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chapel, a richly adorned edifice in the Byzantine style. The roof rests on columns of red marble with gilded capitals; the walls are covered to a certain height with marble slabs of different colours, and above that with gorgeous frescoes. Four stalls for the king and his suite communicate with the Palace. There are several other churches in Munich very attractive as specimens of decorative art, but presenting few features of special interest calling for notice here.

The Palace at Munich is a somewhat complicated agglomeration of edifices of all ages and all styles, the three chief parts of which are the Alte Residenz, or Old Palace ; the Königsbau, or Modern Palace; and the Festsaalbau, or Palace of Festivals. The Old Palace, erected by Maxir.ilian I., of the Thirty Years' War celebrity, at the end of the sixteenth century, is very extensive, but in modern eyes possesses no great claims to architectural beauty, although at the time of its erection it was looked upon as one of the marvels

The grand facade is 650 feet in length; two Doric porticoes, adorned with bronze statues, form the principal entrance. Within are four irregular courtyards, with monumental fountains. In one of the gateways there is a huge black stone chained to the pavement. It is said that Christopher the Leaper, an ancestor of the reigning family, and a muscular Christian of the fifteenth century, hurled this stone to a considerable distance. A nail in the wall, about twelve feet from the ground, shows the height reached by this worthy's heel in leaping. We need not describe in detail the various rooms and halls of the Palace, where wealth has been abundantly lavished to render them luxurious and splendid. The Treasury contains the Crown jewels and regalia : amongst them a fine blue thirty-six-carat diamond, the half black Palatinate pearl, and other noted gems. Perhaps the most remarkable portion of the Old Palace is the Reiche-Kapelle, paved with jasper, porphyry, and amethyst. The walls are lined with Italian mosaics, and the altar is declared to be of solid silver. Amongst the pictures is a “Descent from the Cross," by Michael Angelo ; and here also is preserved the prie-ilieu upon which Mary Queen of Scots knelt before her execution.

The adjacent New Palace fronts upon the Mar-Josephs-Platz. It was constructed in 1826–35 upon the plans of Van Klenze, who took for his model the Pitti Palace at Florence; the pile therefore resembles in some degree the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Schnorr, Zimmermann, Kaulbach, Schwanthaler, and other Bavarian artists and sculptors, took part in the decoration of the superb interior. Everything is copied from the antique or the Renaissance, and King Lewis would not even allow modern furniture to intrude on the general effect. The king's apartments are adorned with fresco paintings and reliefs, of which the subjects are taken from Homer, Pindar, Anacreon, and other classic poets. The queen’s apartments are decorated with scenes from Schiller, Klopstock, and other German writers. In one set of halls the whole Niebelungenlied is pictorially displayed by Julius Schnorr.

The Festsaalbau, or Palace of Fêtes, is of the same period as the New Palace, and contains apartments for regal and distinguished visitors, and State saloons for royal festivities. The ball-room, 123 feet long and 47 broad, is ornamented with pictures representing Greek dances; the adjacent card-rooms, called the Halls of Beauties, contained the portraits by Stieler of three dozen beautiful women (mostly Bavarian) who had attracted




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towel wherewith Christ was girded when He washed His disciples' feet, a portion of the table-cloth used at the Last Supper, a tooth of John the Baptist (this was of portentous size), the arm-bone of St. Anna, three links of St. Paul's chain, and so forth. At the present day the city contains several collections of genuine curiosities. The Germanic Museum is a justly celebrated storehouse of national antiquities and historic relies of Germany, including paintings, sculptures, arms, coins, furniture, books, MSS., etc. The painted glass, carving, and noted goldsmith's work of Nuremberg are illustrated by very fine specimens. Amongst the choicest treasures must be mentioned a painting by Albrecht Dürer of undoubted authority, and the only specimen of his best work now to be found in Nuremberg. It is a portrait of a friend of Dürer, the Burgomaster Hieronymus Holzschuter, and has remained as an heir-loom in the possession of Holzschuter's descendants ever since it was painted in 1526.

