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public and private, should be destroyed. Thousands of pounds were spent in wilful destruction, till the town was little more than a heap of ruins. It was decreed that Lyons should bear the name of “ La commune affranchie.” The guillotine was set up in the Place des Terreaux, and ceaselessly supplied with victims; but the guillotine was too slow in its operation to satisfy the cruelty of a Couthon, a Fouché, and a Collot d'Herbois, and prisoners were taken out by fifty and sixty at a time, to be shot on the plain of Brotteaux. Eighteen hundred victims were killed (not reckoning those who died in the siege) before the reaction set in, and Lyons resumed its ancient name, and by degrees rebuilt its devastated streets.

The Hôtel de Ville, after that of Amsterdam, is the finest municipal editice in Europe. It was constructed in 1674, repaired by Mansard in 1702, and restored at a later date. It consists of two façades and two wings. An equestrian statue of Henry IV., by a native sculptor, and a stone balustrade, with statues of Hercules and Pallas, adorn the façade fronting the Place des Terreaux. The clock-tower, surmounted by a cupola, is 160 feet in height. In the lofty vaulted vestibule of the grand gateway are groups in bronze, representing the Saône and the Rhône, by the brothers Coustou. The façade facing the Place de la Comédie consists of several arcades, surmounted by a gallery with a stone balustrade. The most noticeable features of the interior are the reception saloons and apartments of the Prefect; the Salle des Archives, with its rich collection of archives and historical museum; the Hall of the Municipal Council, alorned with portraits of Jacquard by M. Bonnefond, and of the celebrated Abbé Rozier by Genod; and the ceiling of the grand staircase, painted in fresco by Blanchet.

The Palais des Beaux Arts, facing the Place des Terreaux, is a noble building. In the museums are very curious Roman mosaics, hundreds of inscriptions, altars, sculptures, vases, and in a vestibule decorated with mosaics are displayed the famous bronze tables upon which is inscribed a speech made by the Emperor Claudius, in 48 A.D., advocating the admission of the Gallic communities to the privileges of Roman citizenship. In addition to this collection of rare antiquities, there are a great variety of objects connected with the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; a museum of sculptures and paintings, where are found several pictures of the first rank, especially of the Italian school; and a complete collection of busts of celebrated citizens, amongst them Ballanche, Bernard de Jussieu, Coustou, Philibert Delorme, Hippolyte Flandrin, etc.

The Palais des Arts also possesses a very rich museum of natural history, as well as a library of over 70,000 volumes specially devoted to art, science, and industry.

The edifice containing these varied treasures was formerly the Convent of St. Pierre, inhabited by (or, more strictly, belonging to) a celebrated confraternity of ladies. The Abbave de St. Pierre was first founded in the fourth century, in the reign of Constantine.

The Saracens destroyed it, and good Leydrade rebuilt it. Kings dowered it with wealth, and its members added their private fortunes. The community grew in wealth and power. During 600 years and more, this band of ladies, who admitted none amongst their number except on proof of noble blood, and several of whom belonged to the royal families of France, Savoy, Lorraine, etc., grew more and more insolent. The abbess, who, amongst other pretensions, claimed suzerainty over the Counts of Savoy, styled herself “Abbess by the Grace of God,"




and a cross was borne before her in all processions. The community was notorious for the taxation and tyranny to which it subjected its vassals, and it often struggled successfully against the archbishop and his canon-counts, the municipality of Lyons, and even the King of France. In their private lives, these ladies, who were only resident at the convent when it suited them, and invited to the building what company they pleased, were frightfully dissolute. The convent was luxuriously furnished; the community had

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an eye to business, and enriched itself by lending money at high interest to other religious houses, and by buying up their furniture and treasures when they were in straits. In order to profit more by their own vineyards, the sisters set up a public cabaret in the abbey. The archbishop bade them close it. They appealed to the Pope, who decided in their favour, and bade the archbishop cease from meddling. Things got so bad at one period, that the abbess herself had to eject several ladies for open scandals ; but the general tone of the sisterhood was not affected. Archbishop Rohan interfered in the cause of order. Again the ladies appealed to the Pope, and the archbishop was excommunicated. But the King of France insisted on the excommunication being taken off, and sent adrift the most notorious evil-doers. In 1562, Baron des Adrets pillaged and destroyed the convent, but it was re-constructed, and inhabited by the Dames de St. Pierre till the Revolution, when it became national property, and has since been devoted to its present



The Library, one of the finest in France, the mint, arsenal, barracks, and numerous other buildings common to all great cities, call for no special notice. There are several hospitals, some of which are of considerable interest. The grand Hôtel-Dieu is probably the oldest in France; it was founded by Queen Ultrogotha, the wife of Childebert, thirteen centuries ago.

