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again in an equally short space.” 15. Xerxes, being alarmed by this vision, rushed from his bed, and sent a messenger to call Artabanus; and when he came, Xerxes spoke to him as follows: “Artabanus, I on the moment was not in my senses, when I used hasty words to you in return for your good advice; however, after no long time I repented, and acknowledged that those measures which you suggested ought to be adopted by me. I am not, however, able to perform them, though desirous of doing so; for after I had altered my resolution, and acknowledged my error, a dream frequently presents itself to me, by no means approving of my so doing; and it has just now vanished, after threatening me. If, then, it is a deity who sends this dream, and it is his pleasure that an expedition against Greece should at all events take place, this same dream will also flit before you, and give the same injunction as to me. This I think will happen, if you should take all my apparel, and having put it on, should afterwards sit on my throne, and then go to sleep in my bed.” 16. Xerxes thus addressed him; but Artabanus not obeying the first order, as he did not think himself worthy to sit on the royal throne, when he was at last compelled, did as he was desired, after he had spoken as follows. (1.) “I deem it an equal merit, O king, to form good plans, and to be willing to yield to one who gives good advice: and though both of these qualities attach to you, the converse of wicked men leads you astray; just as blasts of wind falling on the sea, which of all things is the most useful to mankind, do not suffer it to follow its proper nature. As for me, grief did not so much vex me at hearing your reproaches, as that when two opinions were proposed by the Persians, one tending to increase their arrogance, the other to check it, and to show how hurtful it is to teach the mind to be constantly seeking for more than we already possess; that, when these two opinions were proposed, you should choose that which is more dangerous both to yourself and the Persians. (2.) Now, however, after you have changed to the better resolution, you say, that since you have given up the expedition against the Greeks, a dream has come to you, sent by some god, which forbids you to abandon the enterprise. But these things, my son, are not divine, for dreams which wander among men, are such as I will explain to you, being many years older than you are. Those visions of dreams most commonly hover around men, respecting things which one has thought of during the day; and we, during the preceding days, have been very much busied about this expedition. (3.) If, however, this is not such as I judge, but has something divine in it, you have correctly summed up the whole in few words; then let it appear and give the same injunction to me as to you: and it ought not to appear to me any the more for my having your apparel than my own; nor the more because I go to sleep on your bed than on my own; if indeed it will appear at all. For that which has appeared to you in your sleep, whatever it be, can never arrive to such a degree of simplicity as to suppose that when it sees me, it is you, conjecturing from your apparel. But if it shall hold me in contempt, and not deign to appear to me, whether I be clothed in your robes or in my own; and if it shall visit you again, this indeed would deserve consideration: for if it should repeatedly visit you, I should myself confess it to be divine. If, however, you have resolved that so it should be, and it is not possible to avert this, but I must needs sleep in your bed, well, when this has been done, let it appear also to me. But till that time I shall persist in my present opinion.” 17. Artabanus, having spoken thus, and hoping to show that Xerxes had said nothing of any moment, did what was ordered: and having put on the apparel of Xerxes and sat in the royal throne, when he afterwards went to bed, the same dream which had appeared to Xerxes, came to him when he was asleep, and standing over Artabanus, spoke as follows: “Art thou, then, the man who dissuadeth Xerxes from invading Greece, as if thou wert very anxious for him 2 But neither hereafter nor at present shalt thou escape unpunished for endeavouring to avert what is fated to be. What Xerxes must suffer if he continues disobedient, has been declared to him himself.” 18. Artabanus imagined that the dream uttered these threats, and was about to burn out his eyes with hot irons. He therefore, having uttered a loud shriek, leapt up, and seating himself by Xerxes, when he had related all the particulars of the vision in the dream, spoke to him in this manner: “I, Oking, being a man who have seen already many and great powers overthrown by inferior ones, would not suffer you to yield entirely to youth; knowing how mischievous it is to desire much, calling to mind the expedition of Cyrus against the Massageta, how it fared

