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the cold, waste away, but asses and mules endure it. 29. On this account also the race of beeves appears to me to be defective there, and not to have horns; and the following verse of Homer, in his Odyssey,” confirms my opinion : “And Libya, where the lambs soon put forth their horns:” rightly observing, that in warm climates horns shoot out quickly; but in very severe cold, the cattle either do not produce them at all, or if they do produce them they do so with difficulty. Here, then, such are the effects of the cold. 30. I am surprised, (for my narrative has from its commencement sought for digressions,) that in the whole territory of Elis no mules are able to breed, though neither is the climate cold, nor is there any other visible cause. The Eleans themselves say, that mules do not breed with them in consequence of a curse ; therefore, when the time for the mares breeding approaches, they lead them to the neighbouring districts, and there put the he-asses win them, until they are in foal; then they drive them home again. 31. With respect to the feathers, with which the Scythians say the air is filled, and that on account of them it is not possible either to see farther upon the continent, or to pass through it, I entertain the following opinion: in the upper parts of this country it continually snows, less in summer than in winter, as is reasonable ; now, whoever has seen snow falling thick near him, will know what I mean ; for snow is like feathers: and on account of the winter being so severe, the northern parts of this continent are uninhabited. I think, then, that the Scythians and their neighbours call the snow feathers, comparing” them together. These regions, therefore, which are said to be the most remote, have been sufficiently described. 32. Concerning the Hyperboreans, neither the Scythians say any thing, nor any people of those parts, except the Issedones; and, as I think, neither do they say any thing, for then the Scythians would mention it, as they do the one-eyed people. Hesiod, however, has made mention of the Hyperboreans, and Homer, in the Epigoni, if indeed Homer was in reality the author of that poem. 33. But the Delians say very much more than any others about them, affirming that sacred things, wrapped in wheat-straw, were brought from the Hyperboreans and came to the Scythians; and from the 2 B. IV. l. 85. * That is, “speaking figuratively.”

Scythians each contiguous nation receiving them in succession, carried them to the extreme west as far as the Adriatic ; that being forwarded thence towards the south, the Dodonaeans, the first of the Greeks, received them; that from them they descended to the Maliac Gulf, and passed over into Euboea, and that one city sent them on to another as far as Carystus; that after this Andros was passed by, for the Carystians conveyed them to Tenos, and the Tenians to Delos: in this manner they say these sacred things reached Delos. They add, that the Hyperboreans first sent two virgins, whom they call by the names of Hyperoche and Laodice, to carry these sacred things; and with them, for the sake of safety, the Hyperboreans sent five of their citizens as attendants, the same who are now called Perpherees, and are held in high honour at Delos. But when those who were sent out by the Hyperboreans did not return, they, thinking it a grievous thing if it should always happen to them not to receive back those whom they sent out, therefore carried their offerings wrapped in wheat-straw to their borders, and enjoined their neighbours to forward them to the next nation; and these being so forwarded, they say, reached Delos. I myself know that the following practice is observed, resembling that of these sacred things: the Thracian and Paeonian women, when they sacrifice to Royal Diana, do not offer their sacrifices without wheatstraw; and I know that they do this. 34. In honour of these Hyperborean virgins who died in Delos, both the virgins and youths of the Delians shear their hair: the former, having cut off a lock before marriage, and having wound it about a distaff, lay it upon the sepulchre; the sepulchre is within the temple of Diana, on the left as one enters, and on it grows an olive tree: the youths of the Delians having wound some of their hair round a plant, place it also on the sepulchre. These virgins receive such honour from the inhabitants of Delos. 35. These same persons also affirm, that Arge and Opis, who were Hyperborean virgins, passing through the same nations, came to Delos, even before Hyperoche and Laodice: that these last came to bring the tribute they had agreed to pay to Ilithya for a speedy delivery ; but they say that Arge and Opis arrived with the gods themselves, and that different honours are paid them by themselves, for that the women collect contributions for them, calling on their names in a hymn, which Olen, a Lycian, composed for them; and that the islanders and Ionians afterwards, having learnt it from them, celebrate Opis and Arge in song, mentioning their names, and collecting contributions; (now this Olen, coming from Lycia, composed also the other ancient hymns which are sung in Delos;) and that the ashes of the thighs burnt on the altar are thrown and expended on the sepulchre of Opis and Arge: but their sepulchre is behind the temple of Diana, facing the east, very near the banqueting-room of the Ceians. 36. And thus much may be said concerning the Hyperboreans, for I do not relate the story concerning Abaris, who was said to be an Hyperborean, to the effect that he carried an arrow round the whole earth without eating any thing. If, however, there are Hyperboreans, there must also be Hypernotians. But I smile when I see many persons describing the circumference of the earth, who have no sound reason to guide them; they describe the ocean flowing round the earth, which is made circular as if by a lathe, and make” Asia equal to Europe. I will therefore briefly show the dimensions of each of them, and what is the figure of each. 37. The Persian settlements extend to the southern sea, called the Erythraean; above them to the north are the Medes; above the Medes, the Saspires; and above the Saspires, the Colchians, who reach to the northern sea, into which the river Phasis discharges itself. hese four nations occupy the space from sea to sea. 38. Thence westward two tracts stretch out to the sea, which I shall describe. On one side, the one tract, beginning at the north from the Phasis, extends along the Euxine and the Hellespont, as far as the Trojan Sigaeum ; and on the south, this same tract, beginning from the Myriandrian Gulf, which is adjacent to Phoenicia, stretches towards the sea as far as the Triopian promontory. In this tract dwell thirty different nations. This, then, is one of the tracts. 39. The other, beginning at Persia, reaches to the Red Sea; it comprises Persia, and after that Assyria, and after Assyria, Arabia; it terminates (terminating only by custom) at the Arabian Gulf, into which Darius carried a canal" from the Nile. Now, as far as Phoenicia from Persia the country is wide and open, but from Phoenicia the same tract stretches along this sea by Syrian Palestine and Egypt, where it terminates; in it are only three nations. These, then, are the parts of Asia that lie westward of Persia. 40. Beyond the Persians, Medes, Saspires, and Colchians, towards the east and rising sun, extends the Red Sea, and on the north the Caspian Sea and the river Araxes, which flows towards the rising sun. Asia is inhabited as far as India; but beyond this, it is all desert towards the east, nor is any one able to describe what it is. Such and so great is Asia. 41. Libya is in the other tract; for Libya commences from Egypt. Now in Egypt this tract is narrow ; for from this sea to the Red Sea are a hundred thousand orgyae, which make one thousand stades. But from this narrow neck the tract which is called Libya becomes very wide. 42. I wonder therefore at those who have described the limits of and divided Libya, Asia, and Europe, for the difference between them is not trifling : for in length Europe extends along both of them, but with respect to width, it is evidently not to be compared." Libya shows itself to be surrounded by water, except so much of it as borders upon Asia. Neco, king of Egypt, was the first whom we know of, that proved this; he, when he had ceased digging the canal leading from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, sent certain Phoenicians in ships, with orders to sail back through the pillars of Hercules into the northern sea," and so to return to Egypt. The Phoenicians accordingly, setting out from the Red Sea, navigated the southern sea; when autumn came, they went ashore, and sowed the land, by whatever part of Libya they happened to be sailing, and waited for harvest; then having reaped the corn, they put to sea again. When two years had thus passed, in the third, having doubled the pillars of Hercules, they arrived in Egypt, and related what to me does not seem credible, but may to others, that as they sailed round Libya, they had the sun on their right hand. Thus was Libya first known. 43. Subsequently the Carthaginians say that Libya is surrounded by water. For Sataspes, son of Teaspes, one of the Achaemenidae, did not sail round Libya,

