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Astyages king of the Medes entertained at an impious feast, and who assisted Cyrus in ascending the throne. This man being appointed general by Cyrus, on his arrival in Ionia, took several cities by means of earthworks; for he forced the people to retire within their fortifications, and then, having heaped up mounds against the walls, he carried the cities by storm. Phocæa was the first place in Ionia that he attacked.

163. These Phocæans were the rst of all the Grecians who undertook long voyages, and they are the people who discovered the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas, and Iberia, and Tartessus. They made their voyages in fifty-oared galleys, and not in merchant-ships. When they arrived at Tartessus they were kindly received by the king of the Tartessians, whose name was Arganthonius; he reigned eighty years over Tartessus, and lived to the age of one hundred and twenty. The Phocæans became such great favourites with him, that he at first solicited them to abandon Ionia, and to settle in any part of his territory, they should choose; but afterwards, finding he could not prevail with the Phocæans to accept his offer, and hearing from them the increasing power of the Mede, he gave them money for the purpose of building a wall round their city; and he gave it unsparingly, for the wall is not a few stades in circumference, and is entirely built of large and wellcompacted stone. 164. Now the wall of the Phocæans had been built in the above manner; but when Harpagus marched his army against them, he besieged them, having first offered terms: “that he would be content if the Phocæans would throw down only one of their battlements, and consecrate one house to the king's use." The Phocæans, detesting slavery, said, "that they wished for one day to deliberate, and would then give their answer ;” but while they were deliberating they required him to draw off his forces from the wall. Harpagus said, that “ though he well knew their design, yet he would permit them to consult together.” In the interval, then, during which Harpagus withdrew his army from the wall, the Phocæans' launched their fifty-oared galleys, and having put their wives, children, and goods on board, together with the images from the temples, and other offerings, except works of

1 Tartessus was situated between the two branches of the Betis, (now Guadalquiver,) through which it discharges itself into the sea.

2 See Note 5, B. I. c. 2.

brass or stone, or pictures, with these exceptions, having put every thing on board, and embarked themselves, they set sail for Chios: and the Persians took possession of Phocæa, abandoned by all its inhabitants. 165. The Phocæans, when the Chians refused to sell them the Enyssæ islands, for fear they should become the seat of trade, and their own island be thereby excluded, thereupon directed their course to Cyrnus ; where, by the admonition of an oracle, they had twenty years before built a city, named Alalia. But Arganthonius was at that time dead. On their passage to Cyrnus, having first sailed down to Phocæa, they put to death the Persian garrison which had been left by Harpagus to guard the city. Afterwards, when this was accomplished, they pronounced terrible imprecations on any who should desert the fleet: besides this, they sunk a mass of red-hot iron, and swore “that they would never return to Phocæa, till this burning mass should appear again.” Nevertheless, as they were on their way towards Cyrnus, more than one half of the citizens were seized with regret and yearning for their city and dwellings in the country, and violating their oaths, sailed back to Phocæa ; but such of them as kept to their oath, weighed anchor and sailed from the Enyssæ islands. 166. On their arrival at Cyrnus they lived for five years in common with the former settlers: but as they ravaged the territories of all their neighbours, the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians combined together to make war against them, each with sixty ships : and the Phocæans, on their part, having manned their ships, consisting of sixty in number, met them in the Sardinian Sea ; and having engaged, the Phocæans obtained a kind of Cadmean victory ;3 for forty of their own ships were destroyed, and the twenty that survived were disabled, for their prows were blunted. They therefore sailed back to Alalia, and took on board their wives and children, with what property their ships were able to carry, and leaving Cyrnus, sailed to Rhegium. 167. As to the men belonging to the ships destroyed, most of them fell into the hands 4 of the

3 A proverbial expression, importing, “ that the victors suffered more than the vanquished.”

* I have ventured to depart from the usual rendering of this passage, even though it has the sanction of Baehr. It is commonly inferred from the use of the word éhaxóv, that the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians “divided their prisoners by lot.” That word appears to me, however, only to mean that “they happened to take them," “ it was their lot to

Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians, who took them on shore, and stoned them to death. But afterwards all animals belonging to the Agyllæans that passed by the spot where the Phocæans who had been stoned lay, became distorted, maimed, and crippled, as well sheep, as beasts of burden, and men. The Agyllæans therefore, being anxious to expiate the guilt, sent to Delphi ; and the Pythia enjoined them to use those rites which the Agyllæans still observe; for they commemorate their death with great magnificence, and have established gymnastic and equestrian contests. This was the fate of these Phocæans; but the others who fled to Rhegium, left that place, and got possession of that town in the territory of Enotria, which is now called Hyela, and they colonized this town by the advice of a certain Posidonian, who told them the Pythia had directed them to establish sacred rites to Cyrnus as being a hero, but not to colonize the island of that name.

