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public and private, should be destroyed. Thousands of pounds were spent in wilful destruction, till the town was little more than a heap of ruins. It was decreed that Lyons should bear the name of “La commune affranchie.” The guillotine was set up in the Place des Terreaux, and ceaselessly supplied with victims; but the guillotine was too slow in its operation to satisfy the cruelty of a Couthon, a Fouché, and a Collot d'Herbois, and prisoners were taken out by fifty and sixty at a time, to be shot on the plain of Brotteaux. Eighteen hundred victims were killed (not reckoning those who died in the siege) before the reaction set in, and Lyons resumed its ancient name, and by degrees rebuilt its devastated streets.

The Hôtel de Ville, after that of Amsterdam, is the finest municipal edifice in Europe. It was constructed in 1674, repaired by Mansard in 1702, and restored at a later date. It consists of two façades and two wings. An equestrian statue of Henry IV., by a native sculptor, and a stone balustrade, with statues of Hercules and Pallas, adorn the facade fronting the Place des Terreaux. The clock-tower, surmounted by a cupola, is 160 feet in height. In the lofty vaulted vestibule of the grand gateway are groups in bronze, representing the Saône and the Rhône, by the brothers Coustou. The façade facing the Place de la Comédie consists of several arcades, surmounted by a gallery with a stone balustrade. The most noticeable features of the interior are the reception saloons and apartments of the Prefect; the Salle des Archives, with its rich collection of archives and historical museum; the Hall of the Municipal Council, adorned with portraits of Jacquard by M. Bonnefond, and of the celebrated Abbé Rozier by Genod; and the ceiling of the grand staircase, painted in fresco by Blanchet.

The Palais des Beaux Arts, facing the Place des Terreaux, is a noble building. In the museums are very curious Roman mosaics, hundreds of inscriptions, altars, sculptures, vases, and in a vestibule decorated with mosaics are displayed the famous bronze tables upon which is inscribed a speech made by the Emperor Claudius, in 48 A.D., advocating the admission of the Gallic communities to the privileges of Roman citizenship. In addition to this collection of rare antiquities, there are a great variety of objects connected with the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; a museum of sculptures and paintings, where are found several pictures of the first rank, especially of the Italian school; and a complete collection of busts of celebrated citizens, amongst them Ballanche, Bernard de Jussieu, Coustou, Philibert Delorme, Hippolyte Flandrin, etc.

The Palais des Arts also possesses a very rich museum of natural history, as well as a library of over 70,000 volumes specially devoted to art, science, and industry.

The edifice containing these varied treasures was formerly the Convent of St. Pierre, inhabited by (or, more strictly, belonging to) a celebrated confraternity of ladies. The Abbaye de St. Pierre was first founded in the fourth century, in the reign of Constantine. The Saracens destroyed it, and good Leydrade rebuilt it. Kings dowered it with wealth, and its members added their private fortunes. The community grew in wealth and power. During 600 years and more, this band of ladies, who admitted none amongst their number except on proof of noble blood, and several of whom belonged to the royal families of France, Savoy, Lorraine, etc., grew more and more insolent. The abbess, who, amongst other pretensions, claimed suzerainty over the Counts of Savoy, styled herself “Abbess by the Grace of God,




was discovered by the guards. The young knight made a gallant defence, but was slain under the very eyes of La Belle-Allemande. This alleged incident has been the theme of a romance, a drama, and two or three poems.

Lower down the Saône, on the left bank, stretches the long and delightfully planted quay known as the Cours Rambaud, a justly favourite promenade, with splendid views across the river of the Hill of Fourvières and its churches. The opposite Quai de la

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Muletière, otherwise known as Les Etroits, is also a charming promenade. It is associated with the memory of Jean Jacques Rousseau in the days of his youthful poverty.

The quays on the Rhône, in consequence of the more direct course and greater breadth of the river, display a vaster extent to the eye at one time, although with less variety than on the sister river. The Quai de St. Clair is the finest in Lyons, and was formerly the rendezvous of merchants and foreigners, and the centre of Lyonnese trade. To this succeeds the Quai de Retz, and then the Quai de l'Hôpital, with its second-hand booksellers spreading their treasures on the pavement, and its bird merchants vending splendid paroquets and bright-hued canaries and humming.birds. The Quai de la Charité, planted


