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know of that subjected some of the Greeks to the payment of tribute, and formed alliances with others. He subdued the ". Ionians and Æolians, and the Dorians settled in Asia, and he to formed an alliance with the Lacedaemonians; but before theo reign of Croesus all the Greeks were free ; for the incursion". " of the Cimmerians” into Ionia, which was before the time of so Croesus, was not for the purpose of subjecting states, but aro irruption for plunder. .. 7. The government, which formerly "o belonged to the Heraclidae, passed in the following manner to *. the family of Croesus, who were called Mermnadae. Candaules, "'s whom the Greeks call Myrsilus, was tyrant of Sardis, and a ". descendant of Alcaeus, son of Hercules. For Agron, son of sy Ninus, grandson of Belus, great-grandson of Alcaeus, was “; the first of the Heraclidae who became king of Sardis ; and o Candaules, son of Myrsus, was the last. They who ruled " over this country before Agron were descendants of Lydus, but son of Atys, from whom this whole people, anciently called o Maconians, derived the name of Lydians. The Heraclidae, de-" scended from a female slave of Jardanus and Hercules, having * been intrusted with the government by these princes, retained *t the supreme power in obedience to the declaration of an * oracle: they reigned for twenty-two generations, a space of o five hundred and five years, the son succeeding to the father " to the time of Candaules, son of Myrsus. (8. This Candaules then was enamoured of his own wife, and being so, thought that she was by far the most beautiful of all women. Now " being of this opinion,-Gyges, son of Dascylus, one of his body-guard, happened to be his especial favourite, and to him i.e. Candaules confided his most important affairs, and moreover extolled the beauty of his wife in exaggerated terms. In lapse of time (for Candaules was fated to be miserable) he addressed Gyges as follows: “Gyges, as I think you do not be. " lieve me when I speak of my wife's beauty, (for the ears of men are naturally more incredulous than their eyes,) you must con- " trive to see her naked.” But he, exclaiming loudly, answered, th: “Sire, what a shocking proposal do you make, bidding me be. “ hold my queen naked With her clothes a woman puts off th her modesty. Wise maxims have been of old laid down by th men, from these it is our duty to learn : amongst them is the * * The incursion here spoken of occurred in the reign of the Lydian h Ardys. See I. 15., and IV. 12. { following, ‘Let every man look to the things that concern himself.” I am persuaded that she is the most beautiful of her sex, but I entreat of you not to require what is wicked.” 9. Saying thus, Gyges fought off the proposal, dreading lest some harm should befal himself: but the king answered, “Gyges, take courage, and be not afraid of me, as if I desired to make trial of you, by speaking thus, nor of my wife, lest any harm should befal you from her. For from the outset I will so contrive that she shall not know she has been seen by you. I will place you behind the open door of the apartment in which we sleep; as soon as I enter my wife will come to bed ; there stands by the entrance a chair, on this she will lay her garments one by one as she takes them off, and then she will give you an opportunity to look at her at your leisure; but when she steps from the chair to the bed, and you are at her back, be careful that she does not see you as you are going out by the door.” 10. Gyges therefore, finding he could not escape, prepared to obey. And Candaules, when it seemed to be time to go to bed, led him to the chamber, and the lady soon afterwards appeared, and Gyges saw her enter and lay her clothes on the chair: when he was at her back, as the lady was going to the bed, he crept secretly out, but she saw him as he was going away. D Perceiving what her husband had done, she neither cried out through modesty, nor appeared to notice it, purposing to take vengeance on Candaules; for among the Lydians and almost all the barbarians, it is deemed a great disgrace even for a man to be seen naked. 11. At the time therefore, having shown no consciousness of what had occurred, she held her peace, and as soon as it was day, having prepared such of her domestics as she knew were most to be trusted, she sent for Gyges. He, supposing that she knew nothing of what had happened, came when he was sent for, for he had been before used to attend whenever the queen sent for him. When Gyges came, the lady thus addressed him: “Gyges, I submit two proposals to your choice, either kill Candaules and take possession of me and of the Lydian kingdom, or expect immediate death, so that you may not, from your obedience to Candaules in all things, again see what you ought not. It is necessary however that he who planned this, or that you who have seen me naked, treasury of the Corinthians, and are thirty talents in weight; though, to say the truth, this treasury does not belong to the people of Corinth, but to Cypselus son of Eetion. This Gyges is the first of the barbarians whom we know of that dedicated offerings at Delphi; except Midas, son of Gordius, king of Phrygia, for Midas dedicated the royal throne, on which he used to sit and administer justice, a piece of workmanship deserving of admiration. This throne stands in the same place as the bowls of Gyges. This gold and silver, which Gyges dedicated, is by the Delphians called Gygian, from the name of the donor. Now this prince, when he obtained the sovereignty, led an army against Myletus and Smyrna, and took the city of Colophon; but as he performed no other great action during his reign of eight and thirty years, we will pass him over, having made this mention of him. 15. I will proceed to mention Ardys, the son and successor of Gyges. He took Priene, and invaded Miletus. During the time that he reigned at Sardis, the Cimmerians, being driven from their seats by the Scythian nomades, passed into Asia, and possessed themselves of all Sardis except the citadel.-* 16. When Ardys had reigned forty-nine years, his son Sadyattes succeeded him, and reigned twelve years; and Alyattes succeeded Sadyattes. He made war upon Cyaxares, a descendant of Deioces, and upon the Medes. He drove the Cimmerians out of Asia; took Smyrna, which was founded from Colophon, and invaded Clazomenae. From this place he departed, not as he could wish, but signally defeated. He also performed in the course of his reign the following actions worthy of mention.-17. He continued the war which his father had begun against the Milesians; and leading his army against Miletus, he invaded it in the following manner. When their fruits were ripe on the ground, he led his army into their territory, attended in his march with pipes, harps, and flutes, masculine and feminine. On his arrival in Milesia, he neither demolished nor burnt their country houses, nor forced off the doors, but let them stand as they were ; but when he had destroyed their trees and the fruits on the ground, he returned home ; for the Milesians were masters of the sea, so that there was no use in the army's besieging it. And the Lydian king would not destroy their houses, for this reason, that the Milesians, having those habitations, might come out to sow and cultivate the ground, and when they had cultivated it, he might have something to ravage,

and have done what is not decorous, should die. Gyges for a |

time was amazed at what he heard; but, afterwards, he implored her not to compel him to make such a choice. He however could not persuade, but saw a necessity imposed on him, either to kill his master Candaules or die himself by the hands of others; he chose therefore to survive, and made the following inquiry: “Since you compel me to kill my master against my will, tell me how we shall lay hands on him.” She answered, “The assault shall be made from the very spot whence he showed me naked; the attack shall be made on him while asleep.” 12. When they had concerted their plan, on the approach of night he followed the lady to the chamber : then (for Gyges was not suffered to depart, nor was there any possibility of escape, but either he or Candaules must needs perish) she, having given him a dagger, concealed him behind the same door : and after this, when Candaules was asleep, Gyges having crept stealthily up and slain him, possessed himself both of the woman and the kingdom. Of this event, also, Archilochus 9 the Parian, who lived about the same time, has made mention in a trimeter Iambic poem. / 13. Thus Gyges obtained the kingdom, and was confirmed in it by the oracle at Delphi. For when the Lydians resented the murder of Candaules, and were up in arms, the partisans of Gyges and the other Lydians came to the following agreement, that if the oracle should pronounce him king of the Lydians, he should reign ; if not, he should restore the power to the Heraclidae. The oracle, however, answered accordingly, and so Gyges became king. But the Pythian added this, “that the Heraclidae should be avenged on the fifth descendant of Gyges.” Of this prediction neither the Lydians nor their kings took any notice until it was actually accomplished. -

14. Thus the Mermnada, having deprived the Heraclidae, possessed themselves of the supreme power. Gyges having obtained the kingdom, sent many offerings to Delphi; for most of the silver offerings at Delphi are his ; and besides the silver, he gave a vast quantity of gold; and among the rest, what is especially worthy of mention, the bowls of gold, six in number, were dedicated by him: these now stand in the

* Archilochus was one of the earliest writers of Iambics. All that remains of his is to be met with in Brunck's Analecta. * See I. 91.

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when he should invade them with his army. 18. In this manner he carried on the war eleven years, during which the Milesians received two great blows, one in a battle at Limeneion in their own territory, the other in the plain of the Maeander. Six of these eleven years Sadyattes the son of Ardys was still king of the Lydians, and during those he made incursions into the Milesian territory (for this Sadyattes was the person that began the war). But during the five years that succeeded the six, Alyattes the son of Sadyattes, who (as I have before mentioned) received it from his father, earnestly applied himself to it. None of the Ionians, except the Chians, assisted the Milesians in bearing the burden of this war: they did it in requital for succour they had received ; for formerly the Milesians had assisted the Chians in prosecuting the war against the Erythraeans. 19. In the twelfth year, when the corn had been set on fire by the army, an accident of the following nature occurred. As soon as the corn had caught fire, the flames, carried by the wind, caught a temple of Minerva, called Assesian;” and the temple, thus set on fire, was burnt to the ground. No notice was taken of this at the time ; but afterwards, when

the army had returned to Sardis, Alyattes fell sick. When the disease continued a considerable time, he sent messengers to Delphi to consult the oracle, either from the advice of some

friend, or because it appeared right to himself to send and make inquiries of the god concerning his disorder. The Pythian, however, refused to give any answer to the messengers when they arrived at Delphi, until they had rebuilt the temple of Minerva which they had burnt at Assesus in the territory of Milesia. 20. This relation I had from the Delphians: but the Milesians add, that Periander the son of Cypselus, who was a very intimate friend of Thrasybulus, at that time king of Miletus, having heard of the an

swer given to Alyattes, despatched a messenger to inform him

of it, in order that, being aware of it beforehand, he might form his plans according to present circumstances. This is the Milesian account. 21. Alyattes, when the above an

* Assesus was a small town dependent on Miletus. Minerva had a temple there, and hence took the name of the Assesian Minerva. Larcher.



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