The City Library is located in an ancient Dominican monastery, on the eastern side of the Burgstrasse. Both within and without, the edifice is somewhat dark and gloomy; the life of the “blessed Saint Dominic' is seen duly set forth in coloured glass and distemper. The library was founded at the time of the Reformation by Jerome Pamgaertner, the friend of Luther and Melancthon, and was placed in the old monastery in 1538. It contains more than 10,000 volumes, amongst which are finely illuminated MSS. of the Gospels of the tenth, twelfth, and fifteenth centuries, and several specimens of the rare books which bibliographers call Incunabula—that is to say, books produced when the art of printing was, as it were, in its cradle, before the year 1500. Among the MSS. is half of the autograph copy of Albrecht Dürer's work on the proportions of the human figure; the other half is in the Royal Library at Dresden. A beautifully illuminated Latin breviary, executed between 1300 and 1360, bears the following inscription : "La Liver du Roy du France, Charles Dorie a Madame la Roigne Dengleterre.” This Queen of England must have been either Isabella, wife of Edward II., or Katherine, wife of Henry V. Another interesting MS. is a satirical poem by Hans Sachs, referring to a certain pugnacious knight, the Markgraf Albrecht von Ansbach, who gave Nuremberg much trouble. Whilst the burghers were fighting against him, Hans Sachs wrote lampoons on the enemy, although the worthy cobbler well knew that it was by no means unlikely that at some time or other he would fall into the hands of this terrible Markgraf. The poem referred to is a fanciful description of a dream, in which the poet sees the Markgraf dragged to the infernal regions, amidst the execrations of thousands whom he has ruined. But the interesting contents of this library are far too numerous and varied to be particularised here; autographs of Gustavus Adolphus, Luther, Melancthon, the celebrated Ritter, Ulrich von Hutten, and others; drawings, portraits, and curiosities; Luther's silk cap, and his drinking-cup, given him by Dr. Jonas; an ancient globe, showing a channel through the Isthmus of Panama : all these, together with many more remarkable things, are exhibited here.

Although the chief attractions of Nuremberg are associated with the past, it is by no means a dead city. At the beginning of the present century it had sunk to a dull provincial town, but during the last forty years commercial enterprise has again raised Nuremberg to a prominent position among German cities. It must be confessed that the citizens, the butchers assembled in their hall, and thence marched in procession to the market-place, where they plunged, one and all, into the cold water of the fountain basin, and returned dripping wet, without any ill effects or any fresh case of the terrible plague. In memory of the event the ceremony was kept up annually; and now, when the butchers' apprentices take up their freedom, amidst the other festivities of the occasion the young men have to take the Metzgersprung, or butcher's leap, into the fountain basin. The figure of a butcher's apprentice surmounts the fountain; at the base are crouching figures, representing plague and cholera. Close beside the Rathhaus is the house (now an omnibus office) in which the great Gustavus Adolphus took up his quarters in 1632. On the east of the square stands the old Rathhaus, with its frescoed tower and its zinc statues of Henry the Lion and Lewis the Bavarian. The column called the Mariensaule was erected in 1635 by Maximilian I., to commemorate his victory, in conjunction with the Einperor Ferdinand II., over the Protestant forces of the Elector Palatine at the White Mount, near Prague, in 1621. A statue of the Virgin adorns the summit, and at the corners are four angels destroying four monsters, typifying pestilence, famine, war, and heresy.

Of the numerous edifices raised by King Lewis and his successor for various civic, artistic, educational, or other purposes, we can, of course, only name the principal. To the museums we shall refer presently. One of the most remarkable modern buildings is the Kriegs-Ministerium (Ministry of War), designed by Van Klenze. It is in the Florentine style, with fine arcades, of which the pilasters are decorated with armour and military trophies; the windows are adorned with sculptures, the work of various Bavarian masters. At the south end of the Ludwigs-Strasse stands another creation of the same monarch, the Feldherrnhalle, or Hall of the Marshals, copied from the Loggia de' Lanzi at Florence. It contains two bronze statues modelled by Schwanthaler: one of Count Tilly, who commanded the Bavarian armies in the Thirty Years' War, and one of Wrede, the Bavarian field-marshal during the wars of Napoleon.

