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sians at large, speaking as follows : “It appears that no one of us should henceforward be a monarch, for it is neither agreeable nor good. For you know to what a pitch the insolence of Cambyses reached, and you have experienced the insolence of the magus. And indeed how can a monarchy be a wellconstituted government, where one man is allowed to do whatever he pleases without control ? for if even the best of men were placed in such power, he would depart from his wonted thoughts. For insolence is engendered in him by the advantages that surround him, and envy is implanted in man from his birth, and having these two, he has every vice; for puffed up by insolence he commits many nefarious actions, and others through envy. One would think that a man who holds sovereign power should be free from envy, since he possesses every advantage ; but the contrary to this takes place in his conduct towards the citizens, for he envies the best who continue to live, and delights in the worst men of the nation; he very readily listens to calumny, and is the most inconsistent of all men; for if you show him respect in moderation he is offended because he is not sufficiently honoured ; and if any one honours him very much he is offended as with a flatterer. But I proceed to relate what is most important. He changes the institutions of our ancestors, violates women, and puts men to death without trial. But a popular government bears the fairest name of all, equality of rights; and secondly, is guilty of none of those excesses that a monarch is. The magistrate obtains his office by lot, and exercises it under responsibility, and refers all plans to the public. I therefore give my opinion, that we should do away with monarchy, and exalt the people, for in the many all things are found.” Otanes accordingly advanced this opinion. 81. Megabyzus advised them to intrust the government to an oligarchy, and spoke as follows: “I concur with what Otanes has said about abolishing tyranny; but in bidding us transfer the power to the people, he has erred from the best opinion; for nothing is more foolish and insolent than a useless crowd, therefore it is on no account to be endured, that men, who are endeavouring to avoid the insolence of a tyrant, should fall under the insolence of an unrestrained multitude. The former, when he does any thing, does it knowingly, but the latter have not the means of knowing, for how should they know who have neither been taught, nor are ac

quainted with any thing good or fitting; they who, rushing on without reflection, precipitate affairs like a winter torrent. Let those, then, who desire the ruin of the Persians adopt a democracy ; but let us, having chosen an association of the best men, commit the sovereign power to them, for among them we ourselves shall be included, and it is reasonable to expect that the best counsels will proceed from the best men.” Megabyzus accordingly advanced this opinion. 82. Darius expressed his opinion the third, saying: "In what Megabyzus has said concerning the people, he appears to me to have spoken rightly; but concerning an oligarchy, not so. For if three forms are proposed, and each of these which I allude to the best in its kind, the best democracy, and oligarchy, and monarchy, I affirm that the last is far superior. For nothing can be found better than one man, who is the best ; since acting upon equally wise plans, he would govern the people without blame, and would keep his designs most secret from the ill-affected. But in an oligarchy, whilst many are exerting their energies for the public good, strong private enmities commonly spring up; for each wishing to be chief, and to carry his own opinions, they come to deep animosities one against another, from whence seditions arise ; and from seditions, murder ; and from murder it results in monarchy: and thus it is proved how much this form of government is the best. But when the people rule, it is impossible but that evil should spring up; when, therefore, evil springs up, mutual enmities do not arise among the bad, but powerful combinations, for they who injure the commonwealth act in concert; and this lasts until some one of the people stands forward and puts them down ; and on this account he is admired by the people, and being admired, he becomes a monarch ; and in this he too shows that a monarchy is best. But to comprehend all in one word, whence came our freedom ? and who gave it? was it from the people, or an oligarchy, or a monarch ? My opinion therefore is, that as we were made free by one man, we should maintain the same kind of government ; and moreover, that we should not subvert the institutions of our ancestors, seeing they are good ; for that were not well.”

83. These three opinions were proposed, and four of the seven

adhered to the last. When the opinion of Otanes, who was anxious to introduce equality among the Persians, was overruled, he thus spoke in the midst of them : “ Associates, since it is evident that some one of us must be made king, either appointed by lot, or by the body of the Persians, intrusting the government to whom they may choose, or by some other way ; now I will not enter into competition with you ; for I wish neither to govern nor be governed. But on this condition I give up all claim to the government, that neither I nor any of my posterity may be subject to any one of you.” When he had said this, and the six had agreed to these terms, he did not join in the contest, but withdrew from the assembly; and this family alone, of all the Persians, retains its liberty to this day, and yields obedience only so far as it pleases, but without transgressing the laws of the Persians. 84. The rest of the seven consulted how they might appoint a king on the most equitable terms ; and they determined that to Otanes and his posterity for ever, if the kingdom should devolve on any other of the seven, should be given a Median vest yearly, by way of distinction, together with all such presents as are accounted most honourable among the Persians. They decreed that these things should be given him for this reason, because he first advised the enterprise, and associated them together. These honours were conferred on Otanes by way of distinction. And they made the following resolutions with regard to the whole body: that every one of the seven should have liberty to enter into the palace without being introduced, unless the king should happen to be in bed with one of his wives ; and that the king should not be allowed to marry a wife out of any other family than of the conspirators. With regard to the kingdom, they came to the following determination, that he whose horse should first neigh in the suburbs at sunrise, while they were mounted, should have the kingdom.

