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At the Altar of Augustus the worship of Pallas Athene was solemnised, and the name of this goddess became corrupted into Ainay, which name the church still bears. In the reign of Constantine the Christians built at Ainay, above the dungeons where the martyrs were immured, a church sacred to St. Blandina. Badulph and other hermits came to dwell close by, and hence arose a monastery, of considerable fame in its day. The church was destroyed by Huns, and Vandals and Lombards, and Saracens, but always rose again

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from its ruins. After its destruction by the Lombards, it was rebuilt on a scale of royal magnificence by Queen Brunehaut, the terrible lady whose beauty and cruelty are celebrated in the “Niebelungen Lied.” It was again rebuilt in Byzantine style in the twelfth century, and consecrated by Pope Paschal II.; the pontiff at the same time specially blessed a sidechapel, said to contain some hair of the Virgin Mary and part of the cradle and swaddlingclothes of our Saviour. It was in this church, in 1493, that the young Chevalier Bayard, at the age of seventeen, came to receive a blessing on his arms, previous to winning his first triumph in a tournament before Charles VIII. and a grand assemblage of ladies and nobles. The monastery was destroyed by the Protestants in 1562, again rebuilt, but finally razed in 1793, and new streets were formed on the site. Amongst the celebrities




by buffoons, and torch-bearers, and a motley crowd of friends and acquaintances. The religious ceremony consists in the bride and bridegroom worshipping together before the spirit-tablets of the bridegroom's ancestors. After a day spent in feasting, complimenting the bride, and general merriment, at the last moment the bride's veil is removed, and the two contracting parties see each other's face for the first time.

Funerals of adult Chinese, and especially of parents, are made the occasion of many extravagant and expensive ceremonies. Great care is taken as to coffins, and they are even treasured by the living, in readiness for the fatal event. For a son to present a handsome coffin to his father is by no means an unpleasant hint, but is looked upon as a very commendable proof of filial regard. When a Chinaman is deposited in his coffin, clad in rich robes, amidst the chanting of priests, the lighting of candles, and offering of incense, his friends must all come and pay their respects, and are legally liable to penalties if they neglect this duty. For weeks, sometimes for months, the coffin, in which cotton and quicklime have also been placed, is kept in the house; then, on a multiple of seven days from the death, a procession of men and women, clad in coarse white garments, follow, and the men-mourners have to wear

wear a white badge on their queues for months. The massive coffin is borne along by some twelve, or even twenty men. The mourning is something terrible ; generally the near relatives have to be supported by friends on each side, and now and again some one is overcome with convulsive grief, and a carpet is spread on the ground, on which the mourner may roll for a few minutes, and get over his violent agitation. Those who can afford it procure hired mourners, in addition to doing the utmost they can themselves. Ever and anon persons connected with the procession burn paper imitations of money, which, according to some authorities, is intended to purchase for the departed immunity from molestation by evil spirits who may happen to be passing. By the lavish display and extravagance of their funeral ceremonies families often embarrass themselves considerably, and, indeed, have been known to reduce themselves to poverty rather than that a parent shonld be consigned to the grave without due honour.

The environs of Pekin contain many objects of interest. The department of Pekin is not naturally fertile, consisting for the most part of broad sandy plains ; but in some portions near the capital, by building terraces and transporting vegetable earth, and by constant irrigation, smiling landscapes have been created.

The European cemeteries, without the walls, naturally possess great interest for the foreign visitor to Pekin. The Jesuit burial-ground, near one of the western gates, contains, in large white marble tombs, the bodies of many of the Roman Catholic missionaries who took such a conspicuous position at Pekin in bygone times. The stones are about ninety in number, bearing inscriptions in Latin, Chinese, or Manchoo. Ricci, Schall, Verbiest, are among the historic names recorded on these monuments. There is also a large monument of white marble in honour of Francis Xavier, the Apostle of the East, and another in honour of Joseph, the husband of Mary. The Russian burial-ground, to the north of the city, derives a melancholy interest from the small plain monument “sacred to the memory” of Captain Brabazon, Lieu

, tenant Anderson, and eleven others, all victims to Chinese treachery. There is also a French cemetery, containing a monument to the memory of the officers and soldiers who died during the campaign in China in 1860.