western domain, overcoming the weak and detached royalist posts, and formally annexing the country to Virginia. Sixteen years later, Virginia ceded it to the United States; and in 1809 the territory of Illinois was formed. In 1818 it passed from the subordinate and dependent condition of a territory to that of a sovereign State. The population then was 30,000. At that time, within the memory of citizens now living, the area of 2,000 miles from Ohio to the Pacific Ocean was a wilderness, inhabited only by bands of savages, with military posts and the log-forts of traders scattered at wide intervals, and a few feeble French hamlets along the Mississippi River. From the rude stations of the American Fur Company, a thriving commerce was carried on with the disdainful aborigines; and occasional detachments of soldiers marched cautiously and not without disastrous fighting) over long solitary regions, now as densely peopled as Devon or Warwickshire. Less than fifty years ago, the population of Chicago consisted of a dozen families, exclusive of two companies of United States infantry in garrison at the fort.

The first Europeans who saw the Chicago River were the French explorers, Joliet and Père Marquette, who descended its course in 1673, returning northward from the Mississippi Valley; and Marquette wintered there the following year. The aboriginal name of the locality was derived from the chikagou, or wild onion, which grew abundantly on the banks of the river, and perfumed the air for a great distance. The primary meaning of the word was “strong;” and its secondary application, referring to the quality of the onion's flavour, is easily comprehensible. There are old hunters who confidently assert that the name chicago is applied by the Indians to that very uncomfortable little beast, the Mephitis americana ; but the local archæologists and philologists hotly dispute that statement.

About thirty years after the dreary winter encampment of Père Marquette had broken up, the French maps marked this site with the words Fort Checagou, as if to indicate its destination as a station in the great trans-continental line of Bourbon fortresses.

It was not until the year 1796, however, that the first settler, Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a San Domingo negro, built a hut by the lonely stream. But he soon moved on, touched with the Western nomadism; and an adventurous Frenchman, Le Mai, succeeded to his improvements. The unrest which abides in the air of this locality seized him also, and he made haste to sell out his place to the first substantial Saxon settler, John Kinzie, an agent of the American Fur Company, who came hither to trade with the Indians, and thus became the founder of the city. The local historians have likened this honest trader, ambitious only for the acquisition of beaver-skins, to Romulus. But his foundation is not to be compared with Rome, fortunately, for her fortresses are the lofty granaries—her gladiators are the butchers who kill cattle at the Stock-yards for the English markets—and in place of the old Latin legions, marching out to devastate the nations, Chicago continually sends abroad from her gates bread for millions upon millions of far-away peoples. So Kinzie's work was, on the whole, better than that of Romulus.

The first commerce of Chicago consisted in the exchange of European wares and trinkets for the furs and peltries which the Indians brought in their canoes along the Mississippi and up the Illinois. From the upper navigable waters of the latter stream, the canoes and their cargoes were carried over a short portage, and then dropped down the Chicago River. In 1794 the Indians had ceded to the United States (among other tracts) “a piece of land six




make a public example of those who refused to abjure the Christian religion. Eusebius has preserved a pathetic “ Epistle of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons to the brethren which are in Asia and Phrygia,” in which the sufferings of the Lyonnese martyrs are detailed. Blandina was tortured from morning till evening, till the executioners sank with fatigue. Many were tortured and then strangled. The Deacon Sanctus was burned with hot irons, lacerated with scourges, and thrown to the wild beasts. Maturus and Attala experienced a similar fate. The venerable Bishop Pothinus, more than ninety years of age, was

so cruelly beaten that he died in his dungeon two days afterwards. Blandina was suspended from a cross amongst the wild beasts, but none of them touched her. Ultimately, however, she succumbed under the most brutal torture.

Such were the fiery conflicts through which the infant Church of Lyons had to pass. Above the crypt where St. Pothinus used to assemble the brethren, rose the church now known as that of St. Nizier, in memory of the bishop of that name, who was buried there. It was one of the churches destroyed by the Saracens, and subsequently restored by Leydrade. It has been rebuilt at various times; the present construction offers a fine example of fifteenth-century Gothic. The fine Renaissance portal is the work of the celebrated architect Philibert Delorme, a native of Lyons. Some beautiful marble statues of the Virgin, St. Pothinus, etc., and some fine paintings, adorn the majestic interior. The crypt has been restored, and connected with it is a mortuary hall, where pyramids of bones in triple range display the accumulations of centuries. From the ancient tower the Protestants, in 1562, fired on the Hôtel de Ville, and forced the guards to capitulate. In the émeute of 1834 several hundred insurgents were killed in this church. St. Nizier is not only interesting as the cradle of Christianity in Lyons: it was also the cradle of civic liberty. Here the growing Commune met in the days of its resistance to the bishops, and the bell in the ancient tower used to call the citizens together to elect their magistrates.

