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Nuremberg.)

ST. SEBALD'S CHURCH.

217

von Garlingen, who once leaped hence across the Castle ditch-a feat of which these marks have long been held as conclusive proof. The count was evidently a bold rider ; but then, he was also an erudite magician, on speaking terms with the powers of darkness, and, indeed, was said to be a near relative of his Satanic Majesty, and to have received the above-mentioned horse as a token of regard from his kinsman.

The Church of St. Sebald, which gives its name to the portion of the city north of the Pegnitz, is an ancient edifice, partly dating from the tenth and partly from the fourteenth century. St. Peter's Chapel, at the west end, with its low round arches and short heavy columns, is the oldest portion. The nave, of somewhat later date, shows the transitional style between the Round and the Pointed architecture. The east choir, with its slender clustered pillars, is in the best style of German Gothic. Stained glass, designed by the celebrated Hirschvogel, fills the lofty windows, whose mullions are full forty feet in height. One window was presented by Maximilian I.; another is a memorial to the house of Brandenburg. Curious carvings in wood and stone adorn the altars, and there are escutcheons perpetuating the history of Nuremberg families for six centuries. Amongst the pictures is an “Entombment,” by Albrecht Dürer,

, and in one of the chapels an altar

ST. SEBALD'S CHURCH. piece by Lucas Cranach. In 1326 Bawn Tucker consecrated a lamp to burn perpetually before the Virgin's shrine. For 300 years the Virgin has not been worshipped in this church ; but Nuremberg reveres her ancient customs, although she has changed her faith ; the brazen lamp is still fed, and the flame burns steadily on.

In the centre of the choir stands the “ tomb of sainted Sebald.” Above the coffer containing the relics, delicate pillars uphold three canopies of bronze. Reliefs, representing

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the charitable deeds and miracles of the saint, cover the coffer. About the canopy are figures of the twelve Apostles and the fathers of the Church. Above, an infant Christ holds in His hand a globe. Some seventy tiny figures, realistic and imaginary, are worked into the fretted borders and interlacings of the design. At the east end, in a niche facing the altar, is an admirable statue of the artist, Peter Vischer, who executed this wonderful and elaborate piece of workmanship. It represents him in his mason's apron, and with a chisel in his hand. He was miserably paid for his work, and the inscription records that he did it "for the praise of God Almighty alone, and the honour of St. Sebald, Prince of Heaven, by the aid of pious persons, paid by their voluntary contributions." Twelve snails and four dolphins at the corners form the curiously fantastic base of the shrine, on which Peter Vischer and his five sons worked for fifteen years in the golden days of Nuremberg art.

Legend affirms that Sebald was the son of a Danish king. He was educated at Paris, where he became deeply impressed with the uncertainty of all worldly things. He married the lovely daughter of Dagobert, the king; but left her, with her own consent, the day after their wedding, and withdrew to a wood, where he lived a hermit's life for fifteen years, and worked for his bread. One day he started off to Rome, obtained authority from the Pope to preach, wandered through the country, and at last settled down in a wood near Nuremberg, where he worked many miracles, some of which are recorded in the bronze carvings on his monument. Once at Christmas-time he came into a cartwright's house, and besought him to light a fire; but wood was scarce, and the cartwright refused. “Fetch me an icicle from the roof, and lay it on the hearth,” he said to the wife. She did so, and the icicle burst into a blaze. “Now go buy me fish at the market,” he said to the astonished cartwright. “I obey," he answered, " for all that the lord of Nuremberg has proclaimed that any one caught in the act of buying or selling fish this day shall have his eyes put out.” So he went, and being taken, had his eyes put out by the tyrant. " It is Heaven's visitation on you for your inhospitality,” said Sebald when he returned; and then he healed him with a touch, and added, “Now go back to the market.” He went accordingly; so the people saw and believed, and glorified God and St. Sebald.

It is also recorded, among many other legends, that when Sebald's last hour drew nigh he commanded that, after his death, his body should be laid on a cart drawn by wild oxen, and buried on the spot where they should halt. They halted in front of a little wooden chapel, said to have been founded by St. Boniface. There St. Sebald was buried, and there, not long afterwards, when the chapel was burnt down, the great church was erected, and dedicated to him.

Grotesque as these old stories are—and they are all favourite subjects with the old German artists—they clearly show that the man in whose honour such a memorial as that glorious church was built, must surely have been a hero in his way.

The parsonage of St. Sebald's Church contains the beautiful oriel window alluded to in Longfellow's well-known poem. The panels below the window are carved with sacred scenes, and beautiful fretted arches surmount the mullions and trefoils. In this parsonage once dwelt Canon Melchior Pfinzing, who in 1517 published a poem on the subject of the Emperor Maximilian's marriage with Mary of Burgundy. The poet was secretary to the Emperor, and the latter is believed to have had a hand himself in the composition.

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Munich.)

HISTORICAL SKETCH.

201

Its existence was now guaranteed, and however potentates might settle their differences, the town grew and flourished.