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Varer to the river than S:. Irénée stidis ise (Szch of St. Just. Early in the third centary a czyIt was forced tere, in Sy of all the isst native martyrs, then care the Macchabees. Above the crit soa rose a carch, which, like all other Chetan dices in the district, was destroyed by the bartarars. S:. Patient rebuilt it on a grand scale, devotirg to it his immense fortae; and wha the body of St. Just, the third bishop of Lyons, was brought back from its s'itary grave in Egypt, it was deposited here, and the church received his nare. In correction with the church was a vast monastic castle with massive walls and towers. Nazy screreigns made these costers a temporary abode. In 1245 Innocent IT., fleeing before the German Emperor Frederick II., found a refuge here, and remained in safety for seven years, till his enemy's death. To this strong fastness the caren-barcos retreated ween the citizens were rising against their authority, and sustained more than che siege from the burgeois army. Here dwelt the Regent Louisa of Saroy whilst her sen Franeis I., the first of French monarchs to cross the Alps with artillery, was campaignico in Italy, and here she received the famous letter after the lattle of Pavia, “ All is lest except honour!” In 1562, when the Protestants were ravaging Lvors, it was at St. Just that their zealous fury seemed to culminate. The golden shrice that enelcsed the body of St. Just, raised upon four marble columns ten feet in height, the Rose d'Or, and other priceless gifts of popes and princes, and all the vast wealth in the treasury of the church, were pillaged and dispersed; the relics and timts were profaned, and all the historic title-deeds and monumer.ts destroyed. The present structure was in building from 1661 to 17+7.

Still nearer to the river, at the end of the Quai de l'Archevêché, stands the primatial Church of St. Jean Baptiste, the Cathedral of Lyons. The primitive cathedral was the Church of St. Vizier, already described, but St. Jean belongs to the epoch when the pastors of the Church had become powerful tarons, wielding temporal as well as spiritual power.




Two other churches once abutted on that of St. Jean, forming an architectural symbol of the Trinity. The present structure was in building from the twelfth to the fifteenth century, though successive earlier erections occupied the same site since the sixth. In its architecture, the Gothic, the Transitional, and the Renaissance are all exemplified. Its grand western façade, flanked by two towers, is an imposing spectacle. The triple portal is profusely decorated with well-executed sculpture, but a great deal of it remains in the mutilated condition in which it was left by Des Adrets and his Protestant soldiers in 1562. The second stage of the façade is not lavishly adorned ; a magnificent rose window formed the centre of the most elevated portion.

The apse, which is also dominated by two towers, is the most picturesque portion of the cathedral. It is certainly the most ancient, and is said to combine some of the work of the great church restorer, Leydrade. The northern tower contains the bells, one of which weighs 18,000 kilogrammes. It was founded in 1508, and re-founded in 1622; on the first occasion its godmother was Anne of Brittany, and on the second Anne of Austria.

The interior of the cathedral is divided by pillars into three naves; an elegant and noble simplicity is its chief characteristic. The apse, however, is adorned with sculptures; beautiful and well-preserved glass windows admit the light. Amongst the other special features of the interior are the high altar of coloured marble, the fourteenth-century organ, and an immense carved wainscot from the Abbey of Cluny.

of the chapels, one displays some wood of the true cross; another enshrines the heart of St. Vincent de Paul; a third, and the most interesting, is the Chapel of St. Louis, erected by the Cardinal Charles de Bourbon and his brother, the Duc Pierre de Bourbon, and splendid with sculpture, stained glass, and other ornaments. Duc Pierre had married the King's daughter, and in allusion to this cher don, the thistle (chardon) is sculptured in great profusion. The hammers of Des Adrets' enthusiastic followers have been busy at work here also. In another chapel is a remarkable astronomical clock, manufactured by Lippius of Bâle, in 1598. It records all divisions of time, from centuries to seconds, and various astronomical phenomena. It is also furnished with a crowd of automata, representing the three Persons of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, angels, etc., who at appointed times are worked by mechanism, and perform various functions. Popular tradition asserts that the Counts of St. Jean put out the eyes of the inventor, lest he should furnish any one else with the counterpart of their wonderful toy.