and calling to mind also that of Cambyses against the Ethiopians, and having accompanied Darius in the invasion of Scythia, knowing all these things, I was of opinion, that if you remained quiet, you must be pronounced happy by all men. But since some divine impulse has sprung up, and, as it seems, some heaven-sent destruction impends over the Greeks, I myself am converted, and change my opinion. Do you, then, make known to the Persians the intimation sent by the deity, and command them to follow the orders first given by you for the preparations; and act so, that, since the deity permits, nothing on your part may be wanting.” When he had thus spoken, both being carried away by the vision, as soon as it was day Xerxes acquainted the Persians with what had happened; and Artabanus, who before was the only man who greatly opposed the expedition, now as openly promoted it. 19. After this, when Xerxes was resolved to undertake the expedition, another vision appeared to him in his sleep, which the magi, when they heard it, interpreted to relate to the whole world, and to signify that all mankind should serve him. The vision was as follows: Xerxes imagined that he was crowned with the sprig of an olive-tree, and that branches from this olive covered the whole earth; and that afterwards the crown that was placed on his head disappeared. The magi having given this interpretation, every one of the Persians, who were then assembled, departed immediately to his own government, and used all diligence to execute what had been ordered; every man hoping to obtain the proposed reward: Xerxes thus levied his army, searching out every region of the continent. 20. For from the reduction of Egypt, he was employed four whole years in assembling his forces, and providing things necessary for the expedition. In the course of the fifth year he began his march with a vast multitude of men. For of the expeditions with which we are acquainted, this was by far the greatest, so that that of Darius against the Scythians appears nothing in comparison with this, nor the Scythian, when the Scythians, pursuing the Cimmerians, and invading the Medic territory, subdued almost the whole of the upper part of Asia, on account of which Darius afterwards attempted to inflict vengeance on them ; nor, according to what is related, that of the Atridae against Ilium ;

nor that of the Mysians and Teucrians, which took place before the Trojan war, who having passed over into Europe by the Bosphorus, subdued all the Thracians, and went down to the Ionian Sea, and marched southward as far as the river Peneus. 21. All these expeditions, and any others, if there have been any besides them, are not to be compared with this one. For what nation did not Xerxes lead out of Asia against Greece P what stream, being drunk, did not fail him, except that of great rivers? Some supplied ships; others were ordered to furnish men for the infantry, from others cavalry were required, from others transports for horses, together with men to serve in the army; others had to furnish long ships for the bridges, and others provisions and vessels. 22. And first of all, as those who had first attempted to double Mount Athos had met with disasters, preparations were being made for nearly three years about Athos. For triremes were stationed at Eleus in the Chersonese, and proceeding from thence, men of every nation from the army dug under the lash; and they went in succession ; and the people who dwelt round Athos dug also. Bubares, son of Megabazus, and Artachaeus, son of Artaeus, both Persians, presided over the work. Athos is a vast and celebrated mountain, stretching into the sea, and inhabited by men. Where the mountain terminates towards the continent, it is in the form of a peninsula, and is an isthmus of about twelve stades: this is a plain with hills of no great height from the sea of the Acanthians to the sea which is opposite Torone. On this isthmus, in which Mount Athos terminates, stands Sana, a Grecian city: but those within Sana and situate on Athos itself, which the Persian then was proceeding to make insular instead of continental, are the following, Dion, Olophyxus, Acrothoon, Thyssus, and Cleonae. These are the cities which occupy Mount Athos. -23. They made the excavation as follows: the barbarians divided the ground among the several nations, having drawn a straight line near the city of Sana; and when the trench was deep, some standing at the bottom continued to dig, and others handed the soil that was dug out to men who stood above on ladders; they again in turn handed it to others, until they reached those that were at the top ; these last carried it off and threw it away. To all the rest, except the Phoenicians, the brink of the excavation falling in gave double labour, for as they made the upper opening and the lower of equal dimensions, this must necessarily happen. But the Phoenicians show their skill in other works, and especially did so in this; for having received the portion that fell to their share, they dug it, making the upper opening of the trench twice as large as it was necessary for the trench itself to be; and as the work proceeded they contracted it gradually, so that when they came to the bottom the work was equal in width to the rest: near adjoining is a meadow, where they had a market and bazaar, and great abundance of meal was brought to them from Asia. 24. According to my deliberate opinion," Xerxes ordered this excavation to be made from motives of ostentation, wishing to display his power, and to leave a memorial of himself. For though it was possible, without any great labour, to have drawn the ships over the isthmus, he commanded them to dig a channel for the sea of such a width that two triremes might pass through rowed abreast. And the same persons, to whom the excavation was committed, were ordered also to throw a bridge over the river Strymon. 25. These things, then, he thus contrived: he also caused cables of papyrus and of white flax to be prepared for the bridges, having ordered the Phoenicians and Egyptians also to lay up provisions for the army, that neither the men nor the beasts of burden might suffer from famine on their march towards Greece; and having informed himself of the situations of the places, he ordered them to lay up the provisions where it was most convenient, conveying them to various quarters in merchant-ships and transports from all parts of Asia. Of these provisions the largest quantity they conveyed to a place called Leuce-Acte, in Thrace; some were ordered to Tyrodiza of the Perinthians, others to Doriscus, others to Eion on the Strymon, and others to Macedonia. ~. 26. While these men were employed in their appointed task, the whole land forces, having been assembled, marched with Xerxes to Sardis, having set out from Critalla in Cappadocia, for it was ordered that all the troops throughout the continent, that were to march with Xerxes himself, should be assembled at that place. Now which of the generals, bringing the best appointed troops, received the gifts promised by the king, I am unable to mention; for I am not at all aware

° Literally, “as I conjecturing discover.”

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