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This is a publication of the researches of Herodotus

of Halicarnassus, in order that the actions of men may not kthe effaced by time, nor the great and wondrous deeds displayeith both by Greeks and barbarians' deprived of renown :-did and amongst the rest, for what cause they waged war upad each other.

she 1. The learned among the Persians assert that the Photos, nicians were the original authors of the quarrel ; for that, they having migrated from that which is called the Red Sea'. to the Mediterranean,2 and having settled in the country e which they now inhabit, forthwith applied themselves to distant voyages; and that having exported Egyptian and Assy-rian merchandise, they touched at other places, and also asy, Argos. Now Argos at that period in every respect surpassen : all those states which are now comprehended under the gene me ral appellation of Greece. They say, that on their arriv.rly at Argos, the Phænicians exposed their merchandise to sal and that on the fifth or sixth day after their arrival, and whe

By barbarians the Greeks meant all who were not sprung from a themselves,-all foreigners.

· The Phænicians passed over land (see b. VII. c. 89) from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, which in the text and in other Grecian writers is called " this sea.' 3 The region known by the name of Hellas or Greece, in the time of Herodotus, was, previous to the Trojan war, and indeed long afterwards, only discriminated by the names of its different inhabitants. Homer speaks of the Danaans, Argives, Achaians, &c., but never gives these people the general name of Greeks.-Larcher.







poor rery had almost disposed of their cargo, a great number a revis?men came down to the sea-shore, and among them th

the P Ing's daughter, whose name, as the Greeks also say, was I

nagelf ance naughter of Inachus. They add, that while these wome und

were standing near the stern of the vessel, and were bargaii ing for such things as most pleased them, the Phænician aving exhorted one another, made an attack upon then i

ithe and that most of the women escaped, but that Io, with son to cl

others, was seized: and that they, having hurried them ath and Board, set sail for Egypt. 2. Thus the Persians


that whic went to Egypt, not agreeing herein with the Phoenicians ; ar

hat this was the beginning of wrongs. After this, that certat

Grecians, (for they are unable to tell their name,) having touc usual.d at Tyre in Phoenicia, carried off the king's daughter Europ from,

nese must have been Cretans. Thus far they say that they hipe? aly retaliated ; 4 but that after this the Greeks were guilty

Su diminie second provocation

; for that having sailed down in the translessel of war5 to Æa, a city of Colchis on the river Phas

hen they had accomplished the more immediate object face purity eir expedition, they carried off the king's daughter Medef use lish vaid that the king of Colchis, having despatched a herald

Greece, demanded satisfaction for the rape, and the restitutid trans of the princess ; but the Greeks replied, that as they of Aginta bein; had not given any satisfaction for the rape of Io, neith

vould they give any to them. 3. They say too, that in than lish

econd generation after this, Alexander the son of Priar free saving heard of these events, was desirous of obtaining whichi'e from Greece by means of violence, being fully pe

uaded that he should not to give satisfaction, for th objectie Greeks had not done so. When therefore he had carrif

,f Helen, they say, that the Greeks immediately sent me wouluangers to demand her back again, and require satisfacti?

for the rape ; but that they, when they brought forwa of these demands, objected to them the rape of Medea ; “th

they who had not themselves given satisfaction, nor made when demanded, now wished others to give it to themselves 4. Thus far then they say that there had only been ra; from each other ; but that after this the Greeks were great

* Literally, “had only done like for like.”

5" In a long vessel.” The long vessels were vessels of war; the rou vessels, merchantmen and transports.



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to blame, for that they levied war against Asia before the Asiatics did upon Europe. Now, to carry off women by vioJence the Persians think is the act of wicked men, but to trouple oneself about avenging them when so carried off is the ict of foolish ones ; and to pay no regard to them when carfied off, of wise men : (for that it is clear, that if they had not een willing, they could not have been carried off.) AccordEgly the Persians say, that they of Asia made no account of fomen that were carried off ; but that the Greeks for the ake of a Lacedæmonian woman assembled'a mighty fleet, and hen having come to Asia overthrew the empire of Priam.

That from this event they had always considered the Greeks Ita

is their enemies : for the Persians claim Asia and the barjarous nations that inhabit it, as their own, and consider yh Purope and the people of Greece as totally distinct.

5. Such is the Persian account ; and to the capture of ty froy they ascribe the commencement of their enmity to the Greeks. As relates to Io, the Phænicians do not agree with his account of the Persians : for they affirm that they did jot use violence to carry her into Egypt ; but that she had fonnexion at Argos with the master of a vessel, and when she found herself pregnant, she, through dread of her parents, A. Joluntarily sailed away with the Phænicians, to avoid detec

tion, Such then are the accounts of the Persians and Phoeith

nicians : I, however, am not going to inquire whether the in

facts were so or not ; but having pointed out the person whom Pria cing

myself know to have been the first guilty of injustice towards the Greeks, I will then proceed with my history,

ouching as well on the small as the great estates of men : arrior of those that were formerly powerful many have become mpeak, and some that were powerful in my time were formerly

veak. Knowing therefore the precarious nature of human -wprosperity, I shall commemorate both alike.