168. The Teians also acted nearly in the same manner as the Phocæans. For when Harpagus by means of his earthworks had made himself master of their walls, they all went on board their ships, and sailed away to Thrace, and there settled in the city of Abdera ; which Timesius of Clazomenæ having formerly founded, did not enjoy, but was driven out by the Thracians, and is now honoured as a hero by the Teians of Abdera.

169. These were the only Ionians who abandoned their country rather than submit to servitude. The rest, except the Milesians, gave battle to Harpagus, and as well as those who abandoned their country, proved themselves brave men, each fighting for his own; but being defeated and subdued, they severally remained in their own countries, and submitted to the commands imposed on them. But the Milesians, as I have before mentioned, having made a league with Cyrus, remained quiet. Thus then was Ionia a second time enslaved ; 6 and when Harpagus had subdued the Ionians on the continent, those that occupied the islands, dreading the same fate, made their submission to Cyrus. 170. When the Ionians were

take them.” Indeed I believe that wherever Herodotus speaks of an actual casting of lots, he always adds some word that expresses the action or method of allotting, as κλήρω λαχόντα, iii. 83; παλλομένων δε layxável, iii. 128 ; Tòv málw laxóvra, iv. 94, and 153. 5 Ch. 143.

6 See ch. 6 and 28.

brought to this wretched condition, and nevertheless still held assemblies at Panionium, I am informed that Bias of Priene gave them most salutary advice, which, if they had hearkened to him, would have made them the most flourishing of all the Grecians. He advised, “that the Ionians, having weighed anchor, should sail in one common fleet to Sardinia, and then build one city for all the Ionians ; thus being freed from servitude, they would flourish, inhabiting the most considerable of the islands, and governing the rest; whereas if they remained in Ionia, he saw no hope of recovering their liberty.” This was the advice of Bias the Prienean, after the Ionians were ruined. But before Ionia was ruined, the advice of Thales the Milesian, who was of Phoenician extraction, was also good. He advised the Ionians to constitute one general council in Teos, which stands in the centre of Ionia ; and that the rest of the inhabited cities should nevertheless be governed as independent states. Such was the advice they severally gave.

171. Harpagus having subdued Ionia, marched against the Carians, Caunians, Lycians, Ionians, and Æolians. Of these the Carians had come from the islands to the continent. For being subjects of Minos, and anciently called Leleges, they occupied the islands without paying any tribute, as far as I am able to discover by inquiring into the remotest times, but, whenever he required them, they manned his ships ; and as Minos subdued a large territory, and was successful in war, the Carians were by far the most famous of all nations in those times. They also introduced three inventions which the Greeks have adopted. For the Carians set the example of fastening crests upon helmets, and of putting devices on shields ; they are also the first who put handles to shields ; but until their time all who used shields carried them without handles, guiding them with leathern thongs, having them slung round their necks and left shoulders. After a long time had elapsed, the Dorians and Ionians drove the Carians out of the islands, and so they came to the continent. This then is the account that the Cretans give of the Carians: the Carians themselves however do not admit its correctness ; but consider themselves to be aboriginal inhabitants of the continent, and always to have gone under the same name as they now do. And in testimony of this, they show an ancient temple of Jupiter Carius at Mylasa, which the Mysians and Lydians share, as

kinsmen to the Carians, for they say that Lydus and Mysus were brothers to Car. Now they do share the temple, but none who are of a different nation, though of the same language with the Carians, are allowed to share it. 172. The Caunians, in my opinion, are aboriginals, though they say they are from Crete. However, they have assimilated their language to that of the Carians, or the Carians to theirs ; for this I cannot determine with certainty. Their customs are totally distinct from those of other nations, even from the Carians ; for they account it very becoming for men, women, and boys, to meet together to drink according to their age and intimacy. They had formerly erected temples to foreign deities, but afterwards, when they changed their minds, (for they resolved to have none but their own national deities,) all the Caunians armed themselves, both young and old, and beating the air with their spears, marched in a body to the Calindiarreanfines, and said they were expelling strange gods. They then have such customs. 173. The Lycians were originally sprung from Crete, for in ancient time Crete was entirely in the possession of barbarians. But a dispute having arisen between Sarpedon and Minos, sons of Europa, respecting the sovereign power, when Minos got the upper hand in the struggle, he drove out Sarpedon with his partisans; and they being expelled came to the land of Milyas in Asia : for the country which the Lycians now occupy was anciently called Milyas'; but the Milyans were then called Solymi. So long as Sarpedon reigned over them, they went by the name of Termilæ, which they brought with them, and the Lycians are still called by that name by their neighbours. But when Lycus son of Pandion, who was likewise driven out by his brother Ægeus, came from Athens, the Termilæ under Sarpedon, in course of time, got to be called Lycians after him. Their customs are partly Cretan and partly Carian ; but they have one peculiar to themselves, in which they differ from all other nations ; for they take their name from their mothers and not from their fathers ; so that if any one ask another who he is, he will describe himself by his mother's side, and reckon up his maternal ancestry in the female line. And if a free-born woman marry a slave, the children are accounted of pure birth ; but if a man who is a citizen, even though of high rank, marry a

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