The Chapter of the Cathedral of Lyons was the most important body of clergy in France; they were thirty-two in number, all Counts of Lyons, the rank of Premier Canon being held by the reigning King of France. Amongst the remarkable events that have occurred here was the Council-General of 1245, when Innocent IV. hurled the thunders of the Church against Frederick II., and where for the first time the cardinals wore the red dress, to distinguish them from other prelates. In 1274 a Council-General held here consummated a very short-lived union of the Latin and Greek Churches. Two crosses borne at that council, and still displayed beside the high altar, commemorate the event. In this church Henry II., the Emperor of Germany, performed mass, in one of his periodical efforts to desert his throne and take to holy orders; and here, in 1000, Henry of Navarre renewed his marriage with Marie de Medicis.

Close by the cathedral stands the archiepiscopal palace, a sombre-looking building, built in the eleventh century and restored in the fifteenth. It contains magnificent apartments, which have accommodated many popes, and kings and queens, and other great personages. Napoleon I. passed a night here on his return from Elba. On the terrible day of St. Bartholomew three hundred Protestants, who had taken refuge in the palace, were murdered in the courtyard.

Steep and narrow streets and lanes lead up from the cathedral to the Church of Notre Dame, on the summit of the Hill of Fourvières. The whole quarter wears a sacerdotal aspect. Near the palace are the houses of canons, homes of sisters of charity, chapels, and numerous shops for the sale of ecclesiastical millinery, and the like.

Higher up are the merchants who deal in rosaries, devotional pictures, medals, and wax models of different parts of the body, for er voto offerings in the church: for Notre Dame de Fourvières stands only second to Notre Dame de Loretto as a place of Catholic pilgrimage. The church is the most conspicuous object in any general view of the city.

Until the fifth century, the Hill of Fourvières was Lugdunum, which then began to spread into the plain. At its summit was the Forum Vetis, a grand monumental market-place, constructed by Trajan, which was several times sacked by the barbarians. From the last attack upon it by the Saracens it never recovered, and in 810 its ruins fell, and overwhelmed the side of the hill like an avalanche. A portion of the débris was used in constructing upon the summit of the hill a modest oratory, dedicated to Notre Dame de Bon Conseil. Four walls and a simple altar sufficed for three centuries. Thomas à Becket spent part of his exile at Lyons, and suggested the erection of a church on this spot. In 1190 the oratory was enlarged, and a collegiate church founded, dedicated jointly to the Virgin and St. Thomas of Canterbury. Since that time the church has become more and more famous, and kings and princes and countless pilgrims have lavished upon it gifts and pious offerings. Innocent IV., whilst staying in Lyons, often visited this shrine, and from its portals blessed the city below before leaving for Italy. Louis XI. visited it in 1476. In a charter still preserved he declares that he was taught from tenderest infancy to honour Notre Dame de Fourvières; and in consideration of a daily mass, he gave the canons twenty-five villages. In 1562 Baron des Adrets and his formidable band of zealots left only the bare walls. By 1586 the church had been restored. In 1630, Anne of Austria came hither on pilgrimage, when she was so anxiously making vows in countless churches, by way of expediting the advent -of the infant Louis XIV., who, however, did not arrive till 1638. In 1643, Lyons was ravaged . by a terrible pest, and the Consulate, with a solemn ceremonial, vowed Lyons to Notre Dame in perpetuity; and until the Revolution of 1789 the whole city celebrated on the Feast of the Nativity the anniversary of its vow. Pope Pius VII., in 1805, superintended the re-dedication of the building to divine worship, and, amidst a grand display of flags, discharge of cannon and ringing of bells, from the summit of the hill he blessed the city of Lyons, as Innocent had done nearly six centuries before. In December, 1852, Lyons was en féte with processions by day and illuminations at night, on the occasion of placing a new colossal statue of the Virgin on the top of the tower.

The present church is for the most part of modern construction. Of the interior,

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