The Church of Ainay is a very remarkable monument, linked as it is with both Pagan and Christian associations. As we have already said, close by this spot the Rhône and Saône met, until Perrache removed the place of confluence. Here was the earliest Forum, where, overlooked by the Roman city on the Hill of Fourvières, Greeks, Orientals, Africans, Gauls, and Spaniards met to exchange the products of their various countries. Here the Gauls, reconciled by Augustus to the loss of their liberty, and proud of their new civilisation and polytheism, erected an altar, which they dedicated to the Emperor and to Rome. The altar, twenty feet in height, stood in the midst of the open Forum. The approach was flanked by two colossal columns of Egyptian granite, each surmounted by a statue of Victory. Near the altar was the Temple of Augustus, bright with brilliant mosaics, and adorned with sixty statues, representing the sixty Gallic nations who had shared in the construction of the edifice. Close by were the grand houses of the priests and pontiffs, who were chosen from the highest citizens of the State. Grand was the spectacle when Drusus, after his victories beyond the Rhine, solemnly inaugurated the Altar of Augustus; but far grander in its moral significance was the moment when Pothinus and Blandina, and their fellow-martyrs, were dragged before this altar to forswear their faith, and met all remonstrance with the simple answer, “I am a Christian !” The fate of these noble champions of the truth has already been told.

the garrison, or as a sally-port in case of siege. The entire commerce of the place was done by a small schooner, sent out by the United States once a year from Buffalo, to carry supplies to the garrison. Occasionally a few Canarlian bateaur, filled with merry royageurs and halfbreeds, descended from the north, from the distant fortress-rock of Mackinaw, or the remoter towns toward the outflow of the St. Lawrence. More often the birch-bark canoes of the Indians lightly skimmed the surface of Lake Michigan, silent, bird-like, fleet, bearing the proud chiefs of the forest-clans to hunting, or festival, or battle. Powerful as the tribes were, and weak as the attacking van-guard of civilisation appeared, the red hunters kept peace with their invaders, as if remembering the prophecy of Hiawatha.

When war broke out between Great Britain and the United States in 1812, as a result of the arbitrary conduct of the former Power in impressing British seamen found on American ships, the contest, begun on the high seas, spread to the innermost recesses of the continent, and along the course of the Great Lakes. The chiefs of the Indian

. tribes, who had suffered in various ways at the hands of the Americans, and had been kindly treated and plied with presents by the British officers, in many cases declared in favour of the latter, and ranged their red warriors under the royal standard. Among these were the traculent Pottawatomies, one of the most valiant and pitiless of the prairie clans. The hostility of the Indians, and the danger that the wretched stockade of Fort Dearborn might be attacked by British armed vessels on the lake, caused the commander of the army to send orders that Chicago should be evacuated. The supplies were to be distributed as a peace-offering to the Indians, and the troops received orders to retreat castward to Fort Wayne. Captain Heald, the commander of the post, was urged by his officers, who dreaded the treachery of the natives, to hold the works until reinforcements came up, or at least until the hostile British fleet arrived, when they might surrender to Christians and gentlemen. On the other hand, Winnimeg, a friendly Indian, advised him to march out as soon as possible, and reach a secure distance while the warlike tribe should be plundering the fort. But the captain-a little sentimental, witbal, and sadly irresolute-finally decided to trust the good faith and mercy of the savages, and held a solemn council with them, agreeing to surrender the ammunition and supplies in Fort Dearborn if they would escort his company in safety to Fort Wayne. After this bargain was concluded, the captain destroyed all the gunpowder and spirits in his charge, and, by thus breaking faith with the enemy, invited their vengeance. The retreating garrison marched along the shore of Lake Michigan, with twelve friendly Miami warriors in advance, the soldiers in the centre, and the wagon-train, containing the baggage, the sick, and the women and children, in the rear. As they emerged from the works, the garrison band played the Dead March in “Saul.” When the doomed procession had reached a point a mile and a half from the fort, the Miami scouts discovered an ambush, and were put to flight by sudden volleys of musketry. The soldiers were formed into line, and charged over the sand-hills into the midst of ten times their number of Pottawatomies, where they fought with desperate valour until two-thirds of them were slain. The wife of Lieutenant Helm was the heroine of the scene, urging on the soldiers and moving about in the thickest of the battle. While vigorously wrestling with one of the savages, and trying to get his scalping-knife, another Indian seized her and bore her into the lake, where

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