Before passing to the museums of sculpture and painting, which are the crowning glory of Munich, we must say a word or two more with respect to its out-door decorations. In addition to the numerous beautiful buildings, of which some have been mentioned, the city teems with statues and fountains. Near the Wittelsbach Palace, where King Lewis spent the remainder of his days from his abdication to his death, rises the stately form of the great Elector Maximilian I., the foe of the Protestants. In the broad Maximilian-Strasse are statues of Schelling the philosopher, Count Rumford, and other worthies. The Isarthor, at the end of the Thal, is one of the ancient gates of mediæval Munich. Three massive towers are connected by huge walls, pierced by eight gateways. The exterior of this restored monument of the past is covered by a great fresco, from cartoons by Cornelius, representing the triumphal entry into Munich of Lewis the Bavarian in 1322, after vanquisbing his rival competitor for the imperial throne, Frederic the Handsome. On the circus called the Karolinenplatz stands a bronze obelisk, in memory of the 30,000 Bavarians who perished to oblige Napoleon in the Russian campaign. The inscription says—“ These also died for the deliverance of their native land : " words which have been

: a standing enigma to all beholders with any knowledge of history. We cannot undertake even to enumerate the statues of princes and warriors, poets, artists, musicians, which





adorn the streets of Munich. King Lewis delighted to honour the great men of his country, and he has made effective use of them for decorative purposes. Two of his grand arches must be mentioned. The Siegesthor, or Triumphal Arch, at the end of the Ludwigs-Strasse, is a copy of the Arch of Constantine, dedicated to the Bavarian army. On the summit is Bavaria in a triumphal car drawn by four lions. Eight winged Victories of Carrara marble rise before the pediment, four on each side of the gate. Two flying Victories with wreaths and palms appear above the central arch. The Propylæa is a copy of that at Athens, erected by King Lewis to commemorate the Greek struggles for freedom and the reign of King Otho. Curiously enough, Otho came home to Bavaria when his Greek subjects had had enough of him : on the day after, this monument was inaugurated -in October, 1867.

The Glyptothek, or Gallery of Sculpture, is an Ionic building erected by Lewis I. whilst Crown Prince, to contain the valuable collection he had already got together. One room contains bas-reliefs from Nineveh ; a second is devoted to Egyptian, and a third to earliest Greek and Etruscan art. The fourth room in the series contains the celebrated marbles from Ægina, pronounced by Westmacott to be “among the most valuable remains of ancient art that have reached us.” In an archæological point of view, they link the primitive art of Greece with the school of Phidias. Prince Lewis gave £6,000 for the marbles. The faces are wanting in expression, but the limbs are admirably proportioned and skilfully posed. They do not fascinate everybody; and a French writer speaks of them as all wearing "an imbecile smile.” The Hall of Apollo shows some splendid examples of the Phidian school, especially the Apollo Citharodos, said to be the work of Ageladas, the master of Phidias. In the Hall of Bacchus is the Sleeping or Barberini Faun-a colossal satyr, half reclining on a rock, attributed by some to Praxiteles. It was found in the ditch of the Castle of St. Angelo, and is supposed to have been thrown down on the heads of the Goths by the Greek defenders under Belisarius. The Hall of the Sons of Niobe contains the Ilioneus, a kneeling figure of the youngest son of Niobe, crouching in terror at the approach of Apollo's deadly arrow. It is a marvellously effective work. Amongst the other masterpieces in this hall is the Medusa, strangely impressive in its cold, haughty beauty. We need not enumerate the remaining halls; they contain a rich collection of sculpture (chiefly classical), and a few examples of modern art by Canova, Thorwaldsen, Schadow, and others.