6. Croesus was a Lydian by birth, son of Alyattes, and ade sovereign of the nations on this side the river Halys. This Zver

fiver flowing from the south 6 between the Syrians7 and

Paphlagonians, empties itself northwards into the Euxine ra Sea. This Croesus was the first of the barbarians whom we

6 The Halys had two nches, one flowing from the east, the other from the south : Herodotus speaks only of the southern one. Syria was at that time the name of Cappadocia. See I. 72.







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know of that subjected some of the Greeks to the payment of tribute, and formed alliances with others. He subdued the

bowing, Ionians and Æolians, and the Dorians settled in Asia, and he uzelf." I formed an alliance with the Lacedæmonians ; but before the sex, but reign of Croesus all the Greeks were free ; for the incursion Saying of the Cimmerians 8 into Ionia, which was before the time of some he Croesus, was not for the purpose of subjecting states, but ar

Gyges, ta irruption for plunder. 7. The government, which formerly make tri

By harm belonged to the Heraclidæ, passed in the following manner to the family of Creesus, who were called Mermnadæ. Candaules, do con whom the Greeks call Myrsilus, was tyrant of Sardis, and a descendant of Alcæus, son of Hercules. For Agron, son of Ninus, grandson of Belus, great-grandson of Alcæus, was id; there

her the first of the Heraclidæ who became king of Sardis ; and garme Candaules, son of Myrsus, was the last. They who ruled will give over this country before Agron were descendants of Lydus, son of Atys, from whom this whole people, anciently called Mæonians, derived the name of Lydians. "The Heraclidæ, de- wat by the scended from a female slave of Jardanus and Hercules, having scape

, pa been intrusted with the government by these princes, retained

won afte the supreme power in obedience to the declaration f an oracle : they reigned for twenty-two generations, a space of her cauti five hundred and five years, the son succeeding to the father was goir to the time of Candaules, son

of Myrsus.

8. This Candaules she then was enamoured of his own wife, and

being so, thought I done

, s that she was by far the most beautiful of all women. Now

to noti

for being of this opinion,-Gyges, son of Dascylus, one of his body-guard, happened to be his especial favourite, and to him demed Candaules confided his most important affairs, and moreover extolled the beauty of his wife in exaggerated terms. In ! di whe lapse of time (for Candaules was fated to be miserable) he ad

was da dressed Gyges as follows: "Gyges, as I think you do not believe me when I speak of my wife's beauty, (for the ears of men are naturally more incredulous than their eyes,) you must contrive to see her naked.” But he, exclaiming loudly, answered, “Sire, what a shocking proposal do you make, bidding me behold my queen naked! With her clothes a woman puts off her modesty. Wise maxims have been of old laid down by men, from these it is our duty to learn : amongst them is the

8 The incursion here spoken of occurred in the reign of the Lydian Ardys. See I. 15., and IV. 12.


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following,— Let every man look to the things that concern himself. I am persuaded that she is the most beautiful of her sex, but I entreat of you not to require what is wicked." 9. Saying thus, Gyges fought off the proposal, dreading lest some harm should befal himself : but the king answered, “Gyges, take courage, and be not afraid of me, as if I desired to make trial of you, by speaking thus, nor of my wife, lest any harm should befal you from her. For from the outset I will so contrive that she shall not know she has been seen by you. I will place you behind the open door of the apartment in which we sleep; as soon as I enter my wife will come to bed ; there stands by the entrance a chair, on this she will lay her garments one by one as she takes them off, and then she will give you an opportunity to look at her at your leisure; but when she steps from the chair to the bed, and you are at her back, be careful that she does not see you as you are going out by the door.” 10. Gyges therefore, finding he could not escape, prepared to obey. And Candaules, when it seemed to be time to go to bed, led him to the chamber, and the lady soon afterwards appeared, and Gyges saw her enter and lay her withes on the chair: when he was at her back, as the lady was going to the bed, he crept secretly out, but she saw him as he was going away.) Perceiving what her husband had done, she neither cried out through modesty, nor appeared to notice it, purposing to take vengeance on Candaules ; for among the Lydians and almost all the barbarians, it is deemed a great disgrace even for a man to be seen naked. 11. At the time therefore, having shown no consciousness of what had occurred, she held her peace, and as soon as it was day, having prepared such of her domestics as she knew were most to be trusted, she sent for Gyges. He, supposing that she knew nothing of what had happened, came when he was sent for, for he had been before used to attend whenever the queen sent for him. When Gyges came, the lady thus addressed him: “Gyges, I submit two proposals to your choice, either kill Candaules and take possession of me and of the Lydian kingdom, or expect immediate death, so that you may not, from your obedience to Candaules in all things, again see what you ought not. It is necessary however that he who planned this, or that you who have seen me naked, and have done what is not decorous, should die. Gyges for a

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