The present erection dates from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the garden is the tombstone of Young's step-daughter, whom he has immortalised in the "Night Thoughts” under the name of Narcissa. The Hospice de la Charité was founded after a famine in 1531 ; the Hospice de l'Antiquaille, from the numerous Roman antiquities found on the site. Here once stood the palace inhabited by Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Domitian, Severus, Caracalla, and Germanicus, and in which the Emperor Claudius was born.

Lyons takes a high rank amongst the industrial cities of the world. Its workshops for the construction of machinery, its manufactories of chemical products and coloured papers, are justly celebrated; but it is from the production of its silk fabrics that Lyons derives its chief fame. This industry, in which Lyons has no rival, was first brought from Italy. Florentines, Genoese, and others, driven away by revolutions, did for France what in after-times expatriated Frenchmen did for other countries to which they were compelled to flee by reason of tyranny at home. By decree of Louis XI., experienced workmen settling at Lyons were exempt from taxes levied on other inhabitants. Twelve thousand silk-weavers were busy at work in Lyons by the middle of the sixteenth century. At the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, it seemed as if the silk industry was about to be annihilated. More than three-fourths of the looms were silenced; but in the course of a couple of generations the industry resumed its former proportions, and steadily increased, till Lyons became par excellence the city of beautiful silks. Inventions and improvements of various kinds have been introduced into the process of manufacture, and Jacquard, a native of Lyons, by the invention of the loom that bears his name, revolutionised the silkweaving industry.

The Lyonnese silk-weavers mostly work in their own dwellings. A man with his family will keep from two to six or eight looms going, often employing journeymen. The silk merehants of Lyons, about 600 in number, supply the patterns and the silk; there are about 40,000 looms at work in the city and in the vicinity. Formerly, the weavers were nearly all grouped together in the northern part of the city; but the employers, in order to lessen the influence of the close trade organisations, have succeeded in distributing the industry throughout the neighbouring villages, though La Croix-Rousse still holds the lion's share.

The commerce of Lyons is very considerable. It is the central station for disseminating through France the Oriental and other products imported at Marseilles. It expends 200,000,000 francs yearly in silk, produced in France, Italy; Japan, India, and China. It exports its silk fabrics chiefly to America, England, and Russia, to the value of about 450,000,000 francs annually.


The Red Men of the Prairies—The Pioneers of France–The Fur Traders—The Massacre of the Garrison—The Anglo

Saxon Advance-A Mournful Exodus—The Rising Tide of Population-The Great Fire of 1871— The March of the Flames - Anarchy and Panic-Driven into Lake Michigan—The Loss-The Civic Phoenix-Commerce- The River and its Fleet-The Main Streets-Public Buildings-Lake Park— The Refinements of Civilisation– Newspapers, The Churches—The Residence Quarters – The Schools - Douglas-The Urban Parks-The Granaries-A City of Cattle - The Trade in Timber-The Water-works-Problems in Drainage—The Great Western Railway System- The Parks and Boulevards-Suburban Towns-The Prairie.

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BOUT one-third of the way across the American conti

nent (from east to west), midway between Hudson's Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, and between Manitoba and New York, stands the modern city of Chicago, near the head of Lake Michigan, a vast fresh-water sea, 350 miles long, and united with the distant ocean by other great lakes and navigable channels. The rapid rise of this city, from the humble position of an Indian trading post to metropolitan wealth and splendour ; the unparalleled and still-expanding volume of its commerce;

the magnitude of the disaster which, but a few years CHICAGO RIVER, FROM RUSH-STREET BRIDGE.

ago, destroyed it; and the foremost place which it now occupies among the granaries of the world : all these bear witness to the intense energies which have been concentrated here, and have made the civic name famous throughout a large part of Christendom. If there is romance in the history of commerce (and the records of the East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company show that there is), surely the annals which describe the development of the Indian camp and the log-fort into the fourth American city must be full of the deepest interest.

