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servants and worshippers of the God of Abraham. The apostle expresses our views of this subject, when he says of Abraham, “He received the sign “ of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of “ the faith which he had, yet being uncircum“ cised; that he may be the father of all them that “ believe, though they be not circumcised ; that “ righteousness might be imputed unto them also: " and the father of circumcision to them who are
not of the circumcision only, but who also walk “ in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham, “which he had being yet uncircumcised.” Some proof, that the term Israel admits of this application, might be adduced even from the Old Testament; but as it is peculiarly the doctrine of the New Testament, it is not to be expected that Jews will receive it; and this hint shall here be urged no further.
P. 112. I. 32. "Rachel is called the moon,' &c.Rachel was dead before Joseph had this dream : but, whoever was spoken of, their doing obeisance to Joseph, not others doing obeisance to them, was evidently meant.2
P. 113. 1. 9. Moses divided the sea,' &c.Jesus “ walked on the sea," and he “ commanded “ the winds and the waves and they obeyed him." The texts adduced, (1. 9_24.) however, only prove that some individuals in Israel wrought miracles, which no Christian denies. But miracles ' are a poor and miserable defence,' &c: (p. 41. I. 10.) It seems, when miracles are wrought for Israel, or by Israel, 'the case is altered.'
i Rom. iv. 11,
Gen. xxxv. 15--20. xxxvii. 9, 10.
P. 113. 1. 22. Angels are not called the sons of God,'&c.—“When the morning-stars sang toge“ ther, and all the sons of God shouted for joy.”ı
P. 113. 1. 25. We do not find,' &c.-Angels did not, and could not need the ministry of Israel, and Israel had no power of ministering to angels : but an angel ministered unto Hagar, who was not of Israel. Angels brought Lot, who was not of Israel, out of Sodom. An angel also instructed Eliphaz.
P. 114. 1. 9. 'Erellim,' &c.--Rather Erallam, as the Masorites have properly pointed it. The word occurs in two places, and no more, and is translated “ lion-like men.”5 The word, rendered here angels, means messengers, or ambassadors. When Sennacherib invaded Judah, Hezekiah's lion-like men cried out; and the ambassadors, whom he sent to meet Rabshakeh and treat about peace, returned with their clothes rent, and no doubt with bitter lamentations over the deplorable condition of their country. The idea of angels mourning and weeping has no support in scripture, nor is it at all reasonable in itself.
P. 114. 1. 19. The title of the gentiles,-1. 28. “ All nations before him are as nothing,” &c. 6– Is it here meant, that in this respect Israel is an exception to this general rule? The other texts, quoted in this paragraph, are parts of distinct prophecies: the first and second, of the destruction of Sennacherib's army; and the fourth, of the vengeance of God on Edom. Probably, in this,
Job. xxxviii. 6, 7. ? Gen. xvi. 6—14. xxi, 17-19 3 Gen. xix. 1-22.
Job iv. 12.- 21.
the enemies of the people of God are designated under a general name, and future events are also predicted: but by the same rule of interpretation, all the friends, the spiritual worshippers, and believing servants of God, are designated by the name Israel.—The texts prove nothing in the main argument.
P. 115. 1. 3. The last fortune of the gentiles.' -The word fortune, in this application, is objectionable, as it has already been shewn.
P. 115. 1. 6. Will they not acknowledge,' &c. -Certainly all the evil, and all the good likewise, which God has predicted concerning the nations, and concerning Israel, shall be accomplished. “ Heaven and earth shall pass away, but his word “ shall not pass away.” It only remains to be shewn, what evil, and what good, is predicted respecting the gentiles and concerning Israel : for Christians are not required to acknowledge, that all the conclusions of Jews, concerning these predictions, are well grounded.
P. 115. 1. 9. It is now 1744, &c.—This is more accurate, than the preceding calculation, but not so well suited to complete the seventy jubilees. (P. 88.)
P. 115. 1. 13. 'King David, when he saw,' &c. -It is not said, in the title, that the forty-fourth Psalm was written by David; and indeed it is highly improbable. Mr. C. applies it to the present dispersions of the Jews; the apostle quotes it, concerning the persecutions of the Christian church. The following words, “ All this is come
I Rom. viii. 36.
upon us; yet have we not forgotten thee, neither “have we dealt falsely in thy covenant: our heart “ is not turned back, neither have our steps de“clined from thy ways:"1 seem to render it inapplicable, either to the Babylonish captivity, or the present dispersion of Israel. The whole, indeed, is far more suited to the situation of a company suffering “persecution for righteousness'
sake,” than to any people enduring miseries as the punishment or chastening for their sins. If, however, the Jews think this applicable to their case, during the 1744 years spoken of, because they have not been guilty of gross idolatry, it would answer little purpose to contest the point. When God shall “
pour on them the Spirit of grace and supplications,” they will see the matter in another light.
The passage, quoted from the apostle Paul, refers entirely to the final judgment of the world, and the eternal state of individuals, and to the
precedency“ in tribulation and anguish" of wicked Jews over wicked Gentiles.3
P. 115. 1. 34. “Do they imagine,' &c :-The Messiah will forgive either his crucifiers, or the persecutors of his people, whenever they truly repent, and seek forgiveness from him. But he will not forgive either Jew or gentile, who does not repent and seek mercy. -I am sorry to add, that such remarks betray a vindictive spirit in the writer ; who, it is evident, judges of the Messiah's conduct from his own feelings. I make this re
! Ps. xliv. 16-18.
2 Ver. 20422.
mark with reluctance, but it must not be repressed. - The Messiah forgive.' (See on P. 17.)
P. 116. 1. 3. "The blood of Israel cries,' &c.This 'blood of Israel' includes the blood of the prophets and righteous men shed by the ancient Jews and Israelites; the blood of Stephen, of James, of other apostles, and many other martyrs, as well as the blood of Israel shed by the gentiles: yea, it includes the blood of Jesus himself. But “his blood speaketh better things than that of “ Abel,” which cried for vengeance on him who shed it. No doubt the time cometh, when the earth“ shall disclose her blood, and no more cover “ her slain.”? Then the blood of Israel, shed by gentiles, and the blood of Israelites and Christians, shed by Jews, will alike meet condign punishment on all the impenitent and unbelieving; but not on those who repent and flee for refuge to that God, to whom“ belong mercies and forgivenesses, “ though we have rebelled against him.” The cry of blood for vengeance is not peculiar to that of Israel shed by gentiles, but is equally spoken of blood shed in murder, to whatever nation the murdered person or the murderer belonged.3
P. 116. 1. 4. * And here,' &c.--No Christian doubts, that “ tribulation and anguish” shall come on impenitent workers of iniquity, whether Jew or Gentile: but our own apostle' (1. 4, 5.) spoke not of this present world, but of the “ day, when “ God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus “ Christ.”4
1 Heb. xii. 24. Gen. iv. 10. 3 Gen. ix. 5, 6.
: Is. xxvi. 21
Rom. ii. 9-16.