in the Italian style in 1619, includes portions of an older edifice erected in 1322. The façade is adorned with sculptured Doric portals, conducting to a quadrangle, where portions of the older building may be seen. The walls of the great hall are decorated with paintings by Albrecht Dürer. The Triumph of Maximilian” is the most noticeable. In one of the frescoes by Weyer (1521), a guillotine is represented, thus proving that instrument to be at least two centuries older than the French Revolution.

The old Rathhaus was the heart of the trading republic of Nuremberg, "whose pulsations, deep and powerful, once made themselves felt throughout the whole Germanic Empire.” The chief ruler of the city was the Burgrave, acting as vice-regent of the Emperor, and assisted or controlled by the Senate. We cannot stay to trace the steps by which the Government of Nuremberg developed into a tyrannical oligarchy, working for selfish ends, and destroying with heedless cruelty every one that opposed it, or whose conduct aroused its suspicions. Beneath the Rathhaus are dungeons, with secret passages, leading to the town moat and to the private houses of the councillors. The dungeons are deep and horrible; in one chamber are rings and hooks and screws, and other remains of the frightful apparatus of torture. One of the passages that wind from these subterranean dens leads two miles beyond the town into the forest; another conducts to the Freithurm, near the Maxthor. Here is another “chamber of horrors," approached by a zig-zag passage with five or six doors, evidently intended to shut in the cries of the wretched victims. Here is the secret prison of the Senate, and the terrible Eiserne Jungfrau (iron virgin). This is a hollow figure, seven feet high, dressed like a Nuremberg girl of the seventeenth century. The victim who had been remorselessly doomed to the virgin's embrace was pushed towards it, when, by a secret spring, the front-consisting of two folding-doors, studded inside with spikes and blades-opened, and clasped the wretched man or woman in a deadly embrace. Presently the lacerated body was released, only to fall into an abyss below, in which an arrangement of vertical spear points and knife-armed wheels completed the horrible work of secret destruction.

The great hall of the Rathhaus has other memories having happily nothing in common with the ruthless work of its despotic rulers. Here, in 1648, was held a grand banquet, given by the city for joy at the close of the Thirty Years' War, by the signing of the

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and temples with an interest to which we are completely strangers. They have the heritage of the past divided between them in the enduring traditions of the great wrongs they wrought upon each other."


Lucknow, the capital of Oude, stands upon an elevated plain beside the river Gumti, forming a magnificent picture as seen from a distance, but fading, at a nearer approach, into an ordinary native town, covering an area of thirteen square miles, and containing a population of 285,000 souls. It rose into importance with the young dynasty that established itself in Oude when the Mogul Empire was crumbling. Of the native monuments in Lucknow we

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shall mention a few presently, but to an Englishman, the first and foremost monument in the city is the British Residency, left standing in ruins by Lord Clyde, as a memorial of the gallant defence which a handful of brave men made for long months against overwhelming odds. Surprised by the breaking out of the revolt, the Europeans in the city sought refuge there, and were joined by Sir Henry Lawrence and his scanty garrison. But the story of the siege is too long to recount here. From May, 1857, till March, 1858, the struggle went on ; Sir Henry Lawrence died, also Sir Henry Havelock, who brought the first ineffectual relief. General Neill was shot. The three brothers-in-arms slumber in the little cemetery, amidst a host of officers and others, whose plain grave-stones tell how they fell during the rebellion, or perished afterwards of suffering and fatigue. How Sir Colin Campbell and Sir James Outram at last raised the siege and crushed the rebellion is one of the most familiar facts of history. In October, 1858, the Governor-General and Lady Canning visited Lucknow in state, and found the work of re-construction already far advanced.

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shorter periods. Various occupants enlarged or modified the great stronghold, but “it has," says Whitling,

handed down to our times undefaced by any very violent inconsistency of parts or character, and presents you with much that will recall the days of casque and corselet, when wardens paced its dark towers, and the flames of the great wood fires blazing in the wide chimneys of its hall were glinted back from axe, helmet, plate-jack, and the various other implements of war hung around its walls.” The

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Castle was repaired in modern Gothic style for King Maximilian in 1858, and a few apartments fitted up for the royal family. Some ancient German pottery and paintings by early German masters adorn these rooms. In one of the towers is a collection of racks and other instruments of torture, from the city prisons.

From the ramparts on the south side of the Castle there is a splendid view of the city-a panorama of quaint roofed houses and dark towers, broad masses of ancient masonry, glorious old churches, pinnacles, and spires. Judging from old pictures of

. the scene, the general aspect of the city has undergone but little change. On one of the walls beside the moat are shown the hoof-prints of a horse belonging to one Count Eppelein

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