* Baehr observes that roleávrov is the genitive participle, depending on yeMā, preceding; “I smile when they make Asia equal to Europe.” It would be difficult to express the connexion in an English version. * See B. II. chap. 158.

* He means, “it is much wider than either of them.” 7 Meaning “the Mediterranean,” which was north of Libya.

though sent for that very purpose ; but dreading the length of the voyage and the desolation, returned home and did not accomplish the task which his mother imposed upon him: for he had violated a virgin, daughter of Zopyrus, son of Megabyzus; whereupon, when he was about to be impaled for this offence by king Xerxes, the mother of Sataspes, who was sister to Darius, begged him off, promising that she would inflict a greater punishment upon him than he would, for, she would constrain him to sail round Libya, until, sailing round, he should reach the Arabian Gulf. Xerxes having agreed on these terms, Sataspes went into Egypt, and having taken a ship and men from thence, sailed through the pillars of Hercules; and having sailed through, and doubled the cape of Libya, whose name is Solois, he steered to the southward : but after traversing a vast extent of sea in many months, when he found that he had still more to pass, he turned back and sailed away for Egypt. From thence going to king Xerxes, he told him, that in the most distant part he sailed past a nation of little men, who wore garments made of palm leaves, who, whenever they drew to shore, left their cities and flew to the mountains; that his men, when they entered their country, did them no injury, but only took some cattle from them. Of his not sailing completely round Libya, this he said was the cause ; that his ship could not proceed any farther, but was stopped. Xerxes, however, being persuaded that he did not speak the truth, as he had not accomplished the task imposed upon him, impaled him, inflicting the original sentence. A eunuch of this Sataspes, as soon as he heard of his master's death, ran away to Samos with great wealth, which a Samian detained : though I know his name, I purposely conceal it. 44. A great part of Asia was explored under the direction of Darius. He being desirous to know in what part the Indus, which is the second river that produces crocodiles, discharges itself into the sea, sent in ships both others on whom he could rely to make a true report, and also Scylax of Caryanda. They accordingly, setting out from the city of Caspatyrus and the country of Pactyice, sailed down the river towards the east and sunrise to the sea; then sailing on the sea westward, they arrived in the thirtieth month at that place where the king of Egypt despatched the Phoenicians, whom I before mentioned, to sail round Libya. After these persons had sailed round, Darius

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