The great State of Illinois, of which Chicago is the metropolis, was originally the domain of a nation of Indians who called themselves the Illini, or the "manly men.” The first European explorers in this unknown region were Marquette and Joliet, two Frenchmen, who travelled hitherward from Canada in 1673; and, adding a French termination to the tribal name, described it as the land of the Illinois. Missionaries and soldiers of France, from Canada and Louisiana, afterwards established stations and settlements here and there upon the prairies, in execution of the plans of the Bourbon kings, which contemplated the erection of a vast Latin empire, reaching from the Mexican Gulf to the hyperborean regions. When Wolfe defeated the Marquis de Montcalm, before Quebec, Canada and the more distant and little-known prairies were annexed to the possessions of Great Britain, and her garrisons occupied the chief points in Illinois. But in 1778 Colonel George Rogers Clarke led a small army of several hundred frontiersmen across the Alleghanies from Virginia, and took possession of this vast


western domain, overcoming the weak and detached royalist posts, and formally annexing the country to Virginia. Sixteen years later, Virginia ceded it to the United States; and in 1809 the territory of Illinois was formed. In 1818 it passed from the subordinate and dependent condition of a territory to that of a sovereign State. The population then was 30,000. At that time, within the memory of citizens now living, the area of 2,000 miles from Ohio to the Pacific Ocean was a wilderness, inhabited only by bands of savages, with military posts and the log-forts of traders scattered at wide intervals, and a few feeble French hamlets along the Mississippi River. From the rude stations of the American Fur Company, thriving commerce was carried on with the disdainful aborigines; and occasional detachments of soldiers marched cautiously (and not without disastrous fighting) over long solitary regions, now as densely peopled as Devon or Warwickshire. Less than fifty years ago, the population of Chicago consisted of a dozen families, exclusive of two companies of United States infantry in garrison at the fort.

The first Europeans who saw the Chicago River were the French explorers, Joliet and Père Marquette, who descended its course in 1673, returning northward from the Mississippi Valley; and Marquette wintered there the following year. The aboriginal name of the locality was derived from the chikagou, or wild onion, which grew abundantly on the banks of the river, and perfumed the air for a great distance. The primary meaning of the word was “strong;” and its secondary application, referring to the quality of the onion's flavour, is easily comprehensible. There are old hunters who confidently assert that the name chicago is applied by the Indians to that very uncomfortable little beast, the Jephitis americana ; but the local archæologists and philologists hotly dispute that statement.

About thirty years after the dreary winter encampment of Père Marquette had broken up, the French maps marked this site with the words Fort Checagou, as if to indicate its destination as a station in the great trans-continental line of Bourbon fortresses.

It was not until the year 1790, however, that the first settler, Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a San Domingo negro, built a hut by the lonely stream. But he soon moved on, touched with the Western nomadism; and an adventurous Frenchman, Le Mai, succeeded to his improvements. The unrest which abides in the air of this locality seized him also, and he made haste to sell out his place to the first sulistantial Saxon settler, John Kinzie, an agent of the American Fur Company, who came hither to trade with the Indians, and thus became the founder of the city. The local historians have likened this honest trader, ambitious only for the acquisition of beaver-skins, to Romulus. But his foundation is not to be compared with Rome, fortunately, for her fortresses are the lofty granaries—her gladiators are the butchers who kill cattle at the Stock-yards for the English markets-and in place of the old Latin legions, marching out to devastate the nations, Chicago continually sends abroad from her gates bread for millions upon millions of far-away peoples. So Kinzie's work was, on the whole, better than that of Romulus.

The first commerce of Chicago consisted in the exchange of European wares and trinkets for the furs and peltries which the Indians brought in their canoes along the Mississippi and up the Illinois. From the upper navigable waters of the latter stream, the canoes and their cargnies were carried over a short portage, and then dropped down the Chicago River. In 1:9+ the Indians had celed to the United States among other tracts) “a piece of lanů six

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