When, in 1180, Otto of Wittelsbach founded the dynasty that ruled Bavaria till 1777, Ratisbon declined the honour of being the ducal capital, and managed to secure for itself the status of a free and imperial city. The dukes wanted a residence where neither arrogant ecclesiastics on the one hand nor turbulent burghers on the other could disturb them. They

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chose Munich; and henceforth successive princes vied with each other in strengthening, enlarging, and embellishing the town. Duke Lewis II. surrounded it in 1255 with walls, of which some towers and gates still exist in the interior of the city. In 1327 the principal quarters of Munich were destroyed by a fire, and the oldest portions of the city were subsequently rebuilt, much as we see them now. Till quite modern times the city remained a very ordinary German capital; its population of 20,000 in 1580 only rose to 40,000 in 1801, but since that date it has quintupled in number. Munich began to take higher rank among the cities of Germany under Duke Maximilian, head of the Catholic League during the Thirty Years' War. This prince, who in his youth had passed many years in Italy, his two assistants. Above rises the tall and graceful structure, over sixty feet in height, bending at the top to conform to the curve of the vaulted roof. The design is exceedingly elegant, and the execution marvellous. In the successive storeys are represented the scenes of the Passion, the Last Supper, the Agony, the Scourging, the Parting from the Mother, the Crown of Thorns, the Supreme Sacrifice, the Resurrection, the Peace of Heaven. The artist who accomplished this wonderful piece of work, in friendly rivalry

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of Vischer's master-piece in the Sebaldkirche already alluded to, died in deep distress at a great age, in a hospital in Schwalbach.

The Frauenkirche belongs to the Roman Catholics. Forty years ago there were not 3,000 in the town, but amongst the poorer class it is said that of late years they have increased in a greater ratio than the Protestants. For centuries they were not allowed to hold property in the town. The Frauenkirche was built by the Emperor Charles IV. in 1361, on the site of an ancient Jewish synagogue. It abounds with relievos, pictures, tombs, altars, fine glass windows, and sculptured niches. Porch and vestibule are richly decorated, and in the interior are many monuments from old Nuremberg churches that have been destroyed.

We must pass over St. Claire and St. Margaret, St. Martha and others. The

Munich.)

THE CHURCHES.

203

a pedestal twenty-eight feet high; at her feet a lion crouches; her right hand grasps a sword; in her upraised left hand is the chaplet of fame. It was designed by Schwanthaler, and cast at the royal foundry from Turkish cannon sunk at the battle of Navarino, and brought up by Greek divers. The modelling and casting of the figure occupied ten years of patient labour. It was cast in five portions; the bust alone took twenty tons of molten metal. A staircase conducts up the interior of the statue to the head, in which eight persons can sit down at once, and from a loophole in the immense chignon a splendid bird's-eye view of Munich is obtained.

Of the churches of Munich, the most ancient is the Church of St. Peter, dating from early in the thirteenth century, and adorned with curious Gothic bas-reliefs. The Frauenkirche is the cathedral, a Gothic edifice in red brick, commenced in 1468, and finished in 1488 ;—its two tall dome-capped towers, so striking a feature in views of Munich, are 318 feet high, and its nave and side aisles are 109 feet; its windows of coloured glass are of fifteenth and sixteenth-century workmanship. In the choir stands the magnificent mausoleum of black marble, with bronze sculptures and ornaments, erected by order of the Elector Maximilian I., in 1622, in memory of the Emperor Lewis IV. There are numerous other monuments and several paintings in the church, and opposite the carved pulpit hangs a Turkish standard, captured by Max Emanuel at Weissenberg in 1688. St. Salvator (now the Greek Church) is a fifteenth-century structure. St. Michael (formerly the Church of the Jesuits) is built in the Italian style, with a vast lofty roof, unsupported by columns, and dates from the next century. Here is a marble monument by Thorwaldsen to Eugene Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg. This church is noted for its grand music, especially at Easter. St. Cajetan was constructed in the seventeenth century ; its cupola is supported by Corinthian columns—a copy in miniature of St. Peter's at Rome. The other noticeable churches of Munich are all modern, and were constructed by Lewis I. and his successor. St. Lewis, in the Ludwigs-Strasse, is in the Byzantine style; it was built in 1829–1813, at the king's suggestion, by the city, at a cost of £73,000. It is a brick erection with a limestone façade, has two lofty towers, and is lavishly decorated in the interior with pictures, painted sculptures, and coloured glass. The frescoes which adorn the walls and vaulting of the choir and transepts are much admired; they were designed by Cornelius, and executed by that artist and his pupils. “The Last Judgment,” a powerful picture, is the work of Cornelius himself. The figure of Christ the Judge is twelve feet high; amongst the elect is seen the form of King Lewis. The basilica of St. Boniface is a copy of St. Paul's-without-the-Walls, at Rome, and is the largest and most splendid of the modern churches of the city. It was founded in 1835 by King Lewis, in commemoration of his silver wedding, and completed in 1850. The king (who died in 1868) and his queen (who died in 1854) are interred in a sarcophagus in one of the chapels. The main body of the edifice is of red brick, and is almost bare of ornament on the outside: the interior, however, is paved with mosaic, and the vaulted roof, which is supported by seventy-two monolithic columns of Tyrol marble, is painted blue and scattered over with golden stars. The church is 284 feet long and 113 feet broad, the height of the nave being 76 feet; the walls are adorned with frescoes and pictures, representing the principal scenes in the life of St. Boniface and other saints and martyrs. The Allerheiligen-Kapelle is the Court

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