85. Darius had a groom, a shrewd man, whose name was Ebares ; to this person, when the assembly had broken up, Darius spoke as follows: “Ebares, we have determined with respect to the kingdom to do in this manner ; he whose horse shall neigh first at sunrise, when we ourselves are mounted, is to have the kingdom. Now, therefore, if you have any

ingenuity, contrive that I may obtain this honour, and not another.” Ebares answered, “If, sir, it indeed depends on this, whether you shall be king or not, be confident on this point, and keep up your spirits ; for no one else shall be king before you ; I have a charm for the occasion.” Darius said, “If you have any such contrivance, it is time to put it in practice, and not to delay; for to-morrow our trial is to be.” Ebares having heard this, did as follows : as soon as it was night, he led the mare which Darius's horse was most fond of, to the suburbs, tied her up, and led Darius's horse to her ; and he led him several times round near the mare, gradually bringing him nearer, and at last let the horse cover her. 86. At dawn of day, the six, as they had agreed, met together on horseback ; and as they were riding round the suburbs, when they came to the spot where the mare had been tied the preceding night, Darius's horse ran forward and neighed; and as the horse did this, lightning and thunder came from a clear sky. These things happening to Darius, consummated the auspices, as if done by appointment. The others, dismounting from their horses, did obeisance to Darius as king. 87. Some say that Ebares had recourse to the foregoing artifice ; others, to the following ; (for the story is told both ways by the Persians ;) that having rubbed his hand upon the genital part of the mare, he kept it concealed under his trowsers, and at sun-rise, when the horses were about to start, Ebares drew out his hand and put it to the nostrils of Darius's horse, and that he, taking the scent, began to snort and neigh. | 88. Accordingly Darius, son of Hystaspes, was declared king, and all the people of Asia, except the Arabians, were subject to him, Cyrus having first subdued them, and afterwards Cambyses. The Arabians never submitted to the Persian yoke, but were on friendly terms, and gave Cambyses a free passage into Egypt; for without the consent of the Arabians the Persians could not have penetrated into Egypt. Darius contracted his first marriages with Persians; he married two daughters of Cyrus, Atossa and Artystona : Atossa had been before married to her brother Cambyses, and afterwards to the magus, but Artystona was a virgin. He married another also, daughter of Smerdis, son of Cyrus, whose name was Parmys; and he had besides the


daughter of Otanes who detected the magus. His power was fully established on all sides. Having then first of all made a stone statue, he had it erected ; and a figure was upon it representing a man on horseback; and he had engraved on it the following inscription, DARIUS, SON OF HYSTASPES, BY THE SAGACITY OF HIS HORSE, (bere mentioning the name,) AND BY THE ADDRESS OF EBARES, HIS GROOM, OBTAINED THE EMPIRE OF THE PERSIANS. 89. Having done this in Persia, he constituted twenty governments, which they call satrapies ; and having constituted the governments and set governors over them, he appointed tributes to be paid to him from each nation, both connecting the adjoining people with the several nations, and omitting some neighbouring people, he annexed to some others that were more remote. He distributed the governments, and the annual payment of tribute, in the following manner. Such of them as contributed silver, were required to pay it according to the standard of the Babylonian talent; and such as contributed gold, according to the Euboic talent. The Babylonian talent is equal to seventy Euboic minæ. During the reign of Cyrus, and afterwards of Cambyses, there was no fixed regulation with regard to tribute, but they brought in presents. In consequence of this imposition of tribute, and other things of a similar kind, the Persians say Darius was a trader, Carnbyses a master, and Cyrus a father. The first, because he made profit of every thing ; the second, because he was severe and arrogant ; the latter, because he was mild, and always aimed at the good of his people. 90. From the Ionians, the Magnesians in Asia, the Æolians, Carians, Lycians, Milyens, and Pamphylians, for one and the same tribute was imposed on them all, there came in a revenue of four hundred talents in silver ; this then composed the first division. From the Mysians, Lydians, Lasonians, Cabalians, and Hygennians, five hundred talents ; this was the second division. From the Hellespontians, who dwell on the right as one sails in, the Phrygians, the Thracians in Asia, Paphlagonians, Mariandynians, and Syrians, there was a tribute of three hundred and sixty talents ; this was the third division. From the Cilicians, three hundred and sixty white horses, one for every day, and five hundred


• There were also Magnesians in Thessaly. See Book VII. ch. 183.

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