The Alte Pinakothek (Old Picture Gallery) was commenced in 1826 by King Lewis. Fourteen hundred paintings, large and small, 9,000 drawings by old masters, 300,000 engravings and woodcuts, and 1,800 vases are here exhibited. The gallery is of an oblong shape, with a wing at each end, so that it presents four façades; the most ornamental being the south façade, with its Ionic portico. Between the windows are statues of illustrious Bavarian artists. The interior is divided into ten principal halls of great height, and lighted from above for the display of large paintings, and twenty-three small cabinets for the exhibition of smaller pictures. The portico opens on a grand corridor, covered from end to end with rich frescoes, illustrating the history of art in Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands. Of the wonderful collection of pictures in the balls and cabinets it would be folly to attempt any detailed description. Holbein, Cranach, Dürer, and the other painters


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of the old German school, killed by the Reformation, are well represented here ; here, too, are Van Eyck and Rubens, Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Jordaens, Hobbema, and many other illustrious painters of the Low Countries. By Rubens alone there are ninety-five pictures, or as many as Paris, Antwerp, and Madrid possess when added together. France and Spain each fill one hall, and Italy three, but mostly with second-rate works. The Neue Pinakothek (1816-53), built by King Lewis, contains fifty-two rooms, designed for nineteenth-century paintings. Here are numerous works by Kaulbach, Hess, and other modern artists. Wilkie's “Reading of the Will” is in this collection. The exterior of the building is covered with frescoes—a style of decoration very common in Munich, as exemplified on the Isarthor, the Palace, the Bazaar, and several of the churches. The frescoes outside the Neue Pinakothek are allegorical and colossal, and have been said by some to remind them of the canvas tableaux exhibited outside the booths at country fairs. Some of them are very remarkable, and seem to suggest that contemporary art, with Bavarian art at the head of the movement, is to triumph over the art of all past generations. But the interior of the Neue Pinakothek does not prove this assumption at present.

In the Maximilian-Strasse stands the Bavarian National Museum, a fine building, with very extensive and valuable collections of objects, chiefly relating to the antiquities and manufactures of Bavaria, Roman and medieval relics, arms, bijoux, costumes, ivory-work, jewellery, instruments of torture, and innumerable other curiosities illustrating the history of the arts of war and peace. Munich also possesses an Academy of Arts, which is specially devoted to a collection of coins and gems, and a Museum of Natural History, particularly rich in objects brought from Brazil by Drs. Spix and Martins. The Academy of Science dates from 1789. The Public Library, built in the style of an Italian palace, is well adorned with statues, and, like many things in Munich, was built with an eye to future development. It would accommodate 2,000,000 volumes. It contains, however, 800,000 volumes and 22,000 MSS. The University in the Ludwigs-Strasse possesses a library of 160,000 volumes. About 1,700 students attend the classes and lectures, which are maintained by an army of 111 professors. The names of Döllinger the theologian and Liebig the chemist, both professors here, have attained a world-wide fame. The Ludwigs-Strasse widens at this point into an open space, with two fountains in the centre. “In the evening and twilight,” says A. M. Howitt, “how cool and refreshing and soothing is the splash of those two fountains !

I should love, were I a youth, to study in the University—that pure, solemn, calm, beautiful building, white as of the purest marble, with its long rows of round-arched windows, its long band of medallions also : a medallion between each central window, and enclosing the head of a legislator, a philosopher, or a poet. And as the western sky is lit up by the setting sun, its light streams through painted windows, and the contrast between the cool building seen in the shadow and those gemmed, glowing windows is magical. There is a monastic calm about the buildings, which to a studious and poetical nature must be delicious."

The well-supplied Observatory, the Polytechnic School with its 1,000 pupils, and various learned societies and institutions, must not detain us, nor the richly decorated and well-frequented theatres. Not only as a “German Athens,” but also as a centre of

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