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brass or stone, or pictures,-with these exceptions, having put every thing on board, and embarked themselves, they set sail for Chios: and the Persians took possession of Phocaea, abandoned by all its inhabitants. 165. The Phocaeans, when the Chians refused to sell them the CEnyssae islands, for fear they should become the seat of trade, and their own island be thereby excluded, thereupon directed their course to Cyrnus; where, by the admonition of an oracle, they had twenty years before built a city, named Alalia. But Arganthonius was at that time dead. On their passage to Cyrnus, having first sailed down to Phocaea, they put to death the Persian garrison which had been left by Harpagus to guard the city. Afterwards, when this was accomplished, they pronounced terrible imprecations on any who should desert the fleet: besides this, they sunk a mass of red-hot iron, and swore “that they would never return to Phocaea, till this burning mass should appear again.” Nevertheless, as they were on their way towards Cyrnus, more than one half of the citizens were seized with regret and yearning for their city and dwellings in the country, and violating their oaths, sailed back to Phocaea; but such of them as kept to their oath, weighed anchor and sailed from the CEnyssae islands. 166. On their arrival at Cyrnus they lived for five years in common with the former settlers: but as they ravaged the territories of all their neighbours, the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians combined together to make war against them, each with sixty ships: and the Phocaeans, on their part, having manned their ships, consisting of sixty in number, met them in the Sardinian Sea; and having engaged, the Phocaeans obtained a kind of Cadmean victory;" for forty of their own ships were destroyed, and the twenty that survived were disabled, for their prows were blunted. They therefore sailed back to Alalia, and took on board their wives and children, with what property their ships were able to carry, and leaving Cyrnus, sailed to Rhegium. 167. As to the men belonging to the ships destroyed, most of them fell into the hands” of the * A proverbial expression, importing, “that the victors suffered more than the vanquished.” * I have ventured to depart from the usual rendering of this passage, even though it has the sanction of Baehr. It is commonly inferred from the use of the word #Aaxóv, that the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians

“divided their prisoners by lot.” That word appears to me, however, only to mean that “they happened to take them,”—“it was their lot to

Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians, who took them on shore, and stoned them to death. But afterwards all animals belonging to the Agyllaeans that passed by the spot where the Phocaeans who had been stoned lay, became distorted, maimed, and crippled, as well sheep, as beasts of burden, and men. The Agyllaeans therefore, being anxious to expiate the guilt, sent to Delphi; and the Pythia enjoined them to use those rites which the Agyllaeans still observe; for they commemorate their death with great magnificence, and have established gymnastic and equestrian contests. This was the fate of these Phocaeans; but the others who fled to Rhegium, left that place, and got possession of that town in the territory of CEnotria, which is now called Hyela, and they colonized this town by the advice of a certain Posidonian, who told them the Pythia had directed them to establish sacred rites to Cyrnus as being a hero, but not to colonize the island of that name. 168. The Teians also acted nearly in the same manner as the Phocaeans. For when Harpagus by means of his earthworks had made himself master of their walls, they all went on board their ships, and sailed away to Thrace, and there settled in the city of Abdera; which Timesius of Clazomenae having formerly founded, did not enjoy, but was driven out by the Thracians, and is now honoured as a hero by the Teians of Abdera. 169. These were the only Ionians who abandoned their country rather than submit to servitude. The rest, except the Milesians, gave battle to Harpagus, and as well as those who abandoned their country, proved themselves brave men, each fighting for his own ; but being defeated and subdued, they severally remained in their own countries, and submitted to the commands imposed on them. But the Milesians, as I have before mentioned,” having made a league with Cyrus, remained quiet. Thus then was Ionia a second time enslaved;" and when Harpagus had subdued the Ionians on the continent, those that occupied the islands, dreading the same fate, made their submission to Cyrus. 170. When the Ionians were brought to this wretched condition, and nevertheless still held assemblies at Panionium, I am informed that Bias of Priene gave them most salutary advice, which, if they had hearkened to him, would have made them the most flourishing of all the Grecians. He advised, “that the Ionians, having weighed anchor, should sail in one common fleet to Sardinia, and then build one city for all the Ionians; thus being freed from servitude, they would flourish, inhabiting the most considerable of the islands, and governing the rest; whereas if they remained in Ionia, he saw no hope of recovering their liberty.” This was the advice of Bias the Prienean, after the Ionians were ruined. But before Ionia was ruined, the advice of Thales the Milesian, who was of Phoenician extraction, was also good. He advised the Ionians to constitute one general council in Teos, which stands in the centre of Ionia; and that the rest of the inhabited cities should nevertheless be governed as independent states. Such was the advice they severally gave. 171. Harpagus having subdued Ionia, marched against the Carians, Caunians, Lycians, Ionians, and AEolians. Of these the Carians had come from the islands to the continent. For being subjects of Minos, and anciently called Leleges, they occupied the islands without paying any tribute, as far as I am able to discover by inquiring into the remotest times, but, whenever he required them, they manned his ships; and as Minos subdued a large territory, and was successful in war, the Carians were by far the most famous of all nations in those times. They also introduced three inventions which the Greeks have adopted. For the Carians set the example of fastening crests upon helmets, and of putting devices on shields; they are also the first who put handles to shields; but until their time all who used shields carried them without handles, guiding them with leathern thongs, having them slung round their necks and left shoulders. After a long time had elapsed, the Dorians and Ionians drove the Carians out of the islands, and so they came to the continent. This then is the account that the Cretans give of the Carians: the Carians themselves however do not admit its correctness; but consider themselves to be aboriginal inhabitants of the continent, and always to have gone under the same name as they now do. And in testimony of this, they show an ancient temple of Jupiter Carius at Mylasa, which the Mysians and Lydians share, as kinsmen to the Carians, for they say that Lydus and Mysus were brothers to Car. Now they do share the temple, but none who are of a different nation, though of the same language with the Carians, are allowed to share it. 172. The Caunians, in my opinion, are aboriginals, though they say they are from Crete. However, they have assimilated their language to that of the Carians, or the Carians to theirs; for this I cannot determine with certainty. Their customs are totally distinct from those of other nations, even from the Carians; for they account it very becoming for men, women, and boys, to meet together to drink according to their age and intimacy. They had formerly erected temples to foreign deities, but afterwards, when they changed their minds, (for they resolved to have none but their own national deities,) all the Caunians armed themselves, both young and old, and beating the air with their spears, marched in a body to the Calindian-eanfines, and said they were expelling strange gods. They then have such customs. 173. The Lycians were originally sprung from Crete, for in ancient time Crete was entirely in the possession of barbarians. But a dispute having arisen between Sarpedon and Minos, sons of Europa, respecting the sovereign power, when Minos got the upper hand in the struggle, he drove out Sarpedon with his partisans; and they being expelled came to the land of Milyas in Asia: for the country which the Lycians now occupy was anciently called Moyas; but the Milyans were then ealled Solymi. So long as Sarpedon reigned over them, they went by the name of Termilao, which they brought with them, and the Lycians are still called by that name by their neighbours. But when Lycus son of Pandion, who was likewise driven out by his brother AEgeus,

take them.” Indeed I believe that wherever Herodotus speaks of an actual casting of lots, he always adds some word that expresses the action or method of allotting, as k\sipop Maxóvra, iii. 83; traXXopačvov & Xayyávei, iii. 128; Tôv ráA4, Aaxávra, iv. 94, and 153.

5 Ch. 143. 6 See ch. 6 and 28.

came from Athens, the Termila» under Sarpedon, in course of time, got to be called Lycians after him. Their customs are partly Cretan and partly Carian; but they have one peculiar to themselves, in which they differ from all other nations; for they take their name from their mothers and not from their fathers; so that if any one ask another who he is, he will describe himself by his mother's side, and reckon up his maternal ancestry in the female line. And if a free-born woman marry a slave, the children are accounted of pure birth ; but if a man who is a citizen, even though of high rank, marry a foreigner or cohabit with a concubine, the children are infamous. 174. Now the Carians were subdued by Harpagus, without having done any memorable action in their own defence: and not only the Carians, but all the Grecians that inhabit those parts, behaved themselves with as little courage. And among others settled there, are the Cnidians, colonists from the Lacedaemonians, whose territory juts on the sea, and is called the Triopean : but the region of Bybassus commenced from the peninsula, for all Cnidia, except a small space, is surrounded by water; (for the Ceramic gulf bounds it on the north, and on the south the sea by Syme and Rhodes: now this small space, which is about five stades in breadth, the Cnidians, wishing to make their territory insular, designed to dig through, while Harpagus was subduing Ionia. For the whole of their dominions were within the isthmus; and where the Cnidian territory terminates towards the continent, there is the isthmus that they designed to dig through. But as they were carrying on the work with great diligence, the workmen appeared to be wounded to a greater extent and in a more strange manner than usual, both in other parts of the body, and particularly in the eyes, by the chipping of the rock; they therefore sent deputies to Delphi to inquire what was the cause of the obstruction ; and, as the Cnidians say, the Pythia answered as follows in trimeter verse : “Build not a tower on the isthmus, nor dig it through, for Jove would have made it an island had he so willed.” When the Pythia had given this answer, the Cnidians desisted from their work, and surrendered without resistance to Harpagus, as soon as he approached with his army. 175. The Pedasians were situate inland above Halicarnassus; when any mischief is about to befal them or their neighbours, the priestess of Minerva has a long beard : this has three times occurred. Now these were the only people about Caria who opposed Harpagus for any time, and gave him much trouble, by fortifying a mountain called Lyda. 176. After some time, however, the Pedasians were subdued. The Lycians, when Harpagus marched his army towards the Xanthian plain, went out to meet him, and engaging with very inferior numbers, displayed great feats of valour. But being defeated